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As You Like It Day One Slide Show ENGL 305 Dr. Fike.

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1 As You Like It Day One Slide Show ENGL 305 Dr. Fike

2 Papers I will put no (or few) marks on your papers. Everyone will receive a printout of comments. Please number your paragraphs and pages, underline your thesis statement, and boldface your topic sentences. (The introduction and the conclusion do not have topic sentences.) Use Courier New 12-point. Grades: –9-10, A: Project is very nicely on track. –8, B: Project is on track but has some problems. –7, C: Project has some serious problems. –6, D: Project is seriously off track and/or does not meet the minimum length requirement. Issues to watch out for: –Focused topics: MUST HAVE –Literalism/plot summary: PLEASE AVOID –Thesis statement: ESSENTIAL Must be a controversial idea Should not contain 3 lumps/topics. –MLA Format

3 Thesis Statement Qualification: Although/Despite.... Controversial idea about the focused topic. I will argue that... A reason why: because....

4 Controversial Idea It is not a fact. It is not a generalization. It is not a question. It answers a question that starts with “how” or “why” (not “what”). It is a point (something not self-evident) about your focused topic. It will help you to include “I will argue that” in the main clause of your thesis. The thesis must include and be about the focused topic!

5 MLA Format Proper use of the slash mark. –Use it ONLY for verse, not for prose. –Always put a space on either side of it. –The word after the slash mark should be capitalized as it is in the play. –Do not use the slash mark in set-off quotations (double-indented quotations). Instead, put one line of verse on one line of text. –Do not observe line breaks for prose (there really is no such thing). Citations –Act.scene.line: or I.ii.34. – , not – , not –Here you are “quoting Shakespeare” (1.2.34). –Do not put the play title in the citation if it is clear from the context what play you are referring to.

6 A Correct Works Cited Entry (Be sure to double space!) Works Cited Shakespeare, William. Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. The Complete Works of William Shakespeare. Ed. David Bevington. 5 th ed. New York: Pearson Education, ,091-1,149. Print.

7 How To Do a WC List When You Have More Than One Play Works Cited Bevington, David, ed. The Complete Works of William Shakespeare. 5 th ed. New York: Pearson Education, Print. Shakespeare, William. Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. Bevington 1,091-1, Othello, the Moor of Venice. Bevington 1,150-1,200.

8 Other Sources Psychology, philosophy, history, philosophy, mythology, etc.: these are okay to include. Cite them in the text and put them on the WC list. Do not read any Shakespeare criticism.

9 Review Shylock’s attitude: –His hatred of Christians parallels Christians’ anti-Semitism. –Ironically, he believes that a pound of Antonio’s flesh is enslaved to him.

10 Review Q: Is Portia saying that mercy is God-like in order to appeal to Shylock’s Jewish beliefs? A: She is saying that mercy is God-like in order to create at least the appearance of appealing to Shylock. It may be, however, that all the mercy talk rubs him the wrong way, and we explored the possibility that she may know this and be floating an offer that seems genuine but is calculated to elicit a negative answer. Q: Re. the love of law: Does Shylock agree more with the Old Testament (justice) than the New Testament (mercy) and therefore feel that mercy should not be shown? A: There is also mercy in the Old Testament; however, Shakespeare and his original audience probably believed the following homology to some degree: Old Testament:justice:Jews::New Testament:mercy:Christians. It may be that Shylock, preferring a supposed Old Testament ethic, holds out for justice. Thus Portia’s NT allusions help set him up. But this reading reflects a cultural stereotype about Jews, not necessarily their actual world view. Q: Do the Jewish and Christian faiths intertwine in Portia’s mercy speech? A: Yes. The speech alludes to passages in both the Old and New Testaments, and some of the imagery is common to both Jewish and Christian traditions.

11 Review Act 5: Problematic –No restorative return. –Troubling allusions in the “love duet.” All is now well with the lovers, but there is a hint that there may be trouble in Jessica and Lorenzo’s marriage at some future point. –And we established music as an important motif in the play, especially the “music of the spheres.” –A sense that all of life is disappointing; thus the comic ending is more qualified than in MSND.

12 Outline for AYLI Day One: –Orlando’s opening speech. –Duke Senior’s speech at the beginning of 2.1. Day Two: –Video of 4.1 –Group discussion of this question: What does Rosalind teach Orlando about women, love, lust, and marriage in 4.1? Library Day: Analysis Paper due Day Three: –We will spend our final day using the play to illustrate ways of taking the midterm examination, which will take place after our history unit.

13 Probable Omissions: Think about these things on your own. Jaques’s speeches (on deer in 2.1 and on satire in 2.7). The way in which the “downstairs” action relates to the “upstairs” action (Silvius and Phoebe as well as William and Audrey have relationships that illuminate those of the upper-class and royalty). The interesting animal imagery in Orlando’s rescue of Oliver. (We may have a chance to discuss this on review day. If you are writing a paper on this topic, be prepared to share.)

14 Orlando’s Opening Speech Will two volunteers read it for the class? Let’s read it twice. Discussion: –What does the speech tell you about Orlando’s situation? –What else do you know about Orlando?

15 What We Know About Orlando Young country gentleman (beard, ); therefore NOT a proper match for Rosalind, who is royalty. Third son of the late Rowland de Boys ( ). His inheritance is supposed to be 1,000 crowns (about ₤250, which is about $400). Without education, he cannot sustain his gentility. Has to rely on his brother’s support and good will. Why Oliver is treating him badly: – – –POINT: Orlando and Rosalind share the same predicament. This is a great example of Shakespeare’s use of doubling.

16 “Yet am I inland bred / And show some nurture” ( ). An “inland” man is a civilized man. “All these implications—remoteness from city or court, barbarousness, wildness, lack of education, rusticity—are present in what the ‘inland’ man is not.” Source: Madeleine Doran, “‘Yet am I inland bred,’” Shakespeare Quarterly 15 (1964), page 104.

17 Question What key concept from today’s reading in the Bedford Companion informs Orlando’s opening speech?

18 Primogeniture in Bedford “The eldest son, despite his apparent advantage, was in a sense trapped, having no real option but to await the death of his father so that he could succeed to guardianship of the estate. The younger children fared much worse, dependent as they were on the goodwill of their father to provide for them. In the case of daughters, this meant money for a dowry with which to attract a husband; in the case of younger sons, an education or a living, or at least the means to marry well. But sometimes goodwill was hindered by a lack of resources. Owing to financial hardships or entails (legal restrictions deriving from earlier wills that controlled the use of property or income), some apparently wealthy fathers were unable to provide for their younger children. 

19 “An Heir and a Spare” “A younger son was sometimes regarded as insurance against the death of the eldest son— Lawrence Stone compares such a boy to ‘a kind of walking sperm bank’—and many of these young men attended the university and became clergymen. But the problem was pervasive enough in England in the 1590s for Falstaff to joke about drafting the ‘younger sons of younger brothers,’ men who were at the bottom of the economic ladder and hadn’t a shilling to give in the way of a bribe to escape military service.”

20 Younger Sons Orlando relates to protest literature by and for younger sons. Younger sons suffered downward social mobility, poverty, and inability to marry or late marriage. They also had fewer children. Younger sons had to work for their living. POINT: The younger son is to the elder son as a son is to a father or as a peasant is to a lord. In other words, the elder son is a father-figure. Source: Louis Adrian Montrose: “‘The Place of a Brother’ In As You Like It: Social Process and Comic Form,” Shakespeare Quarterly 32 (1981):

21 Wrestling Match The public wrestling event is like an Oedipal struggle: Oliver has the father’s authority, and Orlando has the father’s native virtue (he has his father’s intellect, manliness, and virtue— “O you memory / Of old Sir Rowland!” at vs. lines 19-21). Orlando’s natural goodness shines through despite the impediments that he suffers.

22 More on the Wrestling Match If each son has one or more characteristics of the father, then some degree of the Oedipal wish will be achieved no matter how the wrestling match turns out. A son will triumph over some element of the father no matter who wins.

23 Questions Who else is a disenfranchised younger brother? What are a younger brother’s possible responses? (See especially )

24 Answers Frederick is also a disenfranchised younger brother. As Oliver oppresses Orlando, so Frederick oppresses Oliver (who thus gets a taste of his own medicine). As for Frederick, seizing Oliver’s lands parallels usurping the dukedom from his brother. A younger brother has the potential to take direct action against an older brother: this potential is active in Frederick and latent in Orlando (except for his grabbing Oliver by the throat at ). Fratricide, priesthood, and thievery ( ). Probably also military service.

25 Bedford Companion 267 “If the estate was extremely large, the father normally made financial arrangements for the daughters and younger sons; if it was extremely small, these younger children might be so disadvantaged that they would have to remain unmarried. For younger sons in particular, this was considered a reasonable option, for they could find ways of supporting themselves—by teaching, taking religious orders, or even going to sea.”

26 A Further Question How do you think that Shakespeare’s original audience would have responded to Orlando’s situation?

27 Possible Answers All of these issues relate to primogeniture, and for Shakespeare’s original audience it is a gripping way to open the play because people in that audience suffered from it. People would have sympathized with Orlando. If you’re not a white male with property, you lack full social identity. Younger sons are disenfranchised, and the situation of women is even worse.

28 The Forest It is this position of disadvantage that the experiences in the forest will transform. Orlando is not a proper match for Rosalind because he is a gentleman, and she is royalty. Their union probably wouldn’t be possible without their meeting in the forest.

29 Moreover In the forest, the effects of primogeniture are reversed, as the next slide. If you don’t want to spoil the ending, skip the next slide.

30 Details –Oliver gives up their father’s lands to Orlando. –Orlando will become heir to a dukedom by marrying Rosalind. –In other words, Orlando’s gentility is preserved, and his material well-being is enhanced. –It is as if he is reborn as his father’s heir in the forest.

31 So the Question Is… What is it about life in the forest that enables this transformation? See Duke Senior’s speech at 2.1.1ff. Let’s read it out loud. Then get into FOUR small groups and discuss it for 5-7 minutes. (Questions are on the next slide. Each group starts with a different question.)

32 Questions About Duke Senior’s Speech at 2.1.1ff. 1.How does Duke Senior describe nature? Is he describing an absolutely ideal state? Is this Eden? 2.What benefits or advantages does the rural setting offer? 3.How long have the exiles been here? Is this a timeless place? Cf Is the forest a dangerous place?

33 Possible Answers 1.This is not an absolutely ideal state. Nature is fallen. 2.Social equality (“brothers and co-mates”) makes possible the union of Orlando and Rosalind. And things signify properly vs. the “painted pomp” of the court. 3.Time does exist in the woods, but the woods may be to kairos (time’s quality) as the court is to chronos (time’s quantity: clock time). Time is relative in the woods. 4.Surd evil (surdus, Latin: deaf) vs. moral evil at court and manor.

34 The Forest of Arden ( ) Mary Arden was Shakespeare’s mother. Ardennes Forest in France. This forest, though spelled Arden, is the setting for Thomas Lodge’s Rosalind. There are lions and snakes there. But if this is Robin Hood’s forest ( ), then we are in England. Or not: There are no olive or palm trees in England (see palm at and olive at ). But these trees do have religious significance: olive, peace; palm, spiritual victory and Palm Sunday.

35 Point This is a good place! But it is a forest of the imagination. Cf. the forest in MSND and the Bohemian seacoast in The Winter’s Tale.

36 More on Arden Forest “... the great Forest of Arden had been cut down, pasture and mixed woodland having replaced the endless woods rich in mystery and folklore.” Our play, “in its disorienting shifts between woodland and pastoral landscapes, juxtaposes the romanticized Arden that stirred his imagination as a child with the realistic Arden that Shakespeare... witnessed as an adult.” “Twelve other scenes set in the Forest of Arden offer an alternative landscape, a world of enclosure, of sheep and shepherds, landlords and farmers, landed peasants and the less fortunate wage earners.... When Oliver seeks Rosalind he does so ‘in the purlieus’—Shakespeare here using the technical term for parts of royal forests that were no longer wooded.” Source: James Shapiro, A Year in the Life of William Shakespeare: 1599, page 242

37 Consequence From Shapiro, page : We get “the grim fate of Corin, unexpected in a comedy, who is so impoverished that he can’t even feed or lodge his guests.... Shakespeare reduces Lodge’s tenant farmer to a wage earner who will be homeless and unemployed as soon as his master can sell off the cottage and the enclosed ‘bounds’ for a quick profit ( ).... Its quiet recognition of the threat of social dislocation helps explain why at so many points As You Like It seems to anticipate the next play Shakespeare set in England, King Lear.”

38 The Pastoral Tradition Arcadia and Eden are in the background— idealized nature, refuge from everyday life. (Arcadia is the classical analogue for Eden.) Harmon and Holman, A Handbook to Literature, 9 th ed., : Pastoral means “a poem treating of shepherds and rustic life, after the Latin for ‘shepherd,’ pastor.” The major pastoral poem that influenced AYLI was Spenser’s The Shepeardes Calendar, in which Rosalinde (the final “e” is correct) is the love object.

39 Points About Pastoral Literature Rural characters mirror and critique what happens in the city. The Duke’s speech certainly does this. Thus the woods are to civilization as the theater is to London. Pastoral literature presents ideals toward which the civilized world should strive.

40 Examples of Critique Jaques, we are told, laments the plight of the deer in 2.1. Orlando tries to rob the Duke’s party in 2.7.

41 So… The forest has the same effect on the characters as the play presumably has on its audience: –It provides a temporary refuge. –And we return to our lives with a sense that goodness has been affirmed. Virtue triumphs. –See Jaques’s theater metaphor at : “All the world’s a stage,” and so forth.

42 Another Activity Fill in the following chart: Court Manor Country Characters Relationships Characteristics GL%20305/305%20AYLI%20Chart.doc

43 POINT We don’t see Duke Senior’s original situation at the court, and we don’t see the characters’ return to the court (or, for that matter, to the manor). But, much as with the woods in MSND, we know that the country has had a profoundly transformational effect on the characters who journey there. 

44 More In other words, the green world helps to transform relationships warped by abuses of primogeniture (see Orlando’s opening speech in 1.1) into a more just egalitarian set of relationships (Duke Senior’s opening speech in 2.1). Problems  the transforming effect of the “green world”  renewal in society (even if the characters have not yet returned to civilization). MV: Problem:Venice::resolution:Belmont. There is no restorative return to Venice. END

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