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INTRODUCTION TO BAT IDENTIFICATION. South Yorkshire bats UK = 17 species South Yorkshire = 9-10 species  Small common bats of edge habitats  common.

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Presentation on theme: "INTRODUCTION TO BAT IDENTIFICATION. South Yorkshire bats UK = 17 species South Yorkshire = 9-10 species  Small common bats of edge habitats  common."— Presentation transcript:

1 INTRODUCTION TO BAT IDENTIFICATION

2 South Yorkshire bats UK = 17 species South Yorkshire = 9-10 species  Small common bats of edge habitats  common and soprano pipistrelles  Big bats of open habitats  noctule + Leisler’s bats  Woodland bats  brown long-eared bats, Natterer’s bats, whiskered bat, Brandt’s bat  Water bats  Daubenton’s bat Daubenton’s bat Brown long-eared bat Common pipistrelle Noctule

3 Basics of Bat Call ID  Often difficult to identify bats to species level using a bat detector  Best to record calls and identify them through examination of the sonogram and measurement of call parameters  Sonogram:  Time on x axis  frequency on y axis Taken from Russ (2012)

4  For HSM project will use call parameters provided in ‘British bat calls: a guide to species identification’ during manual call ID Basics of Bat Call ID

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7 Small common bats of edge habitats: common pipistrelle  Common pipistrelle  Common in urban areas  Generalist species  Lives in new and old houses  Common pipistrelles appear fast and jerky in flight and change direction frequently as they dodge pursuing small insects which are caught and eaten in flight  when a bat detector is tuned in to the peak frequency (deepest pitch) the calls sound "wet" and "slappy"  ‘Reversed hockey stick’ call with a peak frequency between 41-49kHz

8  Soprano pipistrelle  Associated with water  Lives in buidings and trees  Soprano pipistrelles appear fast and jerky in flight and change direction frequently as persue small insects which are caught and eaten in flight  when a bat detector is tuned in to the peak frequency (deepest pitch) the calls sound "wet" and "slappy"  ‘Reversed hockey stick’ call with a peak frequency between kHz Small common bats of edge habitats: soprano pipistrelle

9 Big bats of open habitats: noctule  Noctule  Largest British bat, emerges early  Can fly up to 50 km/h  Primarily tree rooster  Characteristic powerful, direct flight on narrow pointed wings  In open habitats produces a two part "chip-chop" call: the "chip" has a peak frequency of around 24 kHz, the "chop" has a peak frequency of around 19 kHz Leisler’s bat

10  Leisler’s bat  Very scattered distribution  Roosts in buildings and trees  Similar to noctule  With long narrow wings, in flight Leisler's bats look similar to noctules, but are slightly smaller  Like noctules usually fly high and fast in the open, with shallow dives (noctules tend to make steeper dives)  in fairly open habitats produces a two part "chip-chop" call: the chip has a peak frequency of around 27 kHz, the chop has a peak frequency of around 23 kHz Big bats of open habitats: Leisler’s bat

11 Woodland bats: brown long-eared bats  Brown long-eared bat  Known as the ‘whispering bat’  Roosts in trees and old buildings  Hunts partially through passive hearing  Lucky to hear on a bat detector despite being a common bat, need to be within about 5 m  Frequency modulated calls usually consisting of two harmonics. Peak frequency around 33 kHZ  Calls sound like a light purring

12  Natterer’s bat  Roosts in trees and old buildings  Feeds largely by gleaning  Emerges late  Normally fly at heights of less than 5 metres, but occasionally may reach 15 metres in the tree canopy  With all Myotis bats if you tune down to 35 kHz, below common pipistrelle peak frequecy get dry clicks  Quiet and quick, extremely broadband call on average kHz, though can range from kHz Woodland bats: Natterer’s bat

13  Whiskered and Brandt’s bat  Very similar species  Feed on rides and woodland edge  Brandt’s more associated with wet habitats  Whiskered bats have fast and fluttering flight, to a height of 6 metres, generally level with occasional swoops.  Frequently fly along a regular "beat" over or alongside a hedgerow or woodland edge (whereas Brandt's bats more often fly within woodland)  Produces typically frequency modulated pulses starting at around 85 kHz and ending around 32kHz, irregular pulses compared to Daubenton’s bat Woodland bats: whiskered and Brandt’s bat

14 Water bats  Daubenton’s bat  Hunts low over water and employs trawling to catch insects  Roosts in trees and bridges  Forms large summer roosts  Can be easily seen on River Don  Heard as a series of rapid clicks on detector  Pulses fast and regular  Produces frequency modulated sweeps starting around 85 kHz and ending at about 25kHz often with slight kinks or bend at 40kHz  Often ‘missing frequencies’ in calls emitted over water

15 Bats we may find in South Yorkshire  Nathusius’ pipistrelle  Associated with water  Migratory and bigger than common/soprano  Peak frequency between  Alcathoe bat  Similar to whiskered/Brandts  Associated with woodland and water  End frequency rarely drops below 40kHZ  Lesser horseshoe bat  Maybe not for several decades  Instantly recognisable from echolocation call

16 Any questions?


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