Presentation on theme: "MAP AND COMPASS Learning the Basics"— Presentation transcript:
1 MAP AND COMPASS Learning the Basics Why would the Boy Scouts teach the use of map and compass?The use of a compass is an outdoor skill that helps to:build accuratenessinstill personal securityit makes one self-reliant and confident in the outdoors.
2 Why Would the Boy Scouts Teach the Use of Map and Compass? Builds Patience and AccuratenessInstills Personal SecurityIt makes one self-reliant and confident in the outdoors.
3 TYPES OF COMPASSES FIXED DIAL and DIGITAL GOOD FOR ZIPPER PULLS. NOT FOR SCOUTING – Not in the Scouts Handbook.
4 TYPES OF COMPASSES LENSMATIC, ENGINEERING or MILITARY STYLE. TOO SOPHISTICATED. Save it for High Adventure Scouting.
5 TYPES OF COMPASSES ORIENTEERING STYLE - IS JUST RIGHT! Orienteering style compass was invented in 1933.
6 Direction of Travel Arrow Orienting Arrow and fluorescent dots MAP AND COMPASSDirection of Travel ArrowMagnifying GlassDial or Graduation ringBearingIndexCompass needle – Red points NorthIn the early 1940’s, world famous orienteer Björn Kjellström, founder of Silva, Inc. in North America, worked with the Boy Scouts of America, as well as a variety of orienteering clubs to promote map and compass use in overnight backpacking, dayhiking, hunting and orienteering.Tungsten Steel needle with friction free sapphire jeweled bearing.Liquid filled capsule, with permanently clear anti-static liquid dampening, stops the needle in less that 4 seconds.Ultrasonically welded, waterproof. Ergonomic and comfortable, hand contoured base plate is distortion-free so you see map details clearly.Red orienting arrow for a “Red to North Red” needle match quickly gives the right direction.USGS map scale.Non-radioactive luminous points.Direction of travel arrow.Magnifying lens for viewing map details.Declination correction scale.Rotating dial with Index Line sets the course.2° Graduations.Guaranteed to function accurately in temperatures from -40°F to +140°F.Orienting Arrow and fluorescent dotsNorth-south lines or orienting lines
7 HOW TO TAKE A BEARING Can anybody tell me what a bearing is? Now, can anybody tell me how many bearings are on a compass?NOTE: You will be off about 90 feet per mile for each degree you are off.
8 WHAT IS A MAP?A map is a picture of a piece of land as it would look from the air.
9 WHAT KINDS OF MAPS ARE THERE? Aerial Photo MapsRoad Maps and Street MapsQuick Maps that you draw yourselfA topographic map tells you where things are and how to get to them, whether you’re hiking, biking, hunting, fishing, or just interested in the world around you. These maps describe the shape of the land. They define and locate natural and man made features like woodlands, waterways, important buildings, and bridges. They show the distance from one point to another.DIRECTIONSNorth is toward the top of most maps. The bottom is south, the left side is west, and the right side is east. A map often will have a true-north arrow in its margin.DISTANCESBar scales can be used for measuring feet, meters, and miles on a map.SCALEThe scale of a map compares its size to the size of the area it represents. A map scale shown in the margin as 1:24,000 means one unit of distance on that map (an inch, for example) equals 24,000 like units of distance on the ground (24,000 inches in this example).DATEA map’s date tells when it was drawn or last revised. An older map will not show new buildings, roads, trails, or other changes on that land.
10 The most useful maps for hiking are called Topographic Maps. From the Greek word Topos (place) and Graphein (to draw)Topographic maps are also called “quadrangle” maps because they enclose a four-sided area.
11 What information can be learned from a map? Directions.The top of a map is always north, the bottom southDistance.The scale of the map will be printed on it.Determine the Lay of the Land.Map symbols describe terrain, man-made landmarks, and elevation.
12 ORIENTING THE MAP What does this mean? For a map to be useful, the map must correspond to the lay of the land and the user must have a knowledge of direction and how the map relates to the cardinal directions.USE CAMP WAUWEPEX MAP
13 How do you make a map make sense? If you flew over an area, you could look down and see roads, rivers, fields, forests, cities, and towns.On a map, many of those features are represented by symbols.
14 Symbols Symbols on Topographical maps are always the same. Early map makers (Cartographers) once used their own symbols.Sometimes they would try to disguise their symbols so that you needed to know the code to decipher them.
15 SymbolsToday, cartographers use standard symbols. So if you learn the symbols, you will be able to read and understand any map.The most useful feature on a map is the use of ________.Answer: ColorColor
16 Here are the colors on a map and what they represent! COMMON MAP SYMBOLSPrimary highwayOverpass - UnderpassSecondary highwayBuildingsLight-duty roadSchool -- churchWoodlandUnimproved roadTrailOrchardRailroad: single trackScrubTOPOGRAPHIC MAP SYMBOLS:GREEN – Forests, woodlands, orchards, and other areas of heavy vegetation.WHITE – Fields, meadows, rocky slopes, or other open country.BLUE – Water. Ponds, lakes, rivers. Marshes and swamps. Names of all water features are written in italic type.BLACK – anything that is man-made: rail lines, bridges, buildings, boundaries, names and roads.RED – Major highways or boundaries. Since highways are man-made, they will be red bordered by black lines.BROWN – Elevation and contour.Thick brown lines represent “index lines” which mark the distance above sea level. An index line marked 100 represents an elevation of 100 feet above sea level.Thin brown lines represent “intermediate contour lines”. They represent areas of equal elevation and define the shape of the elevation.Use knuckles as an illustration of contour lines.Railroad: double trackWell water – springBridgeRapidsTunnelMarch (swamp)FootbridgeFalls
18 MAP AND COMPASS Map Problem ANSWER4. At I. Because I is scrub woods. U is an orchardProblem5. Which trail would you take – J or K? Why?PROBLEM6. Which is the easier way to reach P – Trail L or M? Why?ANSWER6. The closer contour lines of M show a steeper climb.PROBLEM4. Where would you most likely find firewood – I or U? Why?ANSWER5. K. J goes through a swamp.PROBLEM3.Would you cross the river at G or H? Why?PROBLEM1. For local information or in case of emergency would you go to B, C, or D? Why?It’s July. Let’s suppose you’re starting a hike at A and heading for Q.ANSWER3. Use the footbridge at G. H is a railroad bridge.ANSWER1. C has telephone lines next to it. B is a school and probably closed in summer. D is a cemetery.PROBLEM2.The Wahootchee River flows NW to SE. To paddle downstream, would it be safer to launch canoes at E or F. Why?ANSWER2. Launch them at F. The map shows rapids between E and F.MAP PROBLEMFor local information or in case of emergency would you go to B, C, or D. Why? Ans: C. Telephone lines next to it. B is a school and probably closed in summer. D is a cemetery.The Wahootchee River flows NW to SE. To paddle downstream, would it be safer to launch canoes at E or F. Why? Answer: Launch them at F. The map shows rapids between E and F.Would you cross the river at G or H? Why? Answer: Use the footbridge at G. H is a railroad bridge.Where would you most likely find firewood – I or U? Why? Answer: At I. Because I is scrub woods. U is an orchard.Which Trail would you take – J or K? Why? Answer: K. J goes through a swamp.Which is the easier way to reach P – Trail L or M? Why? Answer: The closer contour lines of M show a steeper climb.
19 THE SILVA SYSTEM – Easy as 1-2-3 MAP AND COMPASSTHE SILVA SYSTEM – Easy as 1-2-3Point the base plate to your destinationPoint the base plate to your destination – Orient the map to north and place your compass on the map with the edge along the desired line of travel.
20 THE SILVA SYSTEM – Easy as 1-2-3 MAP AND COMPASSTHE SILVA SYSTEM – Easy as 1-2-3Set Compass HeadingSet Compass Heading -- Turn the compass Dial until “N” points to the North on your map. Your direction in degrees is read at the Index Line on the Dial.
21 THE SILVA SYSTEM – Easy as 1-2-3 MAP AND COMPASSTHE SILVA SYSTEM – Easy as 1-2-3Follow Your HeadingFollow Your Heading – Remove the compass from the map and hold it level, so the Magnetic Needle is free to turn.Turn your body until the red end of the Needle aligns with the Orienting Arrow and “N” on the Dial.Using the Direction of Travel Arrow, sight a distant landmark and move to it.Repeat this process until you reach your destination.
22 NOW GET OUT THERE AND START SLOWLY and remember… PATIENCE IS THE KEY!