Presentation on theme: "OS (Ordnance Survey) 4 AND 6 FIGURE GRID REFERENCES: 4 figure grid references allow you to locate a particular grid square on a map. The first 2 numbers."— Presentation transcript:
OS (Ordnance Survey) 4 AND 6 FIGURE GRID REFERENCES: 4 figure grid references allow you to locate a particular grid square on a map. The first 2 numbers indicate how far ‘along the corridor’ you need to go; the second 2 numbers indicate how far ‘up the stairs’ you need to go. If you follow the numbers like a co-ordinate, you need to look at the square to the TOP RIGHT of the point you locate. 6 figure grid references allow you to locate a specific point on a map. When using a 6 figure grid reference, you need to imagine that each grid square has been divided into tenths. Just like a 4 figure grid reference, the first 2 numbers indicate how far ‘along the corridor’ you need to go. The 3 rd number tells you how many tenths you need to continue going along. The following 2 numbers indicate how far ‘up the stairs’ you need to go. The final number tells you how many tenths you need to continue going up. CONTOUR LINES / CONTOUR CROSS-SECTIONS: Contour lines are used to measure the relief (height and shape of the land) on an OS Map. The closer together contour lines are, the steeper the land is. The number on the line indicates the height above sea level. A contour cross section is where you are given a ‘side view’ of a section of the map between two 6 figure grid references. The first thing do is draw a line on your map between these two references. The features you are asked to identify on the cross section will be found on the line that you have drawn on the map. SCALE: The scale of your map is 1:50 000. This means that every 1cm = 0.5km. Therefore, 2cm = 1km. How to calculate a WINDING distance: The SITE of the settlement is the actual land it is built on – this usually involves physical (natural) features. Is it on/at the foot of a hill? What is the height of the land? Is it on a river / meander? Is there any woodland? The SITUATION of a settlement is what is near to it. Is there a river nearby? Is there a settlement nearby? Is there woodland nearby? There are 3 main settlement SHAPES: NUCLEATED – buildings clustered (often around a crossroads or market square). LINEAR – Buildings in a line (often along a railway or road, following a river or at the bottom of a valley. DISPERSED – Buildings are spread out (often found in rural areas). GIS (GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS)ICT / ENQUIRY GIS is a way of using maps digitally. It allows a large amount of information to be seen by layering one set of information on to another. The base information is a map of the area being studied. One of the most common uses of GIS is Global Positioning Systems (GPS) used by thousands of car drivers and hill walkers. Ambulance stations use GIS to improve response times by identifying where ambulances are in relation to the location and also any road congestion. Using ICT to prepare / conduct fieldwork Data loggers could be used to record results accurately. A questionnaire could be produced – using ICT would ensure it is clearly and accurately produced and enable any alternations to be easily made. GIS / Google Earth could be used to help identify the site to gather data. Using ICT to present fieldwork data Putting data into a spreadsheet that can be interrogated easily. Using a computer to draw a graph that is accurately drawn and easy to read. Using a computer to edit and annotate photos to focus on important information. Highlighting important ideas through their presentation in a Word document. BENEFITS of GIS A lot of information can be seen on one map. Layering allows info. to be linked / patterns spotted. Now available on portable devices (smartphones). PROBLEMS of GIS Can be confusing – lots of info. ICT equipment is needed as the maps are digital. Equipment can be expensive to buy / update. GRAPH DESCRIBING a graph Look at the number of marks to indicate the number of points to make. Describe the general trend / pattern and then pick out any anomalies (any results that do not fit this pattern). Make sure to use data in your answer (numbers) and pay attention to the scale and use this in relation to the numbers! How to read ‘difficult’ / less familiar graphs A ‘triangular graph’ presents information on three different axis. The data is a % so the value of any point on a graph must equal 100% when the totals for the three axis have been added together. Compound bar charts / line graphs are also used to show %s. Each bar on the bar chart totals 100% and the proportion of the bar that is in each different colour indicates how this 100% is broken down. On a line graph, any vertical line drawn through the graph from the horizontal axis equals 100% and the different colours indicate the way that 100% is broken down into different elements. The direction of each line on a rose diagram shows the direction that something is coming from. The length of the line is set against a key and this gives an indication of the number of people, cars, etc. coming from that direction. Potential PROBLEMS of graphs A graph might become difficult and complex to read if it presents a large amount of information. Depending on the nature of the graph, it might be difficult to produce in the first place. Potential BENEFITS of graphs Some graphs (scatter diagrams / rose diagrams) present more than one piece of data – patterns can be spotted. Information displayed visually so patterns / anomalies can be easily spotted. Located graphs use a base map and add pie charts, bar charts, etc. to this so you can see differences in data at different locations. UNIT 1: GEOGRAPHICAL SKILLS Include map evidence wherever possible! ALONG the corridor and UP the stairs! 10 20 30 40
CLIMATE CHANGE Why has climate changed SINCE THE LAST ICE AGE? ORBITAL GEOMETRY When the earth’s orbit I circular, there are glacial periods. When it is elliptical there are warmer periods. The tilt of the earth’s axis varies – greater the angle, the warmer/colder it is. SOLAR OUTPUT Energy from the sun changes over time. Less sunspot activity = cooling. VOLCANIC ACTIVITY Eruptions release large amount of sulphur dioxide. This reflects solar radiation causing cooling. E.g. 1815 Tambora eruption. CHANGE IN ATMOSPHERIC GAS The more CO₂ in the atmosphere the more heat that is trapped. Without this, average global temperature would be -18°C (actual temperature is 15°C. What are the causes of CURRENT CLIMATE CHANGE? GREENHOUSE EFFECT -Shortwave radiation from the sun travel through the greenhouse gas layer and reaches earth. -Earth converts this to long wave heat energy and absorbs 50%. -The rest is emitted back into space but some of this gets trapped by the greenhouse gas layer. -As this layer is getting thicker, more heat is getting trapped and average temperatures increasing. FOSSIL FUELS - Burning fossil fuels releases greenhouse gases (e.g. CO₂). - Increased global population = more cars / more energy required for electrical items. E.g. China = 75% energy produced from coal. METHANE -20x more potent than CO₂ (traps more heat). -Increased global population = more food needed (cattle / rice fields). -Increased global population = more waste (landfill). What are the negative effects of climate change? CHANGING PATTERNS OF CROP YIELDS Tanzania = longer periods of drought and shorter growing seasons. Could lose almost 1/3 of maize crop. India = 50% decrease in the amount of land available to grow wheat. RISING SEA LEVELS Research published in 2007 by The Hadley Centre predict an 88cm rise in sea levels by the end of the century. -Will threaten low-lying coastal areas including major world cities e.g. London and New York. -Many islands e.g. Maldives have already started to plan for evacuation of population to neighbouring islands. RETREATING GLACIERS 90% Antarctica’s glaciers are retreating. This could affect ocean water movement – could divert Gulf Stream making western Europe (i.e. UK) colder. Endangering animal species such as polar bears. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT UNIT 1: CHALLENGES FOR THE PLANET How have large organisations tried to become more sustainable? ASDA / WAL-MART – The food industry: Products in distribution centres wrapped in plastic. Didcot centre creating four skips of plastic waste a week and then paying for it to go to landfill. The use of a baler machine means waste can be reduced to 10% of its original size. Waste recycled – Asda receive money for plastic. No plastic goes to landfill. NOKIA – The communication industry: 50% of people get a new phone each year and 44% of these old phones are left at home. Recycling campaign promoted in store and via company website, including specific details about how to do this. 100 countries in scheme. Freepost address to post phone to if you don’t live near recycling centre. 100% of the old phone can be recycled and made into things like trumpets or park benches! PREMIER INN – Services and Leisure Industry: There are more than 650 different Premier Inns in the UK. Towels only washed when requested to reduce water, detergent and energy use. How can transport be managed to be more sustainable? CONGESTION CHARGING: Making motorists pay to travel into large urban areas during busy periods - to reduce vehicles entering the city, easing traffic congestion and lowering pollution emissions. London – congestion charge introduced in 2003 with £10 daily charge to drive within charging zone. 21% reduction in traffic levels 65,000 fewer car journeys a day. 29,000 more bus passengers during morning rush and a 12% increase in cycle journeys. PARK AND RIDE: Allow people (e.g. shoppers) to park their cars in large designated parking areas on the edge of an urban area (sites are usually on main routes so easy to access) and catch a bus into the town/city centre. Cambridge park and ride involves: 5 park and ride car parks covering all major routes into the city with 4,500 parking spaces at these sites. Sites are well lit with security systems and have waiting rooms, toilets and baby changing facilities. Double-decker buses carrying up to 70 passengers leave every 10 minutes and costing £2.20 (parking itself is free). OTHER APPROACHES: Car sharing where workers are encouraged to share cars. Designated cycle / walking paths – Milton Keynes has 273km of cycling paths. What are the EFFECTS of resource extraction in TRFs? How are the effects of resource extraction in TRFs MANAGED? Peru (Camisea) – Natural Gas Pipeline: Deforestation – Drainage patterns altered – Habitats destroyed. Soil erosion leading to silting of rivers and death of fish – Malnutrition (1/4 children live to be teenagers) Costa Rica – Ecotourism developed with Tourist facilities (zip wires and trails. Merck only company allowed to look for plants – medicines / fragrances. Profits shared. Brazil (Carajas) – Iron Ore Mining: Deforestation (6100km²) – Habitats destroyed – Soil erosion increased. Mercury used in gold mining – 90% of fish contaminated – Cancer. Ecuador – Oil companies/Court: Texaco taken to court and ordered to pay $40 million towards repairing the damage caused by 600 waste pits. Indonesia (Freeport Mining Company) – Gold & Copper: Untreated waste (285,000 tonnes) – Water shortage – Crocodiles and tortoises resulting in loss of biodiversity. Nature Conservancy (NGO) – Works with local people in Amazon Rainforest to help them to develop it sustainably, They now have the right to their land – 20% of TRF. What are responses to climate change at a GLOBAL scale? What are responses to climate change at a LOCAL / NATIONAL scale (UK)? 1988 – IPCC introduced to research climate change and role of humans in release of greenhouse gases. Live Simply - Catholic Church campaign ran in schools in 2007. Students encouraged to think about their impact on the world and sustainability. 1992 Rio Earth Summit – agreement signed by 154 countries with voluntary targets for reduction of emissions. Manchester Is My Planet - Green Badge Parking Permit where people who own low emission cars can apply for an annual permit that gives them 25% discount when using NCP car parks in Manchester. 1997 Kyoto Protocol – agreement to reduce emissions by 5.2% compared to 1990 levels, but not agreed by all countries and major carbon emitters such as China exempt. Since April 2008 council targets to reduce emissions as they believe they can influence homeowners who account for 15% of carbon emissions. Most effective councils (such as the City of London and Middlesbrough) given £4 million to share ideas with other councils. 2010 Cancun – A ‘green fund’ set up to help LICs cope with effects of climate change worth $100bn a year. REDD scheme = HICs pay LICs to avoid deforestation. Individual might reduce unnecessary car journeys, buy food from local farmers’ markets, etc.