Presentation on theme: "4- Home in Diverse Natural Environments. - A Traditional House on the Balearic Islands. - A traditional House in Scotland. - The Climates in the Tropics."— Presentation transcript:
4- Home in Diverse Natural Environments. - A Traditional House on the Balearic Islands. - A traditional House in Scotland. - The Climates in the Tropics. - The Rainforest. Building in the Humid Tropics. - The Desert and the Savannah. - Building in Dry and Hot Regions. - Altitude; Another Climatic Factor. - Evaluation: Dwellings and Cities in Different Environments. - Clues for a Comfortable Dwelling. - R egions and Buildings. - Project Work. - Climate Change and Global Warming. - Research paper: A World Full of Architectonic Treasures. Anselm Pagès Muñoz
Morocco Vietnam Regions and Buildings. IcelandCatalonia Identify the characteristics of a traditional house in a geographical region A B C D
1- The functional and residential requirements of a house are first of all determined by ________________________. accessibility to water and food good orientation The roofs Windows and wall openingsWalls 2- Giving a _______________________ to a building can help to control the effects of sun, wind and rainfall. 5- _______________________can be made of different materials and thicknesses. 4- ____________________________let natural light into the house, but they do not help to retain heat inside the house. 3- ______________________ should have different inclinations if they are in dry or rainy regions Clues for a Comfortable House. The comfort of dwellings depend on their location and on their construction.
A Traditional House on the Balearic Islands. Complete the text using: In the Southern Mediterranean countries, houses have ___________ and white washed walls. The ______________ explain the need to include water pipes that collect the water in tanks. This has proved to be essential during ___________ Summer months. The inclusion of thick walls and porches preserves the house from the _______________and at the same time helps ventilation at night. relatively flat roofs poor rainfall the dry and hot fierce sunlight WATER TANK Drawing: Revista Descobrir 1998
A Traditional House in Scotland. Complete the text using these expressions: In this Northern European country, there are frequent rains and low temperatures. Scotish houses used to have low ceilings with __________ and _________ walls so as to preserve the __________. Thatch is an ideal roofing material; __________ in Summer and _________ in Winter. thatch chimney warmthatched roofscoolheatthick Central fire
The Climates in the Tropics. The environment conditions in the tropics fall into 2 broad categories that can be in sharp contrast; the impenetrable rainforest versus the openness of the savannah. The tropic Cancer The sun is directly overhead on the 22 June. The tropic Capricorn The sun is directly overhead on the 23 December. The Equator
Complete using these words : The warm, humid regions and tropical rainforests, monsoon regions and humid savannahs are ________________. The rainforest is hot and humid with __________ yearly differences. The regions in the Southern hemisphere have _________ days of the year. These conditions make life for people difficult to tolerate. The vegetation is impenetrable with wet ground, men need to clear the forest so as to build their settlements. The traditional materials for building in these regions are timber, ___________ and grass or palm fibres. The Rainforest. stormson the Equatorbamboolittle
Building in the Humid Tropics. Lake Inde. Myanmar A home in the humid tropics must be protected from heat, strong solar radiation, high levels of humidity, torrential rainfall and floods. Houses are mostly made of ____, bamboo and palm tree. These materials are collected and treated in the same location or nearby. Traditional buildings are open and have well ventilated spaces to favour dryness. They have a_______ made of leaves and fibres and ____________Their main floor is elevated so as to avoid humidity. Villages and homes can be built in any clearing of the woodland or even on ____________ following a scattered pattern thin walls roof wood marshlands
Complete using these words : The savannah regions have two seasons. The climate can be either hot and dry or warm and humid. These seasons vary from the Northern to the Southern hemisphere. Deserts, semi-deserts, steppes and dry savannahs are close _________________________. These regions are characterized by high pressure level, strong solar radiation, dryness, low precipitation, strong winds that cause sand storms and ___________ temperature differences between night and day. The fertile ground is scarce and there is practically no vegetation; mainly high grass and _________________________ with individual trees. _________________ are traditional building materials. They have good thermal insolating qualities. Timber is not easily available and must often be transported from other regions. The Desert and the Savannah. to the two tropicsClay and stonelow thorny woodsextreme
Towns and villages in dry savannahs favour building in (1)_______________________ that are sometimes erected in huge open territories. High temperatures and wind storms need to be countered with thick walls and (2)___________ streets so as to avoid sun exposure and high dryness. Roofs are almost (3) __________ and often have means to collect rain water in tanks below. (4)_____________________________ provide proper insulation in lands where (5)______________________________can change dramatically from day to night. Homes tend to be located in the most fertile lands to preserve (6)________________________________. Building in Dry and Hot Regions. Complete the text with these expressions: clusters and complex villages Clay and stone narrow flattemperatures crops Picture source Sana. Yemen
Altitude: Another Climatic Factor. Despite having a similar proximity to the Tropic, some regions share very diverse climates in relatively small areas. Peru has regions that provide us with an example of this dramatic climate diversity: Look at the pictures and decide where they belong to. A- Next to the ocean coast the climate is temperate with very scarce rains. B- As we climb up the Andes and cross mountain passes over 4000 metres high, the rains are more frequent and it is colder. C- Once we have crossed the Andes and the high plateau, we descend into the hot and rainy Amazon rainforest. a b c 1 2 3
DVD. An Inconvenient Truth. By Al Gore. What consequences can this phenomenon cause? 1- The Arctic Ocean could be ice free in summer by Global sea levels could rise by more than 20 feet with the loss of shelf ice in Greenland and Antarctica, devastating coastal areas worldwide. 2- The number of Category 4 and 5 hurricanes has almost doubled in the last 30 years. Heat waves will be more frequent and more intense. Droughts and wildfires will occur more often. Malaria has spread to higher altitudes in places like the Colombian Andes, 7,000 feet above sea level. What is the main cause of Global Warming? Global warming comes as a result of the rapid increase of CO2 in the atmosphere. ACTIVITY: As a result of global warming, traditional constructions in ordinary locations may no longer be suitable. a- Decide a city where you would build a durable house. Locate it in a map. b- What will it be like? Materials, structure, appearance c- What sources of energy will it use? Climate Change and Global Warming. Can you name one of the most recent climate disasters? Torrential rains in China, hurricanes in Japan and in the Caribbean (Katrina. New Orleans)
1- Flat roofs and adobe walls. 2- Thatched roofs with palm leaves and bamboo. 3– Wooden floors and walls with slate roofs. 4- Stone walls and tile roofs with wall openings. A C B D Constructions in Different Environments.
Environments for Different Constructions. 1– Hot, dry, desert area with very scarce rains and extreme temperature changes. 2– Temperate area with some rains in the Spring and Autumn. 3- Cold region with frequent rains and snow. 4- Hot and rainy region with slight temperature differences throughout the year. A B D C
Regions and Cities. A- In a hot, deserted or semi deserted region. B- In a temperate climate region. C- In a cold region. 1 23
Research paper: A World Full of Architectonic Treasures. Find out about these exceptional villages. Some of them have heritage awards from the United Nations. Antigua. Patan. Vigan. Lunenburg. Safranbolu. Vlkolinec. Lamu. Essauira. Bam.
Project work: Get the picture of a favourite building and tell us about its different environmental characteristics. - Where is it? - What is the climate like? - Are there big differences throughout the year? - What kind of roofs does it have? Pitched roofs? Flat roofs? - What insulating materials are there on the roofs and façades? - Are they suitable for the location? - In what direction is it oriented? North, Northwest? … - Is there a reason that explains this orientation? The urban plan, the sun orientation, (…) - Is it easy to distinguish in its location? …………………….. - What colour is it? …………………………. - Are there any other houses like this one nearby; in your town, region, country? - Has it got common shapes and decorative motifs from the region? - Is it protected in any way from sun, wind or rain? - Is it environmentally well adapted to the climate? - Have any modern devices been incorporated into the building to protect it from noise or cold temperatures?
Project Work 2: What are the environmental characteristics of your town or city? Take photos, bring a map and locate it in its region. Use the following ideas to prepare a power-point presentation. How big is your city? What is city’s surrounding like? Is it by the sea? Are there mountains around? Has the city a river or a lake? Does it follow a concentrated or a scattered model of growth? What is the average height of the buildings? Has the city a historical area? What are the main districts and activities? Is there a commercial area? A leisure centre? An industrial area? Is it mainly an old or a new city? Are the old houses well preserved? Are there any high-rises? Are the streets straight or curved? Are there gardens and parks? What is its environment like; urban or rural? Are there many trees? Are they of various kinds? Are there any public transport facilities? What are the particular characteristics of the area where your house is located?