Presentation on theme: "Watson Brake and Poverty Point: Early Moundbuilding Cultures of Eastern North America Watson Brake, LA 4000 BC Poverty Point, LA 1700-1200 BC."— Presentation transcript:
1Watson Brake and Poverty Point: Early Moundbuilding Cultures of Eastern North America Watson Brake, LA4000 BCPoverty Point, LABC
2*Early Woodland (800-200 BC) – Adena Middle Woodland (200 BC – AD 400) - Hopewell
3heartland (epicenter) was in Ohio but extended over vast area Adena & Hopwellheartland (epicenter)was in Ohio butextended over vast areaof eastern NAAdena and Hopewellsocieties had broadtrade relations,Including:Copper (Great Lakes)Mica (S. Appalachians)Chert (Midwest)Obsidian (Wyoming)Shell (S. Atlantic &Gulf Coast)Followed by LateWoodland complexSocieties, notablyMississippian culturesafter AD 1000, a periodof rising chiefdoms
4House structure at Crigler Mound (Ohio Valley) Adena effigy pipeHouse structure at Crigler Mound (Ohio Valley)
8exotic materials, which are found in mounds but not settlements Middle Woodland (200 BC to AD 400), associated with the Hopewell complex,which was socially highly complex, based not only on complex mounds andenclosures (exclusive), elaborate burials, and finely crafted artifacts, often ofexotic materials, which are found in mounds but not settlementsHopewell (epicenter in Ohio), like Adena, had diverse mounds, includingcircles, squares, and other shapes, as well as fortress-like enclosures,but Hopewell times was marked byproliferation and elaboration of moundsGreat serpent mound,Ohio, 700 BC-AD 200
11Hopewell's special burial treatment with fine objects and mound structures,focused on adults and men, but includedwomen and childrenLow inter-group hostilities are suggestedduring the Hopewell era byrelatively few skeletal injuriesHopewell Mounds
12Animal effigy platform pipes Human skull rattlesAnimal effigy platform pipes
13During Late Woodland inter-group relations worsened, as reflected in Reduced long-distance trade, violent deaths, increased small arrowheads and in some areas iconographyLate Woodland Fort Ancient Culturein the Ohio Valley (AD )
14Mississippian cultures in Midwest & SE, after AD 1000, Late WoodlandMississippian culturesin Midwest & SE,after AD 1000,represent a periodof rising chiefdoms,the highest expressionof social complexity inNorth America
16CahokiaCahokia Mounds site occupied between AD 800 and The “Golden Age” occurred from AD 1000 and 1275, at which time the site had a population of 20,000 to 30,000 (estimates range from under 15,000 to over 40,000).Over 100 mounds, included platform (flat-topped) temple mounds, conical mounds, and ridgetop mounds, such as the mound 72, which contained spectacular remains associated with elite individuals
18Mound 72 held an important position by its orientation and alignment with various other mounds. Many of 272 burials in mound were sacrificial offerings and placed there as either extended or bundle burials. Two very high status burials in mound 72, the “beaded burials” are located in base of mound; one individual was buried under a layer of over 20,000 beads and one individual on top of the beads. These beads were laid out in a design of a bird similar to other Mississippian art work.
23Many of the most elaborate Mississippian artifacts, often dating from AD , are collectively called the Southern Cult or Southeastern ceremonial complex, which includes artifacts indicating an aggressive ideology and warrior iconography, including motifs such as weeping eyes, warriors, supernatural composites, and severed heads, as well axes, maces, and other weapons(again suggesting that inter-group relations involved more tension in Late Woodland than early Middle Woodland (Hopewell) times)
25Anasazi or “Ancestral Pueblo” Pueblo I AD 750 to 900Dispersed household settlement pattern in most areas, but in the San Juan River valley (SW Colorado & SE Utah) aggregates of multiple households herald the formation of relatively permanent villagesCotton was introduced (from the south), and cotton (loom-woven) blankets replaced fur and hide robesPotter's art greatly developed - after AD 800, regional variation in ceramic designs may signify the existence or increased importance of group boundariesPit houses, as dwellings, gradually replaced with aboveground houses made on stone mortared with mud &arranged in rowsPit houses evolved into special round subterranean ceremonial chambers (kivas)Pueblo II: ADThe Chaco PhenomenonGreat houses were constructed in San Juan valley, where large quantities of water and sediment were available for farmingPueblo Bonito major spiritual centerEmulation of great house architecture at numerous smaller outlying communities, who would journey to Chaco for major ceremonial eventsPueblo III - A.D to 1300Dramatic changes in architecture, including end of major building in Chaco CanyonPolitical and social influence shifted to areas north of ChacoPueblo IV - Post A.D. 1300Abandonment of Colorado Plateau, which many attribute to a severe drought ( ); many sites abandoned & many geographical regions saw an enormous loss of populationRemoval of some population to the Rio Grande Valley in central New Mexico as well as to the mesas of north central Arizona
32HohokamPre-classic and Classic Hohokam were pottery making farmers in the Sonoran Desert of south central Arizona and northern Mexico (AD ).Many small-clusters of houses but also large settlements that were well organized around plazas, ball courts and platform mounds, such as Casas Grandes.Classic period Hohokam platform mound settlements in the Phoenix, Tuscon, and Tonto area were organized in linear systems along major canals, were discrete political units, and were the site of increasingly centralized ritual and political eventsThe Hohokam people built the largest prehistoric canal system in North America. Their canal irrigation seems to be affected by the deepening and widening of the Gila River between AD , and may have led to salinization in fieldsMexico had a strong influence among the Hohokam in both trade and culture. For instance, rubber from the Mexican lowlands was used to make balls that were used on their elaborate ball courts, which also show Mesoamerican influence.