Presentation on theme: "1 WOODLAND INVASIVE SPECIES CONTROL Developed by Kent Macy and Ellen Starr USDA-NRCS Biologists Spring of 2008."— Presentation transcript:
1 WOODLAND INVASIVE SPECIES CONTROL Developed by Kent Macy and Ellen Starr USDA-NRCS Biologists Spring of 2008
2 DEFINITIONS: The focus of this presentation will be on woodland invasive plant species. Native species: a species that historically occurred or currently occurs in a particular ecosystem (other than as a result of an introduction). Native species have adapted over thousands of years to their surrounding plant and animal communities and local climate and soil conditions. Invasive species are defined as non-native to the ecosystem under consideration and whose introduction causes or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm or harm to human health. Most woodland invasives are introduced from Asia or Europe.
3 Invasive Species IL Woodland Examples: –Garlic mustard in forested, herbaceous understories. –Honeysuckles in forested, shrub or vine understories. –Buckthorn in N. IL forested & wetland, shrub understories. –Autumn and Russian olive in forested, shrub understories. Maples can be considered invasive depending on the habitat type. Maples are usually referred to as the “Climax Community” of a forest by ecologists.
4 Garlic Mustard Photos courtesy of The Nature Conservancy and U. of Wisconsin Coarsely toothed, heart-shaped, alternately arranged leaves. When crushed, smells like garlic. 4-part, white flowers.
5 Garlic Mustard Edge habitat (doesn’t do well in deep shade – will quickly invade openings). Max. growth is with 50% light. Biennial herb. Flowers in late April – May. Seed bank takes 5 years to deplete. Production varies by site and year. Seeds spread by attaching to feet, tires, and by water, primarily. Likes nitrogen. Seedlings decline 30-50% from early to late spring. Stays green later in the fall, and greens up earlier than most natives. Not browsed by deer, or many other critters.
6 Control of Garlic Mustard Biological (in the future): –a root rot (Fusarium solani) and turnip or cucumber mosaic virus. 4 types of beetles. –Eat the stuff! High in vitamin A. Tastes like garlic. Mechanical –Pull before spring flowering (pulls easily if ground is soft). Be sure to get upper half of root. –Cut flower stalks low (ground level best). –Fires seem to have little effect positive or negative.
7 Control of Garlic Mustard (continued) Chemical –Glyphosate (apply ONLY during dormant season). Apply in early spring. –Basagran (NOT near trees) –Garlon/Pathfinder (needs applicator license) See http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/esadocs /documnts/allipet.rtf for more information http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/esadocs /documnts/allipet.rtf http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/esadocs /documnts/allipet.rtf
8 Bush Honeysuckles (Amur, Tatarian, and Morrow)
9 Bush Honeysuckles Shrubby, opposite leaf arrangement, simple entire margins, pointed leaves, red berries. Leaf out 2 weeks earlier and retain leaves longer in the fall than most other shrubs (incl. native honeysuckles). Prefers partial shade. Berries spread by birds and rodents.
10 Bush Honeysuckle Control Biological Control: –No effective ones known. An aphid causes witches’ brooming, which decreases flowering Mechanical Control: –Pulling is effective when ground is soft and plants are smaller. A weed wrench or root talon can help. (www.misterhoneysuckle.com) –Cutting or grubbing also effective if done yearly for 3 or more years. –Burning will knock them back, but must be done several years in a row or every other year for effective control. Fires need to be hot and repeated.
11 Bush Honeysuckle Control (cont.) Chemical: –Best results have been from cutting plants in the fall, then treating the stumps with Glyphosate 50% soln. or Garlon. –A “flush” of seedlings come up the year after treating the larger plants. Need to follow-up with a foliar spray treatment on the resprouts or seedlings. Foliar spray in fall after other plants have gone dormant.
12 Japanese Honeysuckle A vine with opposite, pointed leaves
13 Japanese Honeysuckle A vine - uppermost leaves are separate, not joined (perfoliate) like native honeysuckles. Berries are black, not red. Flowers late April – July Retains leaves throughout much of winter. Forest openings and edges. Spread by birds, primarily.
14 Japanese Honeysuckle Control Biological: Some potentials (aphids & viruses) in China and the Southern U.S. Mechanical: –Burning: Fall (October) burn had best results. Followup burn with glyphosate in spring. –Pulling: only effective on very small areas if roots AND shoots can be pulled & removed. –Mowing/Cutting: ineffective - cut material can take root!!
15 Japanese Honeysuckle Control (cont.) Chemical: –Best results appear to be glyphosate applied just after the first frost (before first hard frost). IDNR has had success with a 2% mist application.
17 Buckthorn (Common and European) Prefers woodland edges. Gets up to 20’ tall. European (glossy), prefers wetter areas. Any texture soils; slightly acidic to alkaline. Fruit spread by animals and water. Leafs out in late April, retains until late October. Flowers late May – June.
18 Buckthorn Control Biological: No known methods. Mechanical: –Cutting/Mowing: Basically just knocks it back. –Girdling: 3cm wide cut into phloem layer at base of tree works. No resprouts! –Pulling/Grubbing: shallow-rooted, may re- sprout, do follow-up chemical treatment. –Burning: lack of burnable material below heavy infestations limit use. If possible, burns in late April reduce vigor of buckthorn. May encourage resprouting/reseeding.
19 Buckthorn Control (cont.) Chemical: –Glyphosate: 50% solution on fresh-cut stumps in fall or winter 3% solution foliar spray in May (after leaf- out). –2,4-D ester w/diesel fuel: lower basal-bark application done first half of growing season works well.
21 Autumn and Russian Olive Simple, Elliptical, Entire margins, Alternate leaf arrangement. Fixes nitrogen – can grow on infertile sites. Tolerates light shade Breaks dormancy early April in N. IL. Seeds spread by birds – can produce seed within 3-5 years. Seeds can remain viable for 3 years.
22 Autumn and Russian Olive Control Biological: None known Mechanical: Not very effective – Autumn and Russian olive resprout readily after cutting (without chemical spray on stump) or burning. Even small plants are difficult to pull out of the ground.
23 Autumn and Russian Olive Control (cont.) Chemical: –Glyphosate applied on fresh cut stumps or girdles, especially late August - September. –Garlon basal-applied with diesel oil.
26 Multiflora Rose Control Mechanical Control: –pulling, grubbing- completely removing roots- ok for light infestations. –Prescribed burning will hinder invasion and control spread. –Mowing, 3-6 cuttings/ growing season for 2-4 years. Cutting preferred over mowing in high quality communities. Chemical Control –Cutting and painting or spraying herbicide on stems –Glyphosate 10-20% or Triclopyr (Garlon 3A) –Kills the roots and Prevents re-sprouts –Fall through winter most effective –Avoid Triclopyr if rain is within 1-4 days
27 Other IL Woodland Invasives: Kudzu Oriental (Round-leafed) Bittersweet Reed Canarygrass Japanese Barberry European Privet Climbing Euonymus Burning Bush See http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/esadocs.html for life histories and control methods. http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/esadocs.html
28 Cost – Share Programs for Invasive Species Control ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- USDA-NRCS Programs: –EQIP –WHIP IDNR Programs: –Forestry Development Act –Conservation Stewardship Program –Acres for Wildlife –LIP
29 EQIP and WHIP, Fiscal year 2008 (2002 Farm Bill Rules) EQIP Forest Management Implementation: –Forest Stand Improvement Practice Crop Tree Release, thinning $50.89/acre Invasive Species – herbaceous $93.75/acre –Herbaceous invasive infestation >50% Invasive Species – woody $187.50/acre –Woody invasive infestation > 50% –Prescribed Burning Practice Conducting the burn, $25.00/acre WHIP General Rates same as EQIP
30 2008 EQIP and WHIP (cont.) WHIP Essential Habitat rates (must benefit Endangered or Threatened Species) –Forest Stand Improvement practice: Crop tree release, thinning $67.85/acre Invasive species – herbaceous $125.00/acre –Herbaceous invasive infestation >50% Invasive species – woody $250.00/acre –Woody invasive infestation > 50% –Prescribed Burn practice Conducting a prescribed burn $25/acre (same as EQIP).
32 Invasive Species Control in Savannas 643-Restoration and Management of Declining Habitats –Light infestation: vegetation or heavy residues which will cause some difficulty in normal planting. –Medium infestation: 60% or more of an area in herbaceous plants, or up to 40% of an area in light woody inv. Cover, stems 2” or less in diameter. –Heavy infestation: >40% of an area occupied by woody inv. Veg. 2” in diameter at ground line. –Very heavy infestation: >40% of an area occupied by woody invasive vegetation > 2” in dia. at ground line.
34 EcoCATs/E&T Reviews Need to do these for EQIP and WHIP practices, including Forest Stand Improvements and Prescribed Burns. Even if nothing shows up on the EcoCAT, we have to complete an E&T Review for Indiana bats, because they can show up anywhere in IL woodlands. Helps us to avoid harming Indiana bats or any other species that show up on the EcoCAT report.
35 IDNR Programs FDA – Forestry Development Act –Focus of the FDA is timber production –Requires 300 stems per acre CSP - Conservation Stewardship Program –For non forest lands Wetlands Prairies savannas
36 “Mad” Biologist ripping out an invasive species with her bare hands!