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ESSENTIALS OF BIODIVERSITY DATA BASE

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Presentation on theme: "ESSENTIALS OF BIODIVERSITY DATA BASE"— Presentation transcript:

1 ESSENTIALS OF BIODIVERSITY DATA BASE
DR.M.P.NAYAR EX-DIRECTOR BOTANICAL SURVEY OF INDIA ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES RESEARCH CENTRE

2 What is Biodiversity? TOTALITY OF BIODIVERSITY ON EARTH FROM ECOSYSTEMS TO SPECIES AND GENES. BIODIVERSITY SERVICES FOR HUMAN WELFARE. MAINTAINS HEALTHY EARTH.

3 IMPORTANCE OF TAXONOMY
TAXONOMIC TOOLS ARE USED FOR THE FOUNDATIONS OF BIODIVERSITY. THE HOUSE OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE IS MEANINGLESS JUMBLE WITHOUT THE BRICKS OF TAXONOMY AND FINE TUNED WITH SYSTEMATICS.

4 Hierarchical Levels in Biodiversity
Taxonomic diversity Kingdoms Phyla Families Genera Species Subspecies Populations Individuals Ecological diversity Biomes Ecosystems Habitats Populations Genetic diversity Individuals Chromosomes Genes Nucleotides

5 DIFFERENT TYPES OF BIODIVERSITY
Alpha diversity: The total number of species coexisting in a region. Beta diversity: As habitats change along climatic and topographic gradients, new species turn-over takes place. Gamma diversity: High species turn-over rate with distances between sites of similar habitats.

6 COMPARATIVE POSITION: PLANT DIVERSITY IN INDIA AND THE WORLD
TAXA INDIA WORLD % BACTERIA VIRUSES UNKNOWN ALGAE FUNGI , LICHENS BRYOPHYTES PTERIDOPHYTES GYMNOSPERMS ANGIOSPERMS O0

7 COMPARATIVE POSITION: ANIMAL DIVERSTY IN INDIA AND THE WORLD
TAXA INDIA WORLD % PROTISTA MOLLUSCA ARTHROPODA OTHER INVERTE- BERATES PROTOCHORDATA PISCES AMPHIBIA REPTILIA AVES MAMMALIA

8 INDIA’S AGRO BIODIVERSITY
INDIA IS A MEGA DIVERSITY COUNTRY FOR “AGRO BIODIVERSITY” 167 CROP SPECIES AND WILD RELATIVES CENTRE OF ORIGIN 30,O00-50,000 VARIETIES OF RICE, PIGEON-PEA, MANGO, TURMERIC, GINGER, SUGARCANE, GOOSEBERRIES.

9 WHAT ARE MICROORGANISMS
ORGANISMS MICROSCOPIC IN DIAMENSIONS, INCLUDES VIRUSES, BACTERIA, ALGAE, FUNGI AND PROTOZOA. UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE INCLUDES PLANT AND ANIMAL CELLS BESIDES VIRUSES, BACTERIA, FUNGI AND PROTOZOA. MICROBES ARE PATENTABLE AS PER WTO AND INDIAN PATENT LAWS.

10 MICROORGANISMS IN THE WORLD. (HAWKSWORTH,1994)
DESCRIBED SPECIES ESTIMATED SPECIES % (PERCENTAGE) ALGAE 40, 000 60, 000 67 % BACTERIA 3,000 30,000 10 % FUNGI 69,000 1,500,000 5% PROTOZOA 40,000 100,000 40 % VIRUSES 5000 1,30,000 4 %

11 MICROORGANISMS DESCRIBED IN INDIA
WORLD INDIA PERCENTAGE ALGAE 40,000 6,500 16 % BACTERIA 4,000 850 21 .2 % FUNGI 69,000 14,500 20. 7% PROTOZOA 2,577 6.4% VIRUS 5,000 350 7 %

12 BIODIVERSITY ISSUES AND PROFILES
IDENTIFICATIONS QUANTIFICATIONS DISTRIBUTIONS ENDEMISM “HOTSPOTS “ AND “WARM SPOTS”

13 WHAT ARE “HOTSPOTS” AREAS HAVING RICH ENDEMISM AND ARE FACING EXTREME THREAT PERCEPTIOINS HOTSPOT AREAS OCCUPY ABOUT 8% OF WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL AREA BUT HOLD 46% TOTAL WORLD SPECIES. INCLUDES MAJOR TROPICAL FORESTS , RELICT TEMPERATE MEDITERRANEAN ECOSYSTEMS.

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15 HOTSPOTS VERSUS AGROBIODIVERSITY
HOTSPOT CENTRES DO NOT INCLUDE MAJOR AND VAVILOVIAN CENTRES OF ORIGIN AND DO NOT ENCOMPASS MAJOR AGROBIODIVERSITY ECOSYSTEMS OF THE WORLD. AS A PARADIGM “HOTSPOT” CONCEPT HELPS CONSERVATION OF ENDEMIC AND THREATENED TROPICAL ECOSYSTEMS AND DOES NOT PROTECT AGROBIODIVERSITY. THE DRIVING FORCE FOR THE EVOLUTION AND DOMESTICATION OF WILD SPECIES TOOK PLACE IN THE DEFORESTED WOODLANDS AND GRASSLANDS THROUGH HUMAN INTERVENTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL DETERMINISM.

16 BIODIVERSITY “HOTSPOTS”
TROPICAL ANDES MEDITERRANEAN MADAGASCAR,INDIAN OCEAN ISLDS. MESOAMERICAN FORESTS CARRIBBEAN ISLS. INDO-BURMAN ATLANTIC FOREST PHILIPPINES CAPE REGION E.HIMALAYAS SUNDALAND BRAZILIAN CERRADO S.W.AUSTRALIA

17 BIODIVERSITY “HOTSPOTS”
POLYNESIA NEW CALEDONIA W.EUCADOR W.GHATS & SRI LANKA CALIFORNIAN FLORISTIC PROVINCE KAROO NEW ZEALAND CENTRAL CHILE GUINEAN FORESTS OF W.AFRICA WALLACEA EASTERN ARC MOUNTAINS TOTAL ENDEMIIC SPECIES: 124,O35 46% OF WORLD SPECIES(270,000)

18 WHAT ARE “WARM SPOTS” AREAS HOLDING VAST GENETIC RESOURCES, PREDOMESTICATES, AGRO-PASTURAL WOODLANDS AND GRASSLANDS WHICH ARE MODIFIED OR CO-EVOLVED WITH MAN’S DETERMINISM AND ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSES. THESE WARM SPOT AREAS ARE IN OR ADJACENT TO THE CRADLES OF HUMAN CIVILISATIONS.

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20 SEARCHABLE DATA BASES BIODIVERSITY IS A DEAD CAPITAL UNLESS IT IS SUSTAINABLY UTILISED. DATA GATHERING IS TO BE FOCUSSED FOR A SPECIFIC ACTIVITY OR FOCUSED GROUP, OR TARGETED TAXA. THERE SHOULD BE STANDARDISATION AND UNIFORMITY. DATA ARE TO BE COMPUTER COMPATIBLE FORMAT.

21 CHECK LIST FOR SPECIES OR FOCAL TAXA
LOCAL NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME PERSON GIVING INFORMATION LITERATURE REFERENCES LOCAL NAMES OF VARIETIES OF DOMESTICATED PLANTS AND ANIMALS. TAXONOMIC SPECIES GROUPS LANGUAGES USED LOCAL VALUE MAJOR USES AND MAJOR DISUSES

22 FOCAL TAXA STATUS AND MANAGEMENT
LOCAL NAME OF SPECIES OR SPECIES GROUPS. HABITAT CURRENT LEVELS OF ABUNDANCE (ABSENT; RARE; MODERATELY COMMON;ABUDANT) TRENDS AND REASONS BEHIND . TRENDS IN ABUNDANCE OR RARITY DURING LAST TEN YEARS: (Substantial increase; moderate increase; Little or no change; moderate decrease; substantial decrease) Immediate reason or motivation. Change in goods and services.

23 Essentials of data base for Medicinal plants: I
Screening and collation of data for secondary metabolites: Indole alkaloids (Apocynaceae, Loganiaceae, Rubiaceae) Tropane alkaloids ( Solanaceae; Convolvulaceae) Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids ( Ranales or Magnolidae) Aporhine, Morhine (Beriberidaceae. Papaveraceae, Menispermaceae, Magnoliaceae) Polyacetylenes ( Asteraceae, Apiaceae) Terpenes ( Asteraceae, Apiaceae) Limonoids and Qassinoids ( Rutaceae, Meliaceae and Simaroubaceae)

24 ESSENTIALS OF DATA BASE FOR MEDICINAL PLANTS:
GLUCOSINOLATES OR MUSTARD OIL GLUCOSIDES ( BRASSICACEAE, CAPPARACEAE, MORINGACEAE) CYANOGENIC GLYCOSIDES (ROSACEAE, FABACEAE AND SAPINDACEAE0 TERPENES ( ESSENTIAL OILS) STEROIDS (CARDIAC STEROIDS) FLAVONOIDS.

25 DATA BASES FLORA AND FAUNA MONOGRAPHS REVISIONS
INDICES AND BIBLIOGRAPHIES HERBARIA AND MUSEUM

26 TYPES OF DATA BASES ON LINE IDENTIFICATIONS INTERACTIVE KEYS
ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES INFORMATION NETWORK (ERIN) INTERNATIONAL LEGUME DATA BASE INFORMATION SERVICE (ILDIS) NATURE PRODUCT ALERT (NAPRALERT)

27 GENOMIC DATA AND SEQUENCES
AMINO ACID SEQUENCES NUCLIOTIDE SEQUENCES GENE LINKED CHARACTERISATIONS

28 PACKING OF CHARACTERS IN GENOMES
A BACTERIAL CELL OF ONE MICROMETRE (1um, one millionth of a metre) PACKS ITS DNA MOLECULE ONE THOUSAND TIMES LONGER THAN ITS SIZE. In Human beings chromsomes(46 chromosomes in a human cell) total length in a cell if arranged end to end is about O.3 mm. long) and the total DNA it contains, if arranged end to end would be about 2 metres in length.) . The packing is of the order of 10,000 times. ) Hence of characters in a data assembly is unimaginably large.


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