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Woodland Ecology. Definitions Habitat Habitat Microhabitat Microhabitat Ecosystem Ecosystem Niche Niche.

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Presentation on theme: "Woodland Ecology. Definitions Habitat Habitat Microhabitat Microhabitat Ecosystem Ecosystem Niche Niche."— Presentation transcript:

1 Woodland Ecology

2 Definitions Habitat Habitat Microhabitat Microhabitat Ecosystem Ecosystem Niche Niche

3 Food Chains and Webs A food chain shows how each living thing gets its food A food chain shows how each living thing gets its food Plants are PRODUCERS –use sunlight to produce food Plants are PRODUCERS –use sunlight to produce food Animals eat plants or other animals - CONSUMERS Animals eat plants or other animals - CONSUMERS Animals eating plants are HERBIVORES Animals eating plants are HERBIVORES Animals eating other animals are CARNIVORES Animals eating other animals are CARNIVORES

4 Carnivores that eat Herbivores are called SECONDARY CONSUMERS Carnivores that eat Herbivores are called SECONDARY CONSUMERS Carnivores eating other carnivores are TERTIARY CONSUMERS Carnivores eating other carnivores are TERTIARY CONSUMERS There are also DECOMPOSERS which feed on dead and decaying matter There are also DECOMPOSERS which feed on dead and decaying matter Interconnected food chains form a FOOD WEB Interconnected food chains form a FOOD WEB

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7 TROPHIC LEVELS In the chain energy is passed from one LEVEL to the next In the chain energy is passed from one LEVEL to the next Only a small amount of the energy that is received is passed on to next level Only a small amount of the energy that is received is passed on to next level

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9 PYRAMIDS Of numbers Of numbers Of biomass Of biomass

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11 A woodland chain hazel tree food for wood mouse food for tawny owl hazel tree food for wood mouse food for tawny owl and nuts and nuts Hazel trees grow well in open woodland and produce nuts. Hazel trees grow well in open woodland and produce nuts. Wood mice live on the woodland floor where they can find nuts that have fallen off the trees and where they can hide in the undergrowth from owls. Wood mice live on the woodland floor where they can find nuts that have fallen off the trees and where they can hide in the undergrowth from owls. Tawny owls have exceptionally good hearing that helps them to hear mice rustling in the undergrowth. Tawny owls have exceptionally good hearing that helps them to hear mice rustling in the undergrowth. Here are examples of other food chains: Here are examples of other food chains: Dead plants centipede robin Dead plants centipede robin Oak leaf caterpillar blue tit Oak leaf caterpillar blue tit

12 Woodland structure ‘Layers’ ‘Layers’ Ground Ground Field Field Shrub Shrub Canopy – upper, lower Canopy – upper, lower

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14 Examples of plants in each ‘layer’ manage/struct.htm manage/struct.htm manage/struct.htm manage/struct.htm

15 Colonisation Colonisation Succession Succession Catastrophic change Catastrophic change

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18 Veteran Trees - “Veteran Trees are trees which, because of their great age, size or condition are of exceptional value culturally, in the landscape or for wildlife” “Veteran Trees are trees which, because of their great age, size or condition are of exceptional value culturally, in the landscape or for wildlife” javascript:__doPostBack('ctl00$ContentPlace Holder1$rpFiles$ctl01$hlLink','') javascript:__doPostBack('ctl00$ContentPlace Holder1$rpFiles$ctl01$hlLink','')

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21 Plantations and man made forests

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23 Improving plantations Different silvicultural systems Different silvicultural systems Restructuring – diversify age structure Restructuring – diversify age structure Changing edge structure Changing edge structure More broadleaves More broadleaves Diversify species Diversify species Less chemicals Less chemicals Open ground, rides Open ground, rides Diversity of habitats. Diversity of habitats.

24 Thinning Thinning Use water, wetlands, rocks etc.. Riparian zones Use water, wetlands, rocks etc.. Riparian zones Reduce grazing Reduce grazing Management for particular species or habitats Management for particular species or habitats Integrated land use Integrated land use UKWAS UKWAS


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