Presentation on theme: " This is a presentation of the IL PBIS Network. All rights reserved. Session A12: Exploring Equity in PBIS Implementation Jennifer Rose, Ph.D., NCSP."— Presentation transcript:
This is a presentation of the IL PBIS Network. All rights reserved. Session A12: Exploring Equity in PBIS Implementation Jennifer Rose, Ph.D., NCSP Illinois PBIS Network Lori Casey, Associate Superintendent of Education Woodland School District 50 2013 National PBIS Leadership Forum October 10, 2013
Session Agenda Understand the link between integrating cultural relevance with School-wide PBIS (SWPBIS) and educational equity Review the CR-PBIS self-assessment tool Learn the significance of self-assessment during presentations by a school-based exemplar who has piloted the CR-PBIS tool
Disproportionality refers to the over or under representation of a group within a category Eighty-five percent of office discipline referrals (ODRs) are given to male students who are 50% of total enrollment (Overrepresentation) Males represent less than 30 % of elementary school teachers, yet are 50% of the U.S. population (Underrepresentation) Disproportionality defined
Disparate Discipline Rates Source: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Civil Rights. The Transformed Civil Rights Data Collection (2009-10)
Race and gender Source: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Civil Rights. The Transformed Civil Rights Data Collection (2009-10)
Use of suspensions/expulsions associated with future student misbehavior (Raffaele, Mendez, 2003; Tobin, Sugai, & Colvin, 1996) Loss of student exposure to instruction (Scott & Barrett, 2004) and related negative impact on educational progress (Rausch, Skiba, & Simmons, n.d.) Reduced administrative efficiency (Scott & Barrett, 2004) Link with ‘school-to-prison pipeline’ ( APA Zero Tolerance Task Force, 2008) Lower rates of academic achievement (Rausch et al., n.d.) Outcomes associated with exclusionary discipline & disproportionality
Effect of SWPBIS Source: Do elementary schools that document reductions in overall office discipline referrals document reductions across all student races and ethnicities? Vincent, C.G., Cartledge, G., May, S., & Tobin, T.J. (2009)
SWPBIS and disproportionality Source: Do elementary schools that document reductions in overall office discipline referrals document reductions across all student races and ethnicities? Vincent, C.G., Cartledge, G., May, S., & Tobin, T.J. (2009)
Disproportionality and SES “When the relationship of SES to disproportionality in discipline has been explored directly, race continues to make a significant contribution to disproportionate disciplinary outcomes independent of SES” Source: Skiba, R.J., Horner, R.H., Chung, C., Rausch, M.K., May, S.L., & Tobin, T. (2011)
Objective vs. subjective referral categories White students referred more for: Smoking Vandalism Leaving with out permission Obscene Language Black students referred more for: Disrespect Excessive Noise Threat Loitering Source: Center for Evaluation and Education Policy, Indiana University (2008)
Culture and disproportionality “Culture mediates school and mental health processes and outcomes…cultural competence is frequently recommended as a mechanism for bridging the cultural disconnect between teachers, other professionals, schools, students, and families and for reducing service disparities.” Source: Osher, D., Cartledge, G., Oswald, D., Sutherland, K.S., Artiles, A.J., & Coutinho, M. (2004)
Six defining features of SWPBIS Source: Sugai, G., Horner, R.H., Algozzine, R., Barrett, S., Lewis, T., Anderson, C.,…Simonsen, B. (2010).
Cultural responsiveness Cultural responsiveness recognizes the importance of culture and incorporates cultural elements (e.g., characteristics, experiences, and perspectives) from people who are different than oneself into interpersonal interactions to facilitate more effective relationships. Note: Adapted from “Preparing for Culturally Responsive Teaching,” by G. Gay, 2002, Journal of Teacher Education, 53(2), p.p. 106-116.
Characteristics of culturally responsive educators 1. Have awareness of how an individual’s cultural background may influence their instructional, or disciplinary practices. 2. Are knowledgeable of their students’ culture. 3. Utilize culturally diverse curriculum content. 4. Build learning communities that acknowledge student culture. 5. Are skilled cross-cultural communicators (e.g., verbal and non-verbal forms). 6. Can implement culturally diverse forms of instruction. Note: Adapted from “Preparing for Culturally Responsive Teaching,” by G. Gay, 2002, Journal of Teacher Education, 53(2), p.p. 106-116.
Components of CR-SWPBIS DATA Disaggregate data by student race/ethnicity Define the problem in objective, measurable terms PRACTICES Identify culturally relevant and validating interventions to help foster student success Include students and parents in defining what is appropriate and inappropriate behavior Acknowledge differences between school culture, home culture, youth culture SYSTEMS Share disaggregated data with staff Encourage staff to problem-solve together Provide professional development to help generate self-awareness, build knowledge of students’ cultures, and gain the skills to work effectively with students from different cultures OUTCOMES Define measurable outcomes
PRACTICES Supporting Staff Behavior Supporting Decision Making Supporting Student Behavior SYSTEMS DATA OUTCOMES Social Competence & Academic Achievement Cultural Equity Cultural Knowledge and Self- Awareness Cultural Validity Cultural Relevance and Validation Figure 1. Integrating Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support and culturally responsive practices. Vincent, C.G., Randall, C., Cartledge, G., Tobin, T.J., & Swain-Bradway, J. (2011). 17
CR-SWPBIS tool description The purpose of the CR-SWPBIS tool is to help ensure that SWPBIS practices and systems have equal impact for all students. The CR-SWPBIS tool is a self-assessment instrument that was developed based on the research of Sugai, O’Keeffe, and Fallon (2012). It is organized in three sections. The first two sections cover elements related to culturally responsive implementation of data, systems, and practices at tier 1 and tiers 2/3. A third section is allocated to developing an action plan. Respondents may select whether an element is ‘In place,’ ‘Partially in place,’ or ‘Not in place.’ A rubric is provided to guide the self-assessment process. Items identified as ‘Partially in place,’ or ‘Not in place’ may be used to develop an action plan. It is recommended that universal, secondary, and tertiary teams, and at least one building administrator complete the Culturally Responsive SWPBIS Team Self-Assessment tool. It may also be helpful to include an external PBIS coach for consultative purposes. This document is not intended for evaluation (e.g., SET), or for recognition purposes (e.g., PoI). Completion of this tool is optional. It is offered to provide guidance for schools currently engaged in exploring/practicing culturally responsive SWPBIS (CR-SWPBIS). The tool is offered free of cost at www.pbisillinois.org under ‘Equity’ resources located on the ‘Curriculum’ tab.www.pbisillinois.org
District 50 Board Information This following chart represents the percentages of students by ethnicity for FY11-FY12: This following chart represents the percentages of referrals by ethnicity for FY11- FY12:
School: Woodland Middle School Quarter:2nd GRADE LEVELGENDERETHNICITY Offense # of Students # of Referrals 678M Asian/Pacific Islander Black Non- Hispanic (BNH) Hispanic (HIS) Indian (IND) Multiracial (MLR) Native Hawaiian/ Pacific White (WNH) # Low SES Bullying- BUL 222002000100012 Dangerous Behavior- DAN 20 1127 814510097 Fighting-FIG 22 5710184058010816 Harassment-HAS 11 15510100600058 Inappr. Behavior-INB 23 8510176048120814 Insubordination/ Disrespect- MID 162127121650122000711 Intimidation- INT 000000000000000 Theft-THE 663215102400005 Threatening Behavior-THB 781346201400036 Unexcused Absences -UAD 110011000000010 Vandalism- VAN 661416000100052 Gross Disobedience- GD 000000000000000 Gangs 000000000000000 Prohibited Substances Under the Influence 000000000000000 Prohibited Substances Use and/or Possession 000000000000000 Prohibited Substances Sale or Distribution 000000000000000 Weapons - Look-Alike No Intent 000000000000000 Weapons - Knife/Other Weapon - No Intent 111001000100001 Weapons - Knife/Other Weapon - With Intent 000000000000000 TOTALS 1151212545519427128402304772
Mistakes we made…. Begin the hard discussions with universal team-anticipate questions with large group Delve into data not just surface data-black, socioeconomic, special ed, mobility Where does professional development fit in long term planning Meeting time and place based on what is best for staff not parents Student voice and leadership Stop the excuses
Presenters’ contact information Jennifer Rose: firstname.lastname@example.org@pbisillinois.org Lori Casey: email@example.com@dist50.net
References American Psychological Association, Zero Tolerance Task Force. (2008). Are zero tolerance policies effective in the schools? An evidentiary review and recommendations.. American Psychologist, 63(9), 852-862. DOI: 10.1037/0003-066X.63.9.852 Gay, G. (2001). Preparing for culturally responsive teaching. Journal of Teacher Education. 53(2), pp. 106-116. Osher, D., Cartledge, G., Oswald, D., Sutherland, K.S., Artiles, A.J., & Coutinho, M.(2004). Cultural and linguistic competence and disproportionate representation. In R.B. Rutherford Jr., & S.R. Mathur (Eds.), Handbook in Research of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, pp. 54-77. New York: Guilford Press. Raffaele Mendez, L.M. (2003). Predictors of suspension and negative school outcomes: A longitudinal investigation. New Directions for Youth Development, 99, 17-34. Retrieved from http://flagship.luc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=11773660&site=ehost-livehttp://flagship.luc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=11773660&site=ehost-live Rausch, M. K., Skiba, R. J. (n.d.) The academic cost of discipline: The relationship between suspension/expulsion and school achievement. Center for Evaluation and Education Policy Indiana University. Retrieved from http://www.agi.harvard.edu/Search/download.php?id=45.http://www.agi.harvard.edu/Search/download.php?id=45 Scott, T.M., & Barrett, S.B. (2004). Using staff and student time engaged in disciplinary procedures to evaluate the impact of school-wide PBS. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 6(1), 21-27.Retrieved from http://flagship.luc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=11655301&site=ehost-livehttp://flagship.luc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=11655301&site=ehost-live Skiba, R.J., Horner, R.H., Chung, C., Rausch, M.K., May, S.L., & Tobin, T. (2011). Race is not neutral: A national investigation of African American and Latino disproportionality in school discipline. School Psychology Review, 40(1), pp.85-107. Sugai, G., Horner, R.H., Algozzine, R., Barrett, S., Lewis, T., Anderson, C.,…Simonsen, B. (2010). School-wide positive behavior support: Implementers’ blueprint and self- assessment. Eugene, OR: University of Oregon. Tobin, T., Sugai, G., & Colvin, G. (1996). Patterns in middle school discipline records. Journal of Emotional & Behavioral Disorders, 4(2), 82-94. U.S. Department of Education, Office of Civil Rights. The Transformed Civil Rights Data Collection (2009-10). Retrieved from http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/docs/crdc-http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/docs/crdc- 2012-data-summary.pdf Vincent, C.G., Cartledge, G, May, S., & Tobin, T.J. (2009, October). Do elementary schools that document reductions in overall office discipline referrals document reductions across all student races and ethnicities? Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports Evaluation Brief retrieved from http://www.pbis.org/evaluation/evaluation_briefs/oct_09.aspx Vincent, C.G., Randall, Cartledge, G., Tobin, T.J., & Swain-Bradway, J. (2011). Toward a conceptual integration of cultural responsiveness and schoolwide positive behavior support. Journal of Positive Behavior Support, 13(4), 219-229.