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Presentation on theme: "Stimulus/Response."— Presentation transcript:

1 Stimulus/Response

2 Internal Stimulus A stimulus that comes from inside your body.
EX. hunger pains, emotions, and a full bladder.

3 External Stimulus Any stimulus from outside the body.
Ex. flashing lights, scary or sad events.

4 Response A reaction to a stimulus.
When you are hungry you eat, when you are sad you cry, when you are scared you run…

5 Internal Stimuli & Responses
Think of all the changing conditions that an organism might need to respond to. Here’s just a sample: excited thirsty And here are some specific responses to these internal stimuli. Forget shivering… Where’s my hoodie?!? roots absorb H2O Rex wags tail too hot sleepy Joe sweats yawn pain tired scream lion rests hungry owl grabs mouse too cold afraid Joe shivers kitten hides

6 External Stimuli & Responses
External stimuli can be a little more complicated. Let’s see how. EXTERNAL STIMULUS RESPONSE moonlight = external stimulus howling = response Bright sunlight Squinting (ok, this one is pretty simple) Shorter days, colder temperatures Trees drop their leaves in autumn Dogs shed their thick coats in late spring Increasingly hot weather Sunlight, motion of the Sun. Plants grow toward the Sun’s position. Hibernation (chipmunks sleep through cold months) Migration (geese fly to warmer weather & easy food) Dormancy (grass turns brown in winter instead of trying to grow & stay green) Difficult survival conditions coming up There really are countless more examples, from as simple to an itch on your arm to the complicated conditions that cause plants to realize winter is over and fire back into life.

7 #22 Write. Stimulus (changing condition) and Response
Internal Stimulus – detected inside an organism ex: hunger, emotions, temperature External Stimulus – detected outside ex: light, dark, climate change Organisms respond to these stimuli to help increase their chances at survival. When you learn more about the human body, you might be astonished to discover the numerous stimuli, both internal and external, that your nerves and brain can respond to.

8 Looks like Joe is prepared to handle some stimuli…
Yep, sure am. And don’t think I forgot to pack one other thing…

9 And That’s… THE END!

10 A state of balance in the body
Notes Homeostasis A state of balance in the body Whoa

11 Definition of Homeostasis
homeo = same; stasis = standing Homeostasis is the term we use to describe the constant state of the internal environment. Homeostasis is a state of balance in the body. The processes and activities that help to maintain homeostasis are referred to as homeostatic mechanisms.

12 Introduction You are exposed to ever changing environmental conditions. For example, you may walk out of an air conditioned room into the hot summer sun. However the cells in your body work best when their surroundings are kept constant. Your body has many mechanisms that keep the cells surroundings constant even though your external environment is changing. This is homeostasis. Homeostasis is very important because when it fails you become ill and may die.  

13 Maintaining Homeostasis
Chemistry is the reason why we must maintain homeostasis. Biochemical processes (the chemical reactions) that occur within us) are vital to life and occur efficiently only within a limited temperature range and at a specific pH.

14 Internal Communication
The body must have good internal communication, using the endocrine and nervous systems, to maintain homeostasis. Feedback inhibition limits the operation of a system or causes it to shut down when it senses too much of a certain product (such as water, glucose, salt, heat, CO2 etc.) It will cause the system to “turn back on” when there is too little of this product.

15 A Temperature Control System
To help us understand homeostasis in living organisms, let us first look at a non-living system. We will use a temperature control system for a room which has many similar features to homeostatic mechanisms…. Click on the thermostat.

16 Human Body Temperature Control
You have just studied how the temperature of a room can be controlled. Now you will examine how similar mechanisms operate to control body temperature in humans. Go to this web address…. Click on the hot man.

17 A Review Example: thermostatic heating system in a home
Components of an automatic control system Variable is the characteristic of the internal environment that is controlled by this mechanism (internal temp in this example). Sensor (receptor) detects changes in variable and feeds that information back to the integrator (control center) (thermometer in this example).

18 Summary Changes in temp are detected by thermometer, which feeds info about the actual temp back to thermostat. Thermostat has been previously set to ideal (set point) value; thermostat compares actual value to set point value and sends signal to furnace. Furnace fires up and changes the internal temp back toward set point. (Furnace will shut down when thermostat determines actual temp is now higher than set point temp).

19 Human Example of Negative Feedback
Human example: shivering in response to cooling of body during cold weather or sweating when their core temperature gets too hot. Homeostasis allows an organism to remain in balance with its environment. If homeostasis is not maintained, it can harm or kill the organism.

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