3 Extending the UML with Stereotyping Know we have ‘Change’ in everything.Extend UML? Built in feature!extend UML for new ‘types’ ; New types of model elements!allows customization of models for projectStereotypes allow ‘refine’ / ‘reclassify’ ‘re-specify’ all model elements into a more specialized form rather than create additional symbols!Example: might specify a Use Case as a <<mission critical>> or class name with the stereotype: <<boundary>> or <<control>> etc.Most common UML stereotyped element is the class.Stereotyping makes these different model elements!!!
4 Stereotypes in Modeling: Built-ins and User-Defined Associations in Use Case Diagrams may be stereotyped as includes or extends. (built-ins)Now, special kinds of associations between Use Cases (later)Can be used to ‘increase relevance’ of model elements, such as use cases in requirements gathering.(Much controversy on ‘extends’ and ‘includes’ and use cases invoking use cases...(Later) <includes> and <extends> …Use Cases may also be stereotyped“Stereotyped element” has ‘special’ criteria.e.g. A use case that is “mission critical” => must be processed within five seconds.A <mission critical> use case ‘may’ be specified in a separate document addressing all stereotypesClasses may also be stereotyped: <boundary>, others…A boundary class is one that interacts directly with an actor…Any UML modeling element may be stereotyped….
6 Use CasesUse Cases – a great tool that helps us to express interactions between system (application) and actor.Meaningful to customer who is concerned with the ‘whats’ of the system.Successful development of Use Cases requires an understanding of the goals of each of the use cases.
7 Goals of Use CasesMeant to show interactions between system and external entities (actors) with system .Interactions must present a value to actor.actor may be an accounting system; general ledger system; person; customer; a relay; or thermostat…Use Cases are black box representations; theydo not show implementation-specific languagedo not want to imply how use case will be realized.do not include language such as: people, interface widgets (buttons, menus…), IFTHENELSE statements; pseudo-code, more…Are written in language of the application domain.Are ‘abstractions’ of detailed interactions.Capture stories addressing functional requirements…
8 Goals: Use Cases capture ‘whats’ “Context-free” useExcellent for requirements gathering / modeling; analyzing the user environment…Numbers of Use Cases?70-80 for very large system?Medium sized – 20 to 50;Small systems - fewer.Smaller number forces abstraction. Desirable.
10 Actors Actors trigger the start of a use case. Secondary actors people, computer systems, date/time, relay, device...Secondary actorsactor/role providing system inputs/outputs from another actor/role. First (outside) actor/role is ‘secondary actor’ and should be shown if its actions affect system reaction.Actors may be:Systems feeding your system and vice versa.May be a legacy RDBMS or a legacy VSAM file…Pressure and temperature may be actors (triggers)Actors may influence how the classes are constructed; may themselves become classes – e.g. CustomerMakes sense to take care in creating the right actor to interact with the use cases.”
11 Actors and Use Case Diagrams Not customary to label association lines between actor & use case.Default is <<communicates>>But there are others…Actors have ‘role names’ – useful if ‘association’ needs information beyond the fact that they simply interact.Associations exist in many ways and among many model elements…Exist between actors, use cases, and actor and use cases
12 Associations: Generalization in Actors Generalization: abstract the commonalities.two sub-actors generalized into a super-actorHave both behavior and attributes in common – described under the super-actor.Super-actor should interact with use cases when ALL of its sub-actors interact the same way;Sub-actors should interact with use cases when their individual interactions differ from that of the super-actor.
14 Use Case Associations Extend/Include Adornments Stereotyped associations indicate a special kind of association. (good pix – Fig 2.13)Extend (blunt side) is a special use case that extends the original use case (sharp)extended use case would not exist without the use case it is extending; special case; exceptional behaviors.Arrow points toward the base use case that is extended…Include stereotype allows use case designers to avoid duplicating steps across multiple use cases (a reuse strategy).Arrow extends away from the owning parent use case.(Similar steps put into the owner Use Case.e.g. Authenticate UserCalled ‘adornments’ when certain special cases would clutter original use case.
15 The Use Case TemplateA page or two of text; corresponds to a rounded oval in the Use Case diagram.Definitely need a standard template.May create your own – but be consistent.Use Case Name, iteration name/number; author, description, basic course of events; alternative paths, exception paths, triggers, assumptions; preconditions; post-conditions; references to related business rules; risks lists, and more.All seem important.
16 Use Case Template - more Create an “index of use cases” to indexthe use cases…Name – unique and in English; verb objectIteration – stage; identify each use case.(façade, filled, focused, finished… many name variations…)Description – a couple of sentences describing the interaction.Basic Course of Eventsactor always takes first step (trigger)always the happy path (simple path)can include a picture, if helpful. (Attached)Happy path: the most common interaction.
17 Use Case Template - more Alternative Pathsless common pathMay not be ‘too less common’Each alternative and exception (below) should indicate WHERE in the basic course of events the alternative / exception emanates from.Where is its starting point…Exception PathsLike alternatives but typically shown for errors.
18 Use Case Template - more Extension PointsThe extend relationship exists between use cases when one use case provides an optional sequence of events that is included in the other use case.Extension point shows step (or a name – place holder) in a use case from which the extending use case extends. (more later)Triggers: entry points for a use case - conditionsAssumptions – document things assumed to be true (but might not be true) (Critical section.)Preconditions – Things that must be in place before an interaction may occur. (part of contract between use case and outside world)
19 Use Case Template - more Post Condition –part of contract between use case and outside world; specify outcomes; independent of alternative path.e.g. transaction successfully posted.Related Business Ruleswritten / unwritten rules on how a company conducts its business.Refer to business rules – may be separatedAuthor and Dateat bottom; original date for each version: façade, filled, focused, and finished.
20 Paths and Scenarios Use Cases – abstract; not too many Really need detailed interactions – scenarios.Will use Scenario Definition #2 – the “Instance,” where the scenario is a realization of a use case (one possible path) with included data.Scenarios can be used during requirements capture for feedback to users and analysts that the use cases accurately reflect user needs, and in testing to test whether the system reflects the requirements.Scenarios, then, are instances, of use cases (complete with production data) that effectively test one path through a use case.
21 Exception and Alternative Paths Last look:Exceptions are errors that occur.Interactions thus contain steps to be executed.Alternatives are close to basic course of events – just not the most likely course of events.No errors- but some authors treat these to document error conditions.Alternatives may be just as important as the basic course…Some authors treat alternatives and MUCH less likely to occur. I don’t.Be aware that there are some very heated disagreements over implementation of use case diagrams and their extensions:The use of <<includes>> and <<extends>> !!
22 Read last three pages of chapter – Use Cases for Inquiry-only systems, Use Cases for Requests For Proposals, etc.DO READ THESE.
23 Summary Tidbits on Use Cases Use Case Driven Modeling by Rosenberg Essence of use case model is to capture user requirements of a new system or based on an existing system.Detail all scenarios users will be performingUse Case Model is at conceptual center of the process.Developed in cooperation with domain modelPrecedes Analysis modelUC – sequence of actions that an actor, usually a person, but perhaps an external entity, such as another system, performs within a system to achieve a particular goal.A complete and unambiguous use case describes one aspect of usage of the system without presuming any specific design or implementation.Result of UC Modeling: all required system functionality is described in the use cases!! (Recall, however, that these evolve…)We show use cases and actors on a use case diagram.
24 Some authors describe use cases as: Analysis-level use cases – never instantiated(sometimes called business process use cases)Design-level use case – instantiated; concrete… contains real data….Some authors call design-level use cases scenarios.Should take a solid paragraph or two to capture the essence of a design use case.Rapid prototyping can be used to demonstrate ‘proof of concept.’Can write a rough Users Manual from the prototype and use case descriptions.(as if the prototype were a fully functioning system….)
25 Should have a window navigation diagram w/i prototype. From prototyping, you normally get the Basic Courses of events, because rapid prototyping normally (may often) ignores alternatives and exceptions…Prototype can contain simple windows containing radio buttons or generic icons – only to show functionality..Should have a window navigation diagram w/i prototype.Whether you build a prototype, draw mockups, or use some other technique to address the visual aspects of your system, it is very useful to link your screen designs to your use cases.(Can do this manually or via a visual modeling tool.)Use Case text should be relatively free of presentation details.Field names often match up directly with attribute names in domain classes.Many nouns / actors are classes in domain modelInteractions will be ‘control’ later… Important to do prototyping, mockups, etc. before you start writing use cases…Otherwise, you may spend lots of extra time trying to pin down your user expectations…. Remember, a static model isn’t really ‘static’ until the system works!
26 ‘Basic course of action’ is the main start to finish path the user will follow. Alternate course of actions represent an (infrequently) used path through the scenario, an exception, or an error condition.Goal is NOT to build an elegant use case – goal is to ACCOUNT for everything user might do!The more well-defined the system behavior is (modeled from the interactions in use case and other design drawings later), the easier it will be to build the system.
27 Factoring out Commonality in Usage Generalization - …Includes – involves making one use case take full use of another use case.Goes to ‘reuse’ = a prime objective of use case modeling.Association is defined as a stereotype. Put ‘includes’ on arrow.Extends – allows a modeler to insert one use case into another use case thus ‘extending’ the second use case.Can show ‘optional system behavior’ or behavior that is executed only under certain circumstances.Defined as a stereotype Put ‘extends’ on association arrow.UML defines a use case as one form of a class….But we normally do not Generalize use cases, because generalization is most useful for building elaborate structures dominated by abstract use cases….(But some people do…)Don’t spend lots of time worrying to use includes, extends …..Don’t spend lots of time with long, involved use case templates.(I like extends and includes to assist in factoring use cases…)
28 Use Case PackagesA package is a grouping of related model elements such as classes, use cases...Very desirable to group into packages primarily because these packages can be used to form logical boundaries for dividing work among sub-teams.A good rule of thumb – each package should correspond with a chapter or at least a major section in the user manual.A division of functionality, responsibilities, etc……Package Diagrams may contain use cases that are related….
29 More – very important tidbits here. The relationship between requirements and use cases is subject of much discussion.A use case describes a unit of behaviorA requirement describes a law that governs behaviorA use case can satisfy one or more functional requirementsA functional requirement may be satisfied by one or more use cases…Note that a system will have other requirements besides ‘functional,’ such as performance, maintainability, scalability, reliability… that don’t map easily to use cases….These tend to ‘thread themselves through Use Cases.’ More later.At end of use case modeling, you are ready to embark upon the creation of an analysis model (or preliminary design) … (some authors call it a robust analysis…)This will involve very careful and highly iterative analysis of use cases and all their scenarios.This can only take place after the full Use Case Model is completed.
30 Summary Where are we in our projects? ‘Done’ with real-world domain objects and business modeling….Hopefully have done rapid prototyping of proposed system to gain substantive information…Identify your use cases using use case diagramsOrganize use cases into packages…To do: allocate functional requirements to the use cases and domain objects at this stage….(early Use Case iteration…)To do: we will have a full Requirements Review after next bullet:Will develop full descriptions of each use cases – basic courses of action that represent mainstream interactions and alternate courses for less-frequently traveled paths and error conditions.Will then develop: analysis model….For each use case, identify first cut objects to accomplish the stated scenario. Use stereotypes…Update domain model class diagram with new objects and attributes as you discover them.Ensure initial vision still holds;To do: have a preliminary design review……
31 Common Mistakes10. Write functional requirements instead of usage scenario text9. Describe attributes and methods rather than usage8. Write the use cases too tersely7. Divorce yourself completely from the user interface6. Avoid explicit names for your boundary objects.5. Write using a perspective other than the user’s, in passive voice.4. Describe only user interactions; ignore system responses.3. Omit text for alternative courses of action2. Focus on something other than what’s ‘inside’ a use case,such as how you get there (precondition) or what happensafterward (post-condition).1. Spend a month deciding whether to use includes or extends.