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ESSENTIALS OF BIODIVERSITY DATA BASE DR.M.P.NAYAR EX-DIRECTOR BOTANICAL SURVEY OF INDIA ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES RESEARCH CENTRE.

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Presentation on theme: "ESSENTIALS OF BIODIVERSITY DATA BASE DR.M.P.NAYAR EX-DIRECTOR BOTANICAL SURVEY OF INDIA ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES RESEARCH CENTRE."— Presentation transcript:

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2 ESSENTIALS OF BIODIVERSITY DATA BASE DR.M.P.NAYAR EX-DIRECTOR BOTANICAL SURVEY OF INDIA ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES RESEARCH CENTRE

3 What is Biodiversity? TOTALITY OF BIODIVERSITY ON EARTH FROM ECOSYSTEMS TO SPECIES AND GENES. TOTALITY OF BIODIVERSITY ON EARTH FROM ECOSYSTEMS TO SPECIES AND GENES. BIODIVERSITY SERVICES FOR HUMAN WELFARE. BIODIVERSITY SERVICES FOR HUMAN WELFARE. MAINTAINS HEALTHY EARTH. MAINTAINS HEALTHY EARTH.

4 IMPORTANCE OF TAXONOMY TAXONOMIC TOOLS ARE USED FOR THE FOUNDATIONS OF BIODIVERSITY. TAXONOMIC TOOLS ARE USED FOR THE FOUNDATIONS OF BIODIVERSITY. THE HOUSE OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE IS MEANINGLESS JUMBLE WITHOUT THE BRICKS OF TAXONOMY AND FINE TUNED WITH SYSTEMATICS. THE HOUSE OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE IS MEANINGLESS JUMBLE WITHOUT THE BRICKS OF TAXONOMY AND FINE TUNED WITH SYSTEMATICS.

5 Hierarchical Levels in Biodiversity Taxonomic diversity Taxonomic diversity Kingdoms Kingdoms Phyla Phyla Families Families Genera Genera Species Species Subspecies Subspecies Populations Populations Individuals Individuals  Ecological diversity Ecological diversity Biomes Biomes Ecosystems Ecosystems Habitats Habitats Populations Populations Genetic diversity Genetic diversity Populations Populations Individuals Individuals Chromosomes Chromosomes Genes Genes Nucleotides Nucleotides

6 DIFFERENT TYPES OF BIODIVERSITY Alpha diversity: The total number of species coexisting in a region. Alpha diversity: The total number of species coexisting in a region. Beta diversity: As habitats change along climatic and topographic gradients, new species turn- over takes place. Beta diversity: As habitats change along climatic and topographic gradients, new species turn- over takes place. Gamma diversity: High species turn-over rate with distances between sites of similar habitats. Gamma diversity: High species turn-over rate with distances between sites of similar habitats.

7 COMPARATIVE POSITION: PLANT DIVERSITY IN INDIA AND THE WORLD TAXA INDIA WORLD % TAXA INDIA WORLD % BACTERIA BACTERIA VIRUSES UNKNOWN 4000 VIRUSES UNKNOWN 4000 ALGAE ALGAE FUNGI 14, FUNGI 14, LICHENS LICHENS BRYOPHYTES BRYOPHYTES PTERIDOPHYTES PTERIDOPHYTES GYMNOSPERMS GYMNOSPERMS ANGIOSPERMS O0 ANGIOSPERMS O0

8 COMPARATIVE POSITION: ANIMAL DIVERSTY IN INDIA AND THE WORLD TAXA INDIA WORLD % TAXA INDIA WORLD % PROTISTA PROTISTA MOLLUSCA MOLLUSCA ARTHROPODA ARTHROPODA OTHER INVERTE- BERATES PROTOCHORDATA PROTOCHORDATA PISCES PISCES AMPHIBIA AMPHIBIA REPTILIA REPTILIA AVES AVES MAMMALIA MAMMALIA

9 INDIA’S AGRO BIODIVERSITY INDIA IS A MEGA DIVERSITY COUNTRY FOR “AGRO BIODIVERSITY” INDIA IS A MEGA DIVERSITY COUNTRY FOR “AGRO BIODIVERSITY” 167 CROP SPECIES AND WILD RELATIVES 167 CROP SPECIES AND WILD RELATIVES CENTRE OF ORIGIN 30,O00-50,000 VARIETIES OF RICE, PIGEON-PEA, MANGO, TURMERIC, GINGER, SUGARCANE, GOOSEBERRIES. CENTRE OF ORIGIN 30,O00-50,000 VARIETIES OF RICE, PIGEON-PEA, MANGO, TURMERIC, GINGER, SUGARCANE, GOOSEBERRIES.

10 WHAT ARE MICROORGANISMS ORGANISMS MICROSCOPIC IN DIAMENSIONS, INCLUDES VIRUSES, BACTERIA, ALGAE, FUNGI AND PROTOZOA. ORGANISMS MICROSCOPIC IN DIAMENSIONS, INCLUDES VIRUSES, BACTERIA, ALGAE, FUNGI AND PROTOZOA. UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE INCLUDES PLANT AND ANIMAL CELLS BESIDES VIRUSES, BACTERIA, FUNGI AND PROTOZOA. UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE INCLUDES PLANT AND ANIMAL CELLS BESIDES VIRUSES, BACTERIA, FUNGI AND PROTOZOA. MICROBES ARE PATENTABLE AS PER WTO AND INDIAN PATENT LAWS. MICROBES ARE PATENTABLE AS PER WTO AND INDIAN PATENT LAWS.

11 MICROORGANISMS IN THE WORLD. (HAWKSWORTH,1994 ) DESCRIBED SPECIES ESTIMATED SPECIES % (PERCENTAGE) % (PERCENTAGE) ALGAE 40, , , % 67 % BACTERIA 3,000 3,000 30,000 30, % 10 % FUNGI 69,000 69,0001,500,000 5% 5% PROTOZOA 40,000 40, , , % 40 % VIRUSES ,30,000 1,30,000 4 % 4 %

12 MICROORGANISMS DESCRIBED IN INDIA WORLD WORLD INDIA INDIA PERCENTAGE PERCENTAGE ALGAE ALGAE 40,000 40,000 6,500 6, % 16 % BACTERIA 4,000 4, % 21.2 % FUNGI 69,000 69,000 14,500 14, % 20. 7% PROTOZOA 40,000 40,000 2,577 2, % 6.4% VIRUS 5,000 5, % 7 %

13 BIODIVERSITY ISSUES AND PROFILES IDENTIFICATIONS IDENTIFICATIONS QUANTIFICATIONS QUANTIFICATIONS DISTRIBUTIONS DISTRIBUTIONS ENDEMISM ENDEMISM “HOTSPOTS “ AND “WARM SPOTS” “HOTSPOTS “ AND “WARM SPOTS”

14 WHAT ARE “HOTSPOTS” AREAS HAVING RICH ENDEMISM AND ARE FACING EXTREME THREAT PERCEPTIOINS HOTSPOT AREAS OCCUPY ABOUT 8% OF WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL AREA BUT HOLD 46% TOTAL WORLD SPECIES. INCLUDES MAJOR TROPICAL FORESTS, RELICT TEMPERATE MEDITERRANEAN ECOSYSTEMS.

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16 HOTSPOTS VERSUS AGROBIODIVERSITY HOTSPOT CENTRES DO NOT INCLUDE MAJOR AND VAVILOVIAN CENTRES OF ORIGIN AND DO NOT ENCOMPASS MAJOR AGROBIODIVERSITY ECOSYSTEMS OF THE WORLD. HOTSPOT CENTRES DO NOT INCLUDE MAJOR AND VAVILOVIAN CENTRES OF ORIGIN AND DO NOT ENCOMPASS MAJOR AGROBIODIVERSITY ECOSYSTEMS OF THE WORLD. AS A PARADIGM “HOTSPOT” CONCEPT HELPS CONSERVATION OF ENDEMIC AND THREATENED TROPICAL ECOSYSTEMS AND DOES NOT PROTECT AGROBIODIVERSITY. AS A PARADIGM “HOTSPOT” CONCEPT HELPS CONSERVATION OF ENDEMIC AND THREATENED TROPICAL ECOSYSTEMS AND DOES NOT PROTECT AGROBIODIVERSITY. THE DRIVING FORCE FOR THE EVOLUTION AND DOMESTICATION OF WILD SPECIES TOOK PLACE IN THE DEFORESTED WOODLANDS AND GRASSLANDS THROUGH HUMAN INTERVENTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL DETERMINISM. THE DRIVING FORCE FOR THE EVOLUTION AND DOMESTICATION OF WILD SPECIES TOOK PLACE IN THE DEFORESTED WOODLANDS AND GRASSLANDS THROUGH HUMAN INTERVENTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL DETERMINISM.

17 BIODIVERSITY “HOTSPOTS” TROPICAL ANDES TROPICAL ANDES MEDITERRANEAN MEDITERRANEAN MADAGASCAR,INDIA N OCEAN ISLDS. MADAGASCAR,INDIA N OCEAN ISLDS. MESOAMERICAN FORESTS MESOAMERICAN FORESTS CARRIBBEAN ISLS. CARRIBBEAN ISLS. INDO-BURMAN INDO-BURMAN ATLANTIC FOREST ATLANTIC FOREST PHILIPPINES PHILIPPINES CAPE REGION CAPE REGION E.HIMALAYAS E.HIMALAYAS SUNDALAND SUNDALAND BRAZILIAN CERRADO BRAZILIAN CERRADO S.W.AUSTRALIA S.W.AUSTRALIA

18 BIODIVERSITY “HOTSPOTS” POLYNESIA NEW CALEDONIA W.EUCADOR W.GHATS & SRI LANKA CALIFORNIAN FLORISTIC PROVINCE KAROO NEW ZEALAND CENTRAL CHILE GUINEAN FORESTS OF W.AFRICA WALLACEA EASTERN ARC MOUNTAINS TOTAL ENDEMIIC SPECIES: 124,O35 46% OF WORLD SPECIES(270,000)

19 WHAT ARE “WARM SPOTS” AREAS HOLDING VAST GENETIC RESOURCES, PREDOMESTICATES, AGRO-PASTURAL WOODLANDS AND GRASSLANDS WHICH ARE MODIFIED OR CO-EVOLVED WITH MAN’S DETERMINISM AND ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSES. AREAS HOLDING VAST GENETIC RESOURCES, PREDOMESTICATES, AGRO-PASTURAL WOODLANDS AND GRASSLANDS WHICH ARE MODIFIED OR CO-EVOLVED WITH MAN’S DETERMINISM AND ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSES. THESE WARM SPOT AREAS ARE IN OR ADJACENT TO THE CRADLES OF HUMAN CIVILISATIONS. THESE WARM SPOT AREAS ARE IN OR ADJACENT TO THE CRADLES OF HUMAN CIVILISATIONS.

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21 SEARCHABLE DATA BASES BIODIVERSITY IS A DEAD CAPITAL UNLESS IT IS SUSTAINABLY UTILISED. BIODIVERSITY IS A DEAD CAPITAL UNLESS IT IS SUSTAINABLY UTILISED. DATA GATHERING IS TO BE FOCUSSED FOR A SPECIFIC ACTIVITY OR FOCUSED GROUP, OR TARGETED TAXA. DATA GATHERING IS TO BE FOCUSSED FOR A SPECIFIC ACTIVITY OR FOCUSED GROUP, OR TARGETED TAXA. THERE SHOULD BE STANDARDISATION AND UNIFORMITY. THERE SHOULD BE STANDARDISATION AND UNIFORMITY. DATA ARE TO BE COMPUTER COMPATIBLE FORMAT. DATA ARE TO BE COMPUTER COMPATIBLE FORMAT.

22 CHECK LIST FOR SPECIES OR FOCAL TAXA LOCAL NAME LOCAL NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME PERSON GIVING INFORMATION PERSON GIVING INFORMATION LITERATURE REFERENCES LITERATURE REFERENCES LOCAL NAMES OF VARIETIES OF DOMESTICATED PLANTS AND ANIMALS. LOCAL NAMES OF VARIETIES OF DOMESTICATED PLANTS AND ANIMALS. TAXONOMIC SPECIES GROUPS TAXONOMIC SPECIES GROUPS LANGUAGES USED LANGUAGES USED LOCAL VALUE LOCAL VALUE MAJOR USES AND MAJOR DISUSES MAJOR USES AND MAJOR DISUSES

23 FOCAL TAXA STATUS AND MANAGEMENT LOCAL NAME OF SPECIES OR SPECIES GROUPS. LOCAL NAME OF SPECIES OR SPECIES GROUPS. HABITAT HABITAT CURRENT LEVELS OF ABUNDANCE (ABSENT; RARE; MODERATELY COMMON;ABUDANT) CURRENT LEVELS OF ABUNDANCE (ABSENT; RARE; MODERATELY COMMON;ABUDANT) TRENDS AND REASONS BEHIND. TRENDS AND REASONS BEHIND. TRENDS IN ABUNDANCE OR RARITY DURING LAST TEN YEARS: (Substantial increase; moderate increase; Little or no change; moderate decrease; substantial decrease) TRENDS IN ABUNDANCE OR RARITY DURING LAST TEN YEARS: (Substantial increase; moderate increase; Little or no change; moderate decrease; substantial decrease) Immediate reason or motivation. Immediate reason or motivation. Change in goods and services. Change in goods and services.

24 Essentials of data base for Medicinal plants: I Screening and collation of data for secondary metabolites: Screening and collation of data for secondary metabolites: Indole alkaloids (Apocynaceae, Loganiaceae, Rubiaceae) Indole alkaloids (Apocynaceae, Loganiaceae, Rubiaceae) Tropane alkaloids ( Solanaceae; Convolvulaceae) Tropane alkaloids ( Solanaceae; Convolvulaceae) Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids ( Ranales or Magnolidae) Aporhine, Morhine (Beriberidaceae. Papaveraceae, Menispermaceae, Magnoliaceae) Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids ( Ranales or Magnolidae) Aporhine, Morhine (Beriberidaceae. Papaveraceae, Menispermaceae, Magnoliaceae) Polyacetylenes ( Asteraceae, Apiaceae) Polyacetylenes ( Asteraceae, Apiaceae) Terpenes ( Asteraceae, Apiaceae) Terpenes ( Asteraceae, Apiaceae) Limonoids and Qassinoids ( Rutaceae, Meliaceae and Simaroubaceae) Limonoids and Qassinoids ( Rutaceae, Meliaceae and Simaroubaceae)

25 ESSENTIALS OF DATA BASE FOR MEDICINAL PLANTS: GLUCOSINOLATES OR MUSTARD OIL GLUCOSIDES ( BRASSICACEAE, CAPPARACEAE, MORINGACEAE) GLUCOSINOLATES OR MUSTARD OIL GLUCOSIDES ( BRASSICACEAE, CAPPARACEAE, MORINGACEAE) CYANOGENIC GLYCOSIDES (ROSACEAE, FABACEAE AND SAPINDACEAE0 CYANOGENIC GLYCOSIDES (ROSACEAE, FABACEAE AND SAPINDACEAE0 TERPENES ( ESSENTIAL OILS) TERPENES ( ESSENTIAL OILS) STEROIDS (CARDIAC STEROIDS) STEROIDS (CARDIAC STEROIDS) FLAVONOIDS. FLAVONOIDS.

26 DATA BASES FLORA AND FAUNA FLORA AND FAUNA MONOGRAPHS MONOGRAPHS REVISIONS REVISIONS INDICES AND BIBLIOGRAPHIES INDICES AND BIBLIOGRAPHIES HERBARIA AND MUSEUM HERBARIA AND MUSEUM

27 TYPES OF DATA BASES ON LINE IDENTIFICATIONS ON LINE IDENTIFICATIONS INTERACTIVE KEYS INTERACTIVE KEYS ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES INFORMATION NETWORK (ERIN) ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES INFORMATION NETWORK (ERIN) INTERNATIONAL LEGUME DATA BASE INFORMATION SERVICE (ILDIS) INTERNATIONAL LEGUME DATA BASE INFORMATION SERVICE (ILDIS) NATURE PRODUCT ALERT (NAPRALERT) NATURE PRODUCT ALERT (NAPRALERT)

28 GENOMIC DATA AND SEQUENCES GENOMIC DATA AND SEQUENCES AMINO ACID SEQUENCES AMINO ACID SEQUENCES NUCLIOTIDE SEQUENCES NUCLIOTIDE SEQUENCES GENE LINKED CHARACTERISATIONS GENE LINKED CHARACTERISATIONS

29 PACKING OF CHARACTERS IN GENOMES A BACTERIAL CELL OF ONE MICROMETRE (1um, one millionth of a metre) PACKS ITS DNA MOLECULE ONE THOUSAND TIMES LONGER THAN ITS SIZE. A BACTERIAL CELL OF ONE MICROMETRE (1um, one millionth of a metre) PACKS ITS DNA MOLECULE ONE THOUSAND TIMES LONGER THAN ITS SIZE. In Human beings chromsomes(46 chromosomes in a human cell) total length in a cell if arranged end to end is about O.3 mm. long) and the total DNA it contains, if arranged end to end would be about 2 metres in length.). The packing is of the order of 10,000 times. ) In Human beings chromsomes(46 chromosomes in a human cell) total length in a cell if arranged end to end is about O.3 mm. long) and the total DNA it contains, if arranged end to end would be about 2 metres in length.). The packing is of the order of 10,000 times. ) Hence of characters in a data assembly is unimaginably large. Hence of characters in a data assembly is unimaginably large.


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