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MANAGING WATER QUALITY OF S.W. EUROPEAN MARINE SITES (SEPT 03) Monitoring and modelling nutrients in catchments PERC M Y H T U O L P F O U N I V Y E T.

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Presentation on theme: "MANAGING WATER QUALITY OF S.W. EUROPEAN MARINE SITES (SEPT 03) Monitoring and modelling nutrients in catchments PERC M Y H T U O L P F O U N I V Y E T."— Presentation transcript:

1 MANAGING WATER QUALITY OF S.W. EUROPEAN MARINE SITES (SEPT 03) Monitoring and modelling nutrients in catchments PERC M Y H T U O L P F O U N I V Y E T I S R Prof Paul Worsfold Biogeochemistry & Environmental Analytical Chemistry Group Plymouth Environmental Research Centre University of Plymouth, UK

2 Environmental monitoring Objective: Provide high quality analytical data to: Elucidate environmental processes and biogeochemical cycles Elucidate environmental processes and biogeochemical cycles Monitor compliance with legislation, e.g. WFD Monitor compliance with legislation, e.g. WFD Archive data and provide baseline surveys e.g. EIA Archive data and provide baseline surveys e.g. EIA Study chemical fluxes, pathways and fates Study chemical fluxes, pathways and fates BUT sampling is expensive and time consuming BUT sampling is expensive and time consuming AND sample integrity may be lost AND sample integrity may be lost THEREFORE we need in situ monitoring

3 In situ environmental monitoring Provides high quality data with excellent temporal and spatial resolution for process studies, catchment management and mapping but requires: Provides high quality data with excellent temporal and spatial resolution for process studies, catchment management and mapping but requires: Rugged, portable, automated instrumentation Rugged, portable, automated instrumentation Contamination free environment Contamination free environment – Reagents, containers, sampling apparatus, ship Sensitive and selective detection Sensitive and selective detection Removal of matrix interferences e.g. sea salts Removal of matrix interferences e.g. sea salts Stability (reagents, standards, pumps, detector,) Stability (reagents, standards, pumps, detector,) Filtration and prevention of biofouling Filtration and prevention of biofouling Regular on-site calibration, maintenance & communication Regular on-site calibration, maintenance & communication THEREFORE WE NEED FLOW INJECTION ANALYSIS

4 Temporal changes in river TP load TP kgP/day Dec-94 Feb-95 Apr-95 Jun-95 Aug-95 Oct-95 Dec-95 Feb-96 Apr-96 Jun-96 Aug-96 Oct-96 Dec-96 Feb-97 Apr-97 Jun-97 Aug-97 Oct-97 Dec-97 Lough Conn, Ireland ( ) Periodic sampling ok for estimating annual loads. However 90% of flow occurs in 10% of time. Short term event driven pulses. Diurnal cycles Therefore need frequent analysis during these events to predict daily/monthly loads and study in-stream processes

5 Storage effects for R. Frome P Day PO 4 -P (uM) Day PO 4 -P (uM) Day PO 4 -P (uM) Day PO 4 -P (uM) Day PO 4 -P (uM) Day PO 4 -P (uM) Fridge Control Fridge Chloroform Freezer Chloroform FridgeFreezer Deep Freezer Water Research 35 (2001) 3670

6 Submersible Nitrate Manifold Ammonium chloride (10 g l -1 ) Mixed colour reagent Flow cell 1 m reaction coil ml min Packed reduction column 260 ul sample injected via 5 um filter 20 mm path: LOD 2.8 ug L -1 N Linear range mm path: LOD 85 ug L -1 N Linear range ACA 361 (1998) 63 TIME (s) RESPONSE

7 Submersible Monitor Specifications Tidal cycle (13 h), diurnal cycle (24 h) and transect deployment with high frequency Tidal cycle (13 h), diurnal cycle (24 h) and transect deployment with high frequency Submersible to 50 m (mixed layer) Submersible to 50 m (mixed layer) Multiparameter e.g. nitrate & phosphate Multiparameter e.g. nitrate & phosphate Detection limit 0.1  M N (oligotrophic waters) Detection limit 0.1  M N (oligotrophic waters) Rugged (protected cage), compact and light Rugged (protected cage), compact and light Variable operational modes e.g. event triggered Variable operational modes e.g. event triggered Communication with base station Communication with base station On-board filtration & calibration On-board filtration & calibration

8 Submersible deployment Paulo Gardolinski Feb 2001 Protective cage and reagents Pressure housing FI manifold

9 ug L -1 Nitrate Dogger Bank The Wash Humber Estuary England North Sea North Sea surface nitrate mapping Talanta 58 (2002) 1015

10 Integrated Chemical/Biological Monitor Physical probes logger Ammonia CAPMON Computer Landfill leachate from Chelson Meadow waste treatment facility Pump Overflow Holding tank Test organisms - crayfish ( Pacifastacus leniusculus ) Sample

11 Ammonia (mg l -1 ) Maximum Heart rate (bpm) of P. Leniusculus (n=12) Control Relation between ammonia and heart rate Ecotoxicology 8 (1999) 225

12 High temporal resolution P monitoring Talanta 58 (2002) 1043

13 Historical Tamar data week W51W46W41W36W31W26W21W16W11W06W01 PHO (mg/L) week W51W46W41W36W31W26W21W16W11W06W01 TEM (C) c week W51W46W41W36W31W26W21W16W11W06W01 CHL (microg/L) week W51W46W41W36W31W26W21W16W11W06W01 SS (mg/L) i N = W52 W49 W46 W43 W40 W37 W34 W31 W28 W25 W22 W19 W16 W13 W10 W07 W04 W g week W51W46W41W36W31W26W21W16W11W06W01 FLW (m3/S) week W51W46W41W36W31W26W21W16W11W06W01 RAI (mm/day) week W51W46W41W36W31W26W21W16W11W06W01 NIT (mg/L) ab d N = W52 W49 W46 W43 W40 W37 W34 W31 W28 W25 W22 W19 W16 W13 W10 W07 W04 W e f h Rainfall Flow Temperature Phosphate Nitrate Suspended solids Chlorophyll

14 Modelled Tamar data Nitrate + nitritePhosphate

15 Export Coefficients for ITE Land Cover Types ITE grid code Landcover type% catchment area Export coeff. (kg ha -1 y -1 ) kg P y 1Sea / Estuary Inland water Beach and Coastal bare Saltmarsh Grass heath Mown / Grazed turf Meadow/Verge/Semi-natural Rough / Marsh grass Bracken Dense shrub heath Scrub / Orchard Deciduous woodland Coniferous woodland Tilled land Suburban / Rural dev Continuous urban Inland bare ground Lowland bog Open shrub heath Unclassified Total10014,085

16 Export Coefficients for Animal Waste and Population Equivalents Nutrient sourceExport coefficientskg P y Animals: Horses2.85 % 27 Cattle2.85 %330 Pigs2.55 %713 Sheep3.00 %250 Humans: Sewage systems0.38 kg P capita8,869 Septic systems0.24 kg P capita y y 1,331 Total 10,200 Total1,320 Total export modeled 25,605

17 GIS of Frome catchment land use Modelled export (1998) 25,605 kg y -1 P Observed export (1998) 23,400 kg y -1 P GIS plot prepared by Grady Hanrahan & Gordon Irons J. Env. Qual. 30 (2001) 1738

18 Phosphorus reduction scenarios for STWs within the Frome catchment Implementation of phosphorus removal technology (Urban Wastewater Directive) All data in kg P y -1 DorchesterAll STWsTotal Original Treatment at Dorchester STW Treatment at all STWs

19 Organic P release from sediment Ian McKelvie & Paulo Gardolinski

20 Nutrient monitoring & modelling Reliable field instrumentation for in situ monitoring and ground truthing models High temporal resolution for studying in stream processes (diurnal, storm event) High spatial monitoring for global mapping Integration with ecotoxicological monitoring PLS models of large historical data sets Empirical models based on export coefficients Respond to policy drivers e.g. Water Framework Directive


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