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Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # SENTENCE BOUNDARIES: LEARNING WHERE SENTENCES BEGIN AND END by William Silver Evergreen Valley.

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Presentation on theme: "Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # SENTENCE BOUNDARIES: LEARNING WHERE SENTENCES BEGIN AND END by William Silver Evergreen Valley."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # SENTENCE BOUNDARIES: LEARNING WHERE SENTENCES BEGIN AND END by William Silver Evergreen Valley College San Jose, California

3 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # SENTENCE BOUNDARIES: LEARNING WHERE SENTENCES BEGIN AND END

4 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # SENTENCE BOUNDARIES: LEARNING WHERE SENTENCES BEGIN AND END

5 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 4 Talking is not the same as writing When we talk, we don’t have to decide where sentences begin and end. We pause or we change the tone of our voice to express ourselves clearly.

6 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 5 Talking is not the same as writing When we talk, we don’t have to decide where sentences begin and end. We pause or we change the tone of our voice to express ourselves clearly. When we write, we need to mark the start and end of each sentence to help the reader understand our thoughts.

7 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 6 Talking is not the same as writing When we talk, we don’t have to decide where sentences begin and end. We pause or we change the tone of our voice to express ourselves clearly. When we write, we need to mark the start and end of each sentence to help the reader understand our thoughts. The purpose of this computer presentation is to show a good method to determine sentence boundaries— where each sentence begins and ends.

8 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 7 Fragments and Run-ons There are two common types of errors that occur when your sentence boundaries aren’t correct.

9 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 8 Fragments and Run-ons There are two common types of errors that occur when your sentence boundaries aren’t correct. 1. A sentence fragment is a broken or incomplete sentence.

10 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 9 Fragments and Run-ons There are two common types of errors that occur when your sentence boundaries aren’t correct. 1. A sentence fragment is a broken or incomplete sentence. 2. A run-on (also known as a comma splice) is really two sentences, but the writer has punctuated it as one sentence.

11 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 10 Do you do this? Most students decide where to end a sentence by how many words it has. They believe a sentence shouldn’t be too long or too short.

12 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 11 Do you do this? Most students decide where to end a sentence by how many words it has. They believe a sentence shouldn’t be too long or too short. Sometimes students continue a single sentence by adding a second idea that’s closely related to the first idea.

13 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 12 Do you do this? Most students decide where to end a sentence by how many words it has. They believe a sentence shouldn’t be too long or too short. Sometimes students continue a single sentence by adding a second idea that’s closely related to the first idea. These two strategies will not work.

14 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 13 Test Yourself Are each of the following four word groups a single correct sentence? Here’s the first group.... 1. He spoke loudly. Yes or No?

15 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 14 Test Yourself Are each of the following four word groups a single correct sentence? Here’s the first group.... 1. He spoke loudly. Yes or No? Answer: yes. This sentence is short and not very informative, but it contains a subject and verb. All you need to make a complete sentence is a subject and verb, as you will see in the next few lessons.

16 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 15 Test Yourself Is the following word group a single correct sentence? 2 When he spoke loudly to the audience gathered in the auditorium. Yes or No?

17 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 16 Test Yourself Is the following word group a single correct sentence? 2 When he spoke loudly to the audience gathered in the auditorium. Yes or No? Answer: no. It’s a fragment. It has a subject and verb, but it also has the connecting word “when.” However, it doesn’t connect to another word group, so it’s not complete. You will learn about this in Lesson 3.

18 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 17 Test Yourself Is the following word group a single correct sentence? 3. The sheriff’s deputy checked the computer in his car, he wrote out a ticket for speeding. Yes or No?

19 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 18 Test Yourself Is the following word group a single correct sentence? 3. The sheriff’s deputy checked the computer in his car, he wrote out a ticket for speeding. Yes or No? Answer: no. It’s a run-on (also called a comma splice). It has two subject and verb pairs but no connecting word, which is a good way to put the two pairs in one sentence. Normally, you need two sentences for two pairs of subjects and verbs. You will learn about this in Lesson 3.

20 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 19 Test Yourself Is the following word group a single correct sentence? 4. After the deputy checked the computer in his car, he approached my car and then after he walked around it looking for safety violations, he stepped up to the my window and asked for my driver’s license and vehicle registration. Yes or No?

21 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 20 Test Yourself Is the following word group a single correct sentence? 4. After the deputy checked the computer in his car, he approached my car and then after he walked around it looking for safety violations, he stepped up to the my window and asked for my driver’s license and vehicle registration. Yes or No? Answer: yes, even though it’s a long sentence. There are enough connecting words in this sentence to join each word group.

22 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 21 The Right Way The only way to decide on sentence boundaries is to know some grammar. That’s what this computer presentation is all about. Do the lessons in this order: verbs verbs subjects subjects connecting words connecting words Whenever you need to go back to review a lesson, just use your mouse to click on the buttons on top of each slide. Good luck!

23 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Lesson 1: Verbs

24 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 23 Lesson 1: Verbs Every sentence must have at least one verb. The verb tells what is going on in the sentence.

25 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 24 Lesson 1: Verbs Every sentence must have at least one verb. The verb tells what is going on in the sentence. There are two basic kinds of verbs: action verbs action verbs linking verbs linking verbs

26 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 25 Action Verbs An action verb conveys some kind of action, either physical action or mental action.

27 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 26 Action Verbs An action verb conveys some kind of action, either physical action or mental action. Examples: He turned on the switch on the t.v.

28 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 27 Action Verbs An action verb conveys some kind of action, either physical action or mental action. Examples: He turned on the switch on the t.v. We worry a lot about the final exam.

29 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 28 Action Verbs An action verb conveys some kind of action, either physical action or mental action. Examples: He turned on the switch on the t.v. We worry a lot about the final exam. In the glove compartment of my car, I keep a set of road maps.

30 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 29 Linking Verbs A linking verb joins the subject of the sentence to some descriptive words about the subject. The usual word order in a sentence is — subject ----- linking verb ---- description

31 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 30 Linking Verbs A linking verb joins the subject of the sentence to some descriptive words about the subject. The usual word order in a sentence is — subject ----- linking verb ---- description Commonly used linking verbs are: is, are, am, was, were, seem, and become. Some of these verbs can also be used as helping verbs. (For more information on helping verbs, you can jump forward to the slides on helping verbs by clicking here.) clicking hereclicking here

32 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 31 Linking Verbs Examples of linking verbs: The textbook is difficult to understand. subject descriptive words

33 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 32 Linking Verbs Examples of linking verbs: The textbook is difficult to understand. Day or night, rain or shine, my brother was always on time. descriptive words subject linking verb

34 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 33 Common Helping Verbs Sometimes a verb is assisted by a helping verb. A main verb can have one or two helping verbs before it. This is true for both action verbs and linking verbs. The usual word order is-- helping verb ----- main verb

35 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 34 Common Helping Verbs Sometimes a verb is assisted by a helping verb. A main verb can have one or two helping verbs before it. This is true for both action verbs and linking verbs. The usual word order is-- helping verb ----- main verb Some common helping verbs are: is, are, was, were, be, been, being has, have, had, do, does, did, can, could, shall, should, would, will, may, or might.

36 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 35 Examples of Helping Verbs In these examples, notice that the helper verb comes before the main verb.

37 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 36 Examples of Helping Verbs In these examples, notice that the helper verb comes before the main verb. We were worrying a lot about the final exam. helpingverbmainverb

38 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 37 Examples of Helping Verbs In these examples, notice that the helper verb comes before the main verb. We were worrying a lot about the final exam. I did not keep the roadmaps in the glove compartment. helpingverbmainverb helpingverb mainverb

39 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 38 Examples of Helping Verbs The next slides show two more examples. The textbook has been difficult to understand. helpingverbmainverb

40 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 39 Examples of Helping Verbs The next slides show two more examples. The textbook has been difficult to understand. I should have bought the jacket at the sale price. helpingverbmainverb helpingverbs mainverb

41 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 40 Verb Technique Spotting the verbs in a sentence is more difficult in the longer, more complicated sentences that occur in normal writing. So it helps to have a trick or technique to help.

42 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 41 Verb Technique Spotting the verbs in a sentence is more difficult in the longer, more complicated sentences that occur in normal writing. So it helps to have a trick or technique to help. Technique: To spot the verb, change the TIME of a sentence. The next slide shows you how to do it.

43 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 42 Verb Technique Here are the three steps of the “Verb Technique”:

44 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 43 Step 1 — Put one of these words at the beginning of the sentence: yesterday today tomorrow Verb Technique Here are the three steps of the “Verb Technique”:

45 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 44 Verb Technique Here are the three steps of the “Verb Technique”: Step 1 — Put one of these words at the beginning of the sentence: yesterday today tomorrow Step 2 — Then check to see which other word in the sentence must change as well. Sometimes the change is at the end of a word. Look for “ed” “s” or “es” endings to see if they have been added or removed from a word in the original sentence. It may help to read the sentence aloud to yourself.

46 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 45 Verb Technique Here are the three steps of the “Verb Technique”: Step 1 — Put one of these words at the beginning of the sentence: yesterday today tomorrow Step 2 — Then check to see which other word in the sentence must change as well. Sometimes the change is at the end of a word. Look for “ed” “s” or “es” endings to see if they have been added or removed from a word in the original sentence. It may help to read the sentence aloud to yourself. Step 3 — The changed word is the verb, either the helper verb or main verb.

47 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 46 She parked her car at the end of the parking lot. Example of Verb Technique Today she parks her car at the end of the parking lot. Time change word change: “ed” ending changes to “s” ending on the verb “parked.”

48 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 47 Yesterday it was a good idea to study for the big history exam in class. It is a good idea to study for the big history exam in class. Example of Verb Technique Time change word change: the verb “is” changes to the verb “was”

49 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 48 Tomorrow the rain will come suddenly in the late afternoon. The rain came suddenly in the late afternoon. Example of Verb Technique Time change word change: the verb “came” changes to the verb “will come” the verb “came” changes to the verb “will come”

50 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 49 Practice the Verb Technique Directions: Use the Verb Technique for each sentence in the short paragraph on the next slide. On a separate piece of notebook paper, list from 1 to 10 (corresponding to the numbers at the beginning of each sentence). Identify the verb in each sentence and write it next to the sentence number. Don’t forget to put either “yesterday,” “today,” or “tomorrow” in front of each sentence. Look for the word that changes. Check to see if the sentence has a helper verb as well as a main verb.

51 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 50 Practice the Verb Technique (1) Nearly everyone seems to own a pager. (2) Pagers used to be a sign of status and importance, but no more. (3) A cell phone is a better way to impress your friends and neighbors. (4) They are expensive to own. (5) The price made me decide not to buy one. (6) I bought a black plastic imitation cell phone at a toy story instead. (7) Nobody knew the difference. (8) I sat for a few minutes in front of my house. (9) I pretended to talk by moving my lips. (10) I was really enjoying the conversation immensely. The answers are on the next slide.

52 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 51 Answers 1. seems6. bought 2. used7. knew 3. is8. sat 4. are9. pretended 5. made10. was enjoying

53 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 52 Practice the Verb Technique (1) Holidays are never any fun. (2) The reason for this is my uncle Lou. (3) He says bad things about you straight to your face. (4) He called my brother a good-for-nothing dreamer. (5) He described my mother, his own sister, as a fool blinded by love. (6) He has said a few unflattering things about everyone. (7) We have decided not to invite him to any more holiday reunions. (8) He will regret all his insensitive remarks. (9) I do not hope to see changes in attitude toward his family. (10) As a rule of thumb, people don’t change. The answers are on the next slide.

54 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 53 Answers 1. are6. has said 2. is7. have described 3. says8. will regret 4. called9. do hope 5. described10. do change

55 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 54 Further Practice If you had difficulty spotting the verbs, you might review this lesson again, look through your English textbook, or ask the instructor for help. If you understood this lesson on verbs, go on to the next lesson on the subject of a sentence.

56 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Lesson 2: Subjects

57 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 56 Lesson 2: Subjects In addition to a verb, every sentence must have a subject. The subject of a sentence is the “who” or “what” word that is linked to the verb.

58 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 57 Examples: One hundred students were outside the building during the fire drill. The who or what word “students” is linked to the verb “were.” Lesson 2: Subjects In addition to a verb, every sentence must have a subject. The subject of a sentence is the “who” or “what” word that is linked to the verb. subjectverb

59 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 58 Lesson 2: Subjects In addition to a verb, every sentence must have a subject. The subject of a sentence is the “who” or “what” word that is linked to the verb. Examples: One hundred students were outside the building during the fire drill. The who or what word “students” is linked to the verb “were.” verbsubject The dog curled up asleep. The who or what word “dog” is doing the action of the sentence, which is the verb “curled.” subjectverb

60 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 59 Subject Technique If you cannot quickly spot the subject of a sentence, you can use a technique to help. Step 1: Find the verb first, changing the time of the sentence with the Verb Technique outlined in Lesson 1. If you need to go back to review this technique, click here. click hereclick here

61 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 60 Subject Technique If you cannot quickly spot the subject of a sentence, you can use a technique to help. Step 1: Find the verb first, changing the time of the sentence with the Verb Technique outlined in Lesson 1. If you need to go back to review this technique, click here. click hereclick here Step 2: Make a question with “who” or “what” and the verb, along with some words from the sentence.

62 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 61 Subject Technique If you cannot quickly spot the subject of a sentence, you can use a technique to help. Step 1: Find the verb first, changing the time of the sentence with the Verb Technique outlined in Lesson 1. If you need to go back to review this technique, click here. click hereclick here Step 2: Make a question with “who” or “what” and the verb, along with some words from the sentence. Step 3: The answer to the question will be the subject of the sentence.

63 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 62 Example of the Subject Technique The dog curled up asleep on the floor of my room. Step 1: Find the verb first, changing the time of the sentence with the Verb Technique outlined in Lesson 1. Today the dog curls up asleep on the floor of my room. Time change Verb

64 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 63 Example of the Subject Technique The dog curled up asleep on the floor of my room. Step 1: Find the verb first, changing the time of the sentence with the Verb Technique outlined in Lesson 1. Today the dog curls up asleep on the floor of my room. Step 2: Make a question with “who” or “what” and the verb, along with some words from the sentence. Who or what curled up asleep on the floor of my room? Time change Verb

65 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 64 Example of the Subject Technique The dog curled up asleep on the floor of my room. Step 1: Find the verb first, changing the time of the sentence with the Verb Technique outlined in Lesson 1. Today the dog curls up asleep on the floor of my room. Step 2: Make a question with “who” or “what” and the verb, along with some words from the sentence. Who or what curled up asleep on the floor of my room? Step 3: The answer to the question is the “dog.” “Dog” is the subject of the sentence. Time change Verb

66 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 65 Second Example We worried a lot about the final exam. We worried a lot about the final exam. Step 1: Find the verb first, changing the time of the sentence with the Verb Technique outlined in Lesson 1. Next month, we will worry a lot about the final exam. Time change Verb

67 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 66 Second Example We worried a lot about the final exam. We worried a lot about the final exam. Step 1: Find the verb first, changing the time of the sentence with the Verb Technique outlined in Lesson 1. Next month, we will worry a lot about the final exam. Step 2: Make a question with “who” or “what” and the verb, along with some words from the sentence. Who or what worried a lot about the final exam? Time change Verb

68 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 67 Second Example We worried a lot about the final exam. We worried a lot about the final exam. Step 1: Find the verb first, changing the time of the sentence with the Verb Technique outlined in Lesson 1. Next month, we will worry a lot about the final exam. Step 2: Make a question with “who” or “what” and the verb, along with some words from the sentence. Who or what worried a lot about the final exam? Step 3: The answer to the question is “We.” “We” is the subject of the sentence. Verb Time change

69 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 68 Practice the Subject Technique I Directions: Use the Subject Technique for each sentence in the short paragraph on the next slide. On a separate piece of notebook paper, list from 1 to 10 (corresponding to the numbers at the beginning of each sentence). Identify the subject in each sentence and write it next to the sentence number.

70 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 69 Practice the Subject Technique I (1) An accident happened on the freeway last night on the way home from work. (2) A light rain had made the roads slippery. (3) The sky was dark. (4) The traffic slowed down near the site of the accident. (5) More and more cars backed up waiting to pass by. (6) I was in my car for almost 40 minutes. (7) Two highway patrol cars were at the scene right away. (8) An ambulance arrived within minutes. (9) The traffic picked up speed after passing the accident. (10) A car had rolled over onto the shoulder of the highway. The answers are on the next slide.

71 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 70 Answers 1. accident6. I 2. rain7. cars 3. sky8. ambulance 4. traffic9. traffic 5. cars10. car

72 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 71 Special Situation I Sometimes a sentence will have a two-part subject called a compound subject. It will have two who or what words usually joined by “and” or “or.” Example: The waiter and the busboy were clearing dirty dishes from the table. subjects Joining word

73 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 72 Special Situation II Sometimes when you ask the who or what question with the verb, you will have two possible subjects for your answer. The possible subjects will NOT be joined by “and” or “or,” so they won’t be a compound (two-part) subject. Instead they will be joined by a preposition such as “of,” “to,” “between,” “in,” etc. Only one of the two possible who/what words will actually be the subject. Example: The size of the bed is 54 inches wide and 72 inches long. Preposition Who or what words

74 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 73 Special Situation II The size of the bed is 54 inches wide and 72 inches long. In this example, both “size” and “bed” answer the question, “Who or what is 54 inches wide and 72 inches long? However, the correct subject is the word “size” not the word “bed.” Why only one of the two words? The prepositional word group “of the bed” gives you descriptive information about the subject word “size.” It tells you which size the sentence is about. The sentence is not about the bed. It’s about the bed SIZE.

75 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 74 Special Situation II Here are several sentences with possible subjects underlined for you. You should look for the preposition and then decide which word is the correct subject: The books on the table belong to the public library. The convenience store down the street from my apartment is open until midnight. The answers are on the next slide.

76 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 75 Special Situation II Here are several sentences with possible subjects underlined for you. You should look for the preposition and then decide which word is the correct subject: The books on the table belong to the public library. The convenience store down the street from my apartment is open until midnight.

77 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 76 Summary of Special Situations I & II #1. Compound (Two-Part) Subject with “and” or “or”: Jack and Jill went up the hill to fetch a pail of water. #2. Single Subject with a Prepositional Word Group: The bucket in Jack’s hand was full of water. Who or what words

78 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 77 Practice the Subject Technique II Directions: Use the Subject Technique for each sentence in the short paragraph on the next slide. On a separate piece of notebook paper, list from 1 to 10 (corresponding to the numbers at the beginning of each sentence). Identify the subject in each sentence and write it next to the sentence number.

79 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 78 Practice the Subject Technique II (1) People in my neighborhood have a hard time finding a parking place for their cars. (2) They drive around for awhile looking for one. (3) Santa Clara Street and San Carlos Street have one hour parking meters. (4) Streets with parking meters are not good for overnight parking. (5) One man among my neighbors has found a unique solution. (6) He keeps a heavy red plastic fire hydrant in the trunk of his car. (7) Every morning, he lifts the hydrant from his car to the concrete sidewalk. (8) I watch him drive off to work. (9) Nobody will park there during the day because of the fire hydrant. (10) The parking place beside the fire hydrant is waiting for him at 6 p.m. The answers are on the next slide.

80 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 79 Answers 1. People6. He 2. They7. he 3. Santa Clara Street8. I and San Carlos Street and San Carlos Street 4. streets9. Nobody 5. man10. place

81 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 80 Review of Subjects To find the subject of a sentence, make a who or what question using the verb and some words from the sentence. Watch for compound subjects and for prepositional word groups that do contain the subject. If you found the practice exercises difficult, go back through this lesson a another time, look at your English textbook, or ask the instructor for some help. If you understood this lesson, go on to Lesson 3 on Connecting Words.

82 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Lesson 3: Connecting Words

83 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 82 Lesson 3: Connecting Words In Lessons 1 and 2, you identified the two basic parts of a sentence— a subject and a verb. In this lesson, you will be working with the sentence as a whole. Every sentence must have at least one subject—verb pair. The group of words that belong to that pair makes up the sentence. A sentence without a complete subject—verb pair is a broken or incomplete sentence. It is known as a sentence fragment. A sentence with two subject—verb pairs is called a run-on (or comma splice) since it should be two separate sentences.

84 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 83 Fragments and Run-ons - - - - - - - subject (no complete verb) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - subject + verb - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - subject 1 + verb 1 - - - - - - - -, subject 2 + verb 2 - - - - - - -. fragment sentence run-on

85 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 84 Connecting Words There are several dozen connecting words that writers can use to compose more complex sentences. These connecting words fall into three categories. Here are the most common examples: Group 1 andorbutyetfornorso Group 2 sincewhenwherebecauseasifunless though (even though) although Group 3 whothatwhichwhosewhom

86 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 85 Connecting Words Which of the following words is the connecting word? (Click on the forward arrow key to see the answer, or click on the return arrow key to go back to view the list of connecting words.) arrow key to go back to view the list of connecting words.)inhoweversincealready

87 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 86 1 Connecting Word or Using Connecting Words A connecting word allows a writer to join one subject—verb word group to another subject—verb word group in the same sentence. With two connecting words, you can build a sentence with three subject— verb word groups. With three connecting words you can write four subject—verb word groups, and so on. subject—verb word group connectingword subject—verb word group, connectingword

88 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 87 2 Connecting Words or Using Connecting Words s-v group, connectingword connectingword s-v group. connectingword s-v group, connectingword s-v group.

89 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 88 3 Connecting Words Using Connecting Words s-v group, connectingword connectingword s-v group. s-v group, connectingword

90 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 89 Problems with Connecting Words: Run-ons If you don’t use a connecting word with two subject—verb word groups, you have a run-on sentence (also called a comma splice). s-v group, s-v group. s-v group, connectingword s-v group. The run-on is corrected....

91 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 90 Problems with Connecting Words: Run-ons Example of a run-on: The cat ran back and forth in the field, it couldn’t catch the mouse. Run-on corrected: The cat ran back and forth in the field, but it couldn’t catch the mouse. connecting word

92 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 91 Problems with Connecting Words: Fragments If you have more connecting words in a sentence than you need, you might have an incomplete sentence called a fragment. This is because the extra connecting word tells a reader to expect a word group that isn’t in the sentence. The reader is left waiting for those additional words. Fragments: connectingword s-v group. connectingword s-v group, connectingword s-v group. connectingword s-v group, connectingword s-v group. connectingword s-v group,

93 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 92 Correcting Fragments Each of these fragments can be corrected by: (1) eliminating the extra connecting word (2) adding another subject—verb word group or joining the problem sentence to another subject—verb word group. Example: Even though the cat ran back and forth in the field, and it couldn’t catch the mouse. connecting word

94 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 93 Example: Even though the cat ran back and forth in the field, and it couldn’t catch the mouse. Correction 1: take out a connecting word Even though the cat ran back and forth in the field, and it couldn’t catch the mouse. Correcting Fragments Correction 2: add another subject—verb word group Even though the cat ran back and forth in the field, and it couldn’t catch the mouse, it did scare the mouse away.

95 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 94 Practice Using Connecting Words Directions: You have learned enough about verbs, subjects, and connecting words to decide if a sentence is correct, or if it is a run-on or fragment. On a separate piece of notebook paper, list from 1 to 10 (corresponding to the numbers at the beginning of each sentence on the next slide). Identify the subject-verb pair(s) in each sentence and write it next to the sentence number. Next to the sentence number, also write “correct,” “run-on,” or “fragment” to describe each sentence.

96 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 95 Practice Using Connecting Words I (1) A recreational vehicle (RV) is similar to a small bus or a large van, but it contains a mini-kitchen, a table, and place to sleep. (2) People rent spaces in special RV parking lots and they park their RVs there. (3) Some people even live in their RVs. (4) Since they have mobility. (5) They can move their RVs to another city or state easily. (6) At one RV park in Florida, people were playing a game of volleyball when an alligator wandered into the area. (7) The alligator and the residents stared at each other, the residents knew about the dangers of alligators, so they left it alone and they waited for it to leave. (8) It slid toward the volleyball, with its jaw wide open. (9) It crawled away. (10) While the residents watched in amazement at the disappearing volleyball. (1) A recreational vehicle (RV) is similar to a small bus or a large van, but it contains a mini-kitchen, a table, and place to sleep. (2) People rent spaces in special RV parking lots and they park their RVs there. (3) Some people even live in their RVs. (4) Since they have mobility. (5) They can move their RVs to another city or state easily. (6) At one RV park in Florida, people were playing a game of volleyball when an alligator wandered into the area. (7) The alligator and the residents stared at each other, the residents knew about the dangers of alligators, so they left it alone and they waited for it to leave. (8) It slid toward the volleyball, with its jaw wide open. (9) It crawled away. (10) While the residents watched in amazement at the disappearing volleyball. (Answers are on the next slide.)

97 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 96 Practice Exercise I - Answers Connecting WordSubjectVerb 1. Correctvehicleis butitcontains 2. CorrectPeoplerent andtheypark 3. Correctpeoplelive 4. FragmentSincetheyhave 5. CorrectTheycan move 6. Correctpeoplewere playing whenalligatorwandered 7. Run-onalligator and residentsstared residentsknew sotheyleft andtheywaited 8. Correctitslid 9. CorrectItcrawled 10. FragmentWhileresidentswatched

98 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 97 A Closer Look Let’s take a closer look at the structure of sentence #7 from the previous exercise. Notice that each subject—verb word group is displayed in a different color. ( 7) The alligator and the residents stared at each other, the residents knew about the dangers of alligators, so they left it alone and they waited for it to leave. subject verb subjectverbsubject verb subjectsubjectverb

99 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 98 A Closer Look This sentence has four subject—verb pairs. How many connecting words does it need? Press the forward arrow key for the answer. ( 7) The alligator and the residents stared at each other, the residents knew about the dangers of alligators, so they left it alone and they waited for it to leave. subject verb subjectverbsubject verb subjectsubjectverb Answer: 3. Does it have three connecting words? Press the forward arrow key to see the connecting words highlighted. connecting word

100 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 99 There are two relatively simple methods to correct this run-on: 1. Change a comma to a period. 2. Add a connecting word A Closer Look On your answer sheet from Practice Exercise I, write the two corrections, one for each method above. When you are done, click to see the answers on the next slide. connectingword,.

101 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 100 A Closer Look Correction #1: Change a comma to a period. ( 7) The alligator and the residents stared at each other. The residents knew about the dangers of alligators, so they left it alone and they waited for it to leave.

102 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 101 A Closer Look Correction #1: Change a comma to a period. ( 7) The alligator and the residents stared at each other. The residents knew about the dangers of alligators, so they left it alone and they waited for it to leave. Correction #2: Add a connecting word. ( 7) The alligator and the residents stared at each other, but the residents knew about the dangers of alligators, so they left it alone and they waited for it to leave.

103 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 102 Practice Using Connecting Words II (1) Time management is an important skill for people who live busy lives. (2) It can really help. (3) If you have a reading assignment due in one of your classes, you can get it done if you manage your time carefully. (4) The first thing to do is figure out when you have free time. (5) In a normal t.v. show, 17 of 60 minutes are for commercials. (6) You can get an hour’s work done by watching t.v.. (7) If you do your assignments during the commercial breaks. (8) You can study in your car when you’re stuck in traffic or waiting for a red light. (9) When you talk with your friends on the telephone. (10) You can even review a text book assignment. (1) Time management is an important skill for people who live busy lives. (2) It can really help. (3) If you have a reading assignment due in one of your classes, you can get it done if you manage your time carefully. (4) The first thing to do is figure out when you have free time. (5) In a normal t.v. show, 17 of 60 minutes are for commercials. (6) You can get an hour’s work done by watching t.v.. (7) If you do your assignments during the commercial breaks. (8) You can study in your car when you’re stuck in traffic or waiting for a red light. (9) When you talk with your friends on the telephone. (10) You can even review a text book assignment. (Answers are on the next slide.)

104 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 103 Practice Exercise II - Answers Connecting WordSubjectVerb 1. Correctmanagementis whowholive 2. CorrectItcan 3. CorrectIfyouhave youcan get ifyoumanage 4. Correctthingis whenyouhave 5. Correctminutesare 6. CorrectYoucan get 7. FragmentIfyoudo 8. CorrectYoucan study whenyouare 9. FragmentWhenyoutalk 10. CorrectYoucan review

105 Previous slide # Use the keyboard arrow keys Next slide # Slide # 104 Review of Connecting Words In the last lesson, you learned that a sentence must contain a subject—verb pair to be complete. For every additional word group containing a subject—verb pair in the SAME sentence, you must use a connecting word. Otherwise, you have a run-on sentence. If a word group doesn’t have a complete subject—verb pair it is an incomplete sentence, which is called a fragment. A fragment also occurs when you have an extra or unnecessary connecting word. You have come to the end of these three lessons on the basic parts of a sentence. You are welcome to return to the lessons in the future if you want to review the information in them.


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