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Aslib, IAALD, Intute, IUFRO Conference Frontiers in Information Provision for the Bio- and Environmental Sciences (FIBS) London 25 January 2007.

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Presentation on theme: "Aslib, IAALD, Intute, IUFRO Conference Frontiers in Information Provision for the Bio- and Environmental Sciences (FIBS) London 25 January 2007."— Presentation transcript:

1 Aslib, IAALD, Intute, IUFRO Conference Frontiers in Information Provision for the Bio- and Environmental Sciences (FIBS) London 25 January 2007

2 Developing an evidence-based approach for forestry Professor Jeffery Burley Director-Emeritus, Oxford Forestry Institute Past-President, IUFRO Development Fellow, Green College and Mrs Gillian Petrokofsky Doctoral Candidate Department of Plant Sciences Oxford University

3 Overview 1.Forest types, locations and changes 2.Concepts of sustainable forestry and benefits 3.Current issues and future challenges 4.Information generation and utilization 5.Evidence-based policy 6.Systematic reviews to improve quality of forestry evidence base

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5 SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT The integration of three spheres of resource use* Environmental Economic Social Goals - genetic diversity - environmental resilience - biological productivity (A) Goals - increase satisfaction of basic needs - maximum financial returns (C) Goals - cultural diversity (G) - social justice participation - international stability - enhance equity (D) (F) (B) S.D. (E) (A) Traditional conservation (B) Environmental economics (C) Traditional development (D) Public forestry (E) Sustainable development (F) Marxist economics (G) Traditional welfare aid Modified from Hall, J.E. (1992) Doctoral thesis, Oxford Forestry Institute. *Adapted from Barbier (1987)

6 Sustainable forest management Sustainable management means the stewardship and use of forest land in a way, and at a rate, that maintains their biodiversity, productivity, regeneration capacity, vitality and their potential to fulfil now, and in the future, relevant ecological, economic and social functions at local, national, and global levels; and that does not cause damage to other ecosystems. Inter-Ministerial Conference on European Forests, Helsinki, 1993

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9 ATLANTIC FOREST LOSS, BRAZIL, 1945-1990 Source: WWF, NYBG, WCMC

10 Global forest areas Global land area13 billion ha Global forest area3952 million ha –Africa, Asia, S & Central America52% –Europe, N. America, Oceania48% –Primary forest36% –Modified natural & semi-natural60% –Plantations 4% source: Forest Resources Assessment, 2005

11 Forests are managed for a multitude of uses and values Forest Resources Assessment 2005

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19 Environmental challenges Natural environment – climate, diseases Man-made environment – pollution Managerial environment – additives, technologies Technological environment - processing and uses (environmentally friendly; diversity; small sizes; new products; market preferences) Socio-cultural-political environment

20 Forestry issues in the third millennium –Biodiversity conservation; indigenous species –Environmental quality and changes –Carbon sequestration/trading –Renewable energy –Deforestation - desertification and flooding –Commoditization, trade, incentives, corruption, conflict –Food security, poverty alleviation and human health –Policy reform, professional status and public/political support; internationalization of forests

21 Research problems in developing countries Researchers often work in isolation (geographically & socially) or in small groups. Lack of access to resources - skills - manpower - research facilities - finance - current information - opportunities for international collaboration - channels through which to disseminate results Lack of recognition between policy makers and scientists

22 Examples of types of collaboration International political, economic and technical organizations, e.g. NAFTA, EEC,WTA,FAO, UNFF Trade federations, e.g. TTF Joint forest management, e.g. India Co-operative research centres, e.g. ENSIS International research centres, e.g. CIFOR Research networks, e.g. APAFRI, IUFRO Forest education

23 Sources of forestry information Primary data Research Journals Books Working papers, reports, etc. Bibliographic databases Subject gateways, portals – Intute, GFIS Institutions, societies - IUFRO

24 Growth in forestry research source: CAB International 2005

25 Plethora of journal papers Forest Ecology & Management (471) Canadian J. Forest Research (243) Forest Products Journal (163) Acta Ecologica Sinica (126) Forestry Chronicle (119) International Geoscience & Remote Sensing Symposium IGARSS (111) Biological Conservation (102) USDA Forest Service General Technical Report PNW (97) Chinese J. Applied Ecology (92) Journal of Forestry (82) Biodiversity and Conservation (78) Trees Structure and Function (77) Biogeosciences Discussions (75) Ecology (73) Remote Sensing of Environment (71) Agricultural & Forest Meteorology (69) Journal of Tropical Ecology (68) Journal of Forest Research (66) Ecological Applications (66) Biotropica (66) Proceedings of SPIE the International Society for Optical Engineering (65) Chinese Journal of Ecology (65) PPI this Week (64) Journal of Forest Science (62) Conservation Biology (61) Forest Science lists ca. 4700 titles abstracted Scopus lists 133 journals publishing >20 papers in 2005 Journals with high numbers of papers on ‘forestry’

26 Bibliographic databases

27 Brief history of Forestry Bureau Established in 1938 – part of Imperial Agricultural Bureaux (1927) Took over work of Documentation Section of Imperial Forestry Institute in Oxford (later CFI then OFI) Professor Schlich (School of Forestry 1905) Current Monthly Record of forestry literature (1936-39) became Forestry Abstracts (June1939) Launched with plea that “any shortcomings in it will be leniently regarded…in view of its preparation in circumstances of some difficulty”

28 Work of Bureau Literature from Oxford Forestry Institute Literature received directly by Bureau Literature abstracted at other libraries (in Oxford or elsewhere in UK) In 1980/81 the CFI library received – 2376 periodical issues –1992 ‘bulletins’, –286 annual reports, –193 books, 10 maps 380 periodical titles (12% increase on 1977/78)

29 What is evidence-based forestry? Best research evidence Stakeholder acceptability (practical values, circumstances) Professional expertise

30 Evidence based policy Review existing research Commission new research Consult ‘experts’….stakeholders Consider a wide range of properly costed and appraised options

31 Evidence based policy quality of informationquality of utilizationgoodpoor

32 ‘ 4S’ levels of research evidence Haynes, R.B. Evidence Based Mental Health 2001

33 Steps to practise EBF 1.convert need for information into an answerable question 2.track down best evidence with which to answer question 3.systematically appraise that evidence for validity (closeness to truth), impact (size of effect) and applicability (usefulness to current purpose) 4.integrate systematic appraisal with professional expertise and with practical values and circumstances defined 5.evaluate effectiveness and efficiency in executing steps 1-4 and improve them (feedback loop)

34 Development of the Field of Systematic Reviewing 1980 2000C2 1988CSLP1993C1EPPI 1994CRD1995JBI 1999CERM 2002WWC 2006 1987SCTA Outside US: (Sweden, CA, UK, AU) 1 Inside US BVP(US) 1 Not shown are organizations that will be included in round 2 of data collection: CDC GAO, Policy Hub, UK Home Office, DE&S, SSIE, and NICE.

35 Cochrane Collaboration founded in 1993 and named for the British epidemiologist, Archie Cochrane international non-profit and independent dedicated to making readily available, worldwide, up-to-date, accurate information about the effects of healthcare Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews promotes the search for evidence in the form of clinical trials and other studies of interventions Sir Iain Chalmers

36 Centre for Evidence-Based Conservation established in the UK in 2003 support decision making in conservation and environmental management through the production and dissemination of systematic reviews on the effectiveness of management and policy interventions support from a wide range of organizations in the environmental and academic sectors undertakes systematic reviews website acts as the primary gateway to reliable information on effectiveness based on the best available scientific evidence

37 Systematic reviews Development of a protocol in collaboration with stakeholders Development of appropriate searching strategy Develop and apply critical appraisal tools –internal validity –bias associated with experimental or monitoring designs Data synthesis –qualitative syntheses –multivariate quantitative approaches –meta-analysis –publication bias

38 Systematic reviews Are Japanese Knotweed (Fallopia japonica) Control and Eradication Interventions Effective? Do Hedgerow Corridors Increase the Population Viability of Woodland Species? Acupuncture for Parkinson's Disease Vaccines for measles, mumps and rubella in children

39 Conclusions Multiple benefits of forests Prioritize issues and associated research and policy needs using information better Need increased collaboration among disciplines and stakeholders Cooperation between developing and developed countries mutually beneficial Need targetted financial and political support on the basis of sound evidence


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