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1766-1818 Card #61.

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1 Card #61

2 Declaratory Act Date: 1766 Card #61

3 Declaratory Act Act giving Britain the power to tax and make laws for the Americans in all cases Followed repeal of the Stamp Act Colonists ignored the wording of the Declaratory Act Date: 1766 Card #61

4 Samuel Adams Date: Card #62

5 Samuel Adams Revolutionary resistance leader in Massachusetts
Along with Paul Revere, he headed the Sons of Liberty in Massachusetts Worked with the committees of correspondence, which provided communication about resistance among colonies Attended both the First and Second Continental Congress and signed the Declaration of Independence Date: Card #62

6 Stamp Act Congress Date: October 1765 Card #63

7 Stamp Act Congress Delegates of seven colonies met in New York to discuss plans for defense Adopted the Declaration of Rights and Grievances, which stated that freeborn Englishmen could not be taxed without their consent Date: October 1765 Card #63

8 Townshend Acts Date: 1767 Card #64

9 Townshend Acts Created by British Prime Minister Charles Townshend (Greenville's replacement) Formed a program of taxing items imported into the colonies, such as paper, lead, glass, and tea; it replaced the direct taxes of the Stamp Act Led to boycotts by Boston merchants, a key contributor to the Boston Massacre Date: 1767 Card #64

10 Virtual Representation
Date: 1770s Card #65

11 Virtual Representation
English principle stating that the members of parliament represented all of Britain and the British Empire, even though members were only elected by a small number of constituents This idea was meant to be a response to the colonial claim of "no taxation without representation," meaning that parliament was itself a representation of those being taxed Date: 1770s Card #65

12 Declaratory Act Date: March 5, 1770 Card #66

13 Boston Massacre Occurred when the British attempted to enforce the Townshend Acts British soldiers killed five Bostonians, including Crispus Attucks, an American patriot and former slave John Adams provided the legal defense for the soldiers Though the British soldiers acted more or less in self-defense, anti-Royal leaders used the massacre to spur action in the colonies Date: March 5, 1770 Card #66

14 Tea Act and Boston Tea Party
Date: 1773 Card #67

15 Tea Act and Boston Tea Party
Concession allowed the British East India Company to ship tea directly to America and sell it at a bargain; cheap tea undercut the local merchants Colonists opposed these shipments; they turned back ships, left shipments to rot, and held ships in port Led to the Boston Tea Party in December of 1773, where citizens, dressed as native Americans, destroyed tea on the British ships Date: 1773 Card #67

16 The Intolerable Acts and the Coercive Acts
Date: 1774 Card #68

17 The Intolerable Acts and the Coercive Acts
Name given by colonists to the Quebec Act (1774) and to a series of acts by the British in response to the Boston Tea Party Acts closed the Port of Boston to all trade until citizens paid for the lost tea Acts increased the power of Massachusetts' Royal governor at the expense of the legislature Allowed Royal officials accused of crimes in Massachusetts to be tried elsewhere Date: 1774 Card #68

18 Methods of Colonial Resistance
Date: 1770s Card #69

19 Methods of Colonial Resistance
Americans reacted first with restrained and respectful petitions, suggesting "taxation without representation is tyranny" Colonial merchants then boycotted British goods (non-importation) Colonists of the Revolution finally turned to violence Crowds took action against customs officials and against merchants who violated the boycotts Some colonists continued to follow British command and became English "Loyalists" Date: 1770s Card #69

20 First Continental Congress
Date: September-October 1774 Card #70

21 First Continental Congress
Meeting in Philadelphia of colonial representatives to denounce the Intolerable Acts and to petition the British Parliament A few radical members discussed breaking from England Created Continental Association and forbade the importation and use of British goods Agreed to convene a Second Continental Congress in May 1775 Date: September-October 1774 Card #70

22 Battles of Concord and Lexington
Date: April 1775 Card #71

23 Battles of Concord and Lexington
Concord--Site suspected by British General Gage of housing a stockpile of colonial weaponry Paul Revere and William Dawes detected movement of British troops toward Concord and warned militia and gathered Minutemen at Lexington Lexington--Militia and Royal infantry fought; the colonial troops withdrew Date: April 1775 Card #71

24 The Second Continental Congress
Date: May 1775 Card #72

25 The Second Continental Congress
Colonial representative meeting in Philadelphia, presided over by John Hancock Group torn between declaring independence and remaining under British power Moderates forced the adoption of the Olive Branch Petition, a letter to King George III appealing one final time for a resolution to all disputes; the king refused to receive it The Congress sent George Washington to command the army around Boston American ports were opened in defiance of the Navigation Acts Wrote the Declaration of Independence Date: May 1775 Card #72

26 Battle of Bunker Hill Date: June 17, 1775 Card #73

27 Battle of Bunker Hill Bunker Hill was an American post overlooking Boston; the stronghold allowed Americans to contain General Gage and his troops The colonists twice turned back a British frontal assault; the held off the British until the Bunker Hill force ran out of ammunition and was overrun American's strong defense led to strengthened morale Date: June 17, 1775 Card #73

28 Common Sense Date: January 1776 Card #74

29 Common Sense Pamphlet published by Thomas Paine that called for immediate independence from Britain Sold largely and carried favor in the colonies Weakened resistance in the Continental Congress toward independence Date: January 1776 Card #74

30 Lee’s Resolutions Date: 1776 Card #75

31 Lee’s Resolutions Presented to Second Continental Congress by Richard Henry Lee of Virginia Urged Congress to declare independence; accepted July 2, 1776 Said, “That these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States” Date: 1776 Card #75

32 Declaration of Independence
Date: Declaration adopted July 4, 1776 Card #76

33 Declaration of Independence
Document restating political ideas justifying the separation from Britain Thomas Jefferson and his committee had the duty of drafting for the Continental Congress John Locke’s influences served as a foundation for the document The final product lacked provisions condemning the British slave trade and a denunciation of the British people that earlier drafts had contained Date: Declaration adopted July 4, 1776 Card #76

34 Articles of Confederation
Date: Submitted July 1776; ratified 1781 Card #77

35 Articles of Confederation
Framework for an American national government; states had the most power Empowered the federal government to make war, treaties, and create new states No federal empowerment to levy taxes, raise troops, or regulate commerce Congressional revision of the articles created a weak national government Date: Submitted July 1776; ratified 1781 Card #77

36 George Washington’s Leadership in the American Revolution
Date: Card #78

37 George Washington’s Leadership in the American Revolution
Named Commander-in-Chief of Continental Forces in June 1775 by the Second Continental Congress Forced British to evacuate Boston in March 1776 Defeated British at Trenton, New Jersey, after crossing the Delaware on December 25, 1776 Survived tough winter at Valley Forge ( ); Washington strengthened his troops during the winter and gained respect General Cornwallis surrendered to Washington on October 19, 1781 Date: Card #78

38 Battle of Saratoga Date: 1777 Card #79

39 Battle of Saratoga American Revolution battle fought in northern New York The British planned to end the American Revolution by splitting the colonies along the Hudson River, but they failed to mobilize properly The British ended up surrendering, allowing for the first great American victory Demonstrated that the British could more easily hold the cities, but that they would have trouble subduing the country sides Considered a turning point, as French aid began after this battle Date: 1777 Card #79

40 John Paul Jones Date: Card #80

41 John Paul Jones Famous American naval leader
Carried on maritime raids against the British throughout Revolution, debilitating their ability to receive supplies Stated, “Surrender? I have not yet begun to fight.” Date: Card #80

42 Charles Cornwallis Dated: Card #81

43 Charles Cornwallis British military and political leader
Was a member of Parliament and even opposed the tax measures that led to the American Revolution Led British forces during the American Revolution The British defeat culminated with Cornwallis’s surrender at Yorktown in 1781 Dated: Card #81

44 Western Land Cessions Date: ; Georgia in 1802 Card #82

45 Western Land Cessions The original thirteen states ceded their western land claims to the new federal government The states that lacked western land claims feared that sates with claims could grow in size, skewing representation in the federal government Before signing the United States Constitution, these states demanded that those with claims cede the land Ordinances in 1784 and 1785 and the Northwest Ordinance (1787) organized the ceded areas in preparation for statehood New states were organized and admitted to the Union This policy strengthened the ties of the western farmers to the central government Date: ; Georgia in 1802 Card #82

46 Treaty of Paris, 1783 Date: 1783 Card #83

47 Treaty of Paris, 1783 Peace settlement that ended the Revolutionary War The United States was represented by Ben Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay Britain recognized the United States’ independence and outlined its borders The United States received all lands east of the Mississippi River, north of Florida, and south of the Great Lakes The United States agreed that Loyalists to Britain were not to be persecuted Date: 1783 Card #83

48 Land Ordinance of 1785; Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Date: 1785; 1787 Card #84

49 Land Ordinance of 1785; Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Land Ordinance-Act of Congress to assist in settlement of the West; the sale of land provided federal revenue Land Ordinance-Organized distribution of land into townships, setting aside a section of each in support of public education The Northwest Ordinance-Described how the land north of the Ohio River could become sectioned into states; five states created The Northwest Ordinance-States would be admitted to the Union when free inhabitants reached 60,000 The Northwest Ordinance-Slavery and involuntary servitude not allowed in these states The Northwest Ordinance-Set a precedent of how states could join the Union The ordinances were a successful accomplishment by a federal government that before had been seen as ineffective Date: 1785; 1787 Card #84

50 John Jay Date: Card #85

51 John Jay Member of First and Second Continental Congress
Negotiated Treaty of Paris and Jay’s Treaty First Chief Justice of Supreme Court Wrote portions of The Federalist Papers Date: Card #85

52 Shays’ Rebellion Date: Card #86

53 Shays’ Rebellion During a period of economic depression, Daniel Shays led a group of farmers to stop the courts from seizing a farmer’s land and enacting debt collection Citizens of Boston raised an army and suppressed the rebels Americans felt pressure to strengthen the government and avoid future violence Date: Card #86

54 The Constitution of the United States
Date: Signed September 17, 1787; ratified by required nine states June 21, 1788 Card #87

55 The Constitution of the United States
Drafted at the constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in 1787 Included a preamble and seven articles Created a stronger federal government Bill of Rights is the first ten amendments; they protected individual rights and freedoms Date: Signed September 17, 1787; ratified by required nine states June 21, 1788 Card #87

56 Elastic Clause and the Tenth Amendment
Date: Ratified 1791 Card #88

57 Elastic Clause and the Tenth Amendment
The Tenth Amendment restricts the federal government to those powers delegated to it by the Constitution and gives all other powers to the states, or the people Article 1, Section 8 grants the federal government the power to make all laws “which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers” The conflict between these two ideas is the determination of which group, the federal government or the states and their people, has the right to exercise powers that have not been expressly delegated to the central government Date: Ratified 1791 Card #88

58 The Virginia Plan and The New Jersey Plan
Date: July 1787 Card #89

59 The Virginia Plan and The New Jersey Plan
Virginia Plan-Presented by Edmund Randolph and written by James Madison Virginia Plan-Called for bicameral legislature based on population and both the chief executive and judiciary to be chosen by legislature New Jersey Plan-Presented by William Patterson New Jersey Plan-Called for unicameral legislature with equal representation Plans were united in the Great Compromise; the plans form the basis of the modern American legislative structure Date: July 1787 Card #89

60 Great Compromise (Connecticut Compromise)
Date: 1787 Card #90

61 Great Compromise (Connecticut Compromise)
Called for a bicameral legislative system in which the House of Representatives would be based on population and the Senate would have equal representation in Congress Combined pieces of the New Jersey Plan, the Virginia Plan, and other proposals Included the Three-Fifths Compromise, which counted slaves as three-fifths of a person for purposes of apportioning representation and called for direct taxation on the states Date: 1787 Card #90

62 Federalist Party Date: 1788 Card #91

63 Federalist Party Americans who advocated centralize4d power and constitutional ratification Used The Federalist Papers to demonstrate how the Constitution was designed to prevent the abuse of power Supporters of Federalist platforms included Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, John Jay, and northeastern business groups Federalists believed that the government was given all powers that were not expressly denied to it by the Constitution; they had a loose interpretation of the Constitution Date: 1788 Card #91

64 Anti-Federalist Party
Date: 1780s-1790s Card #92

65 Anti-Federalist Party
Those against the adoption of the constitution because of suspicion against centralized government ruling at a distance and limiting freedom George Mason, Patrick Henry, and George Clinton were Anti-Federalists Many of the Anti-Federalists would come to oppose the policies of Alexander Hamilton and the Federalist Party The Jeffersonian Republican Party absorbed many of the Anti-Federalists after the Constitution was adopted Date: 1780s-1790s Card #92

66 George Washington Date: Card #93

67 George Washington First President Was unanimously elected president
Served two terms His leadership led to a standard of a strong presidency with control of foreign policy and the power to veto Congress's legislation Declared Proclamation of Neutrality in April 1793, keeping the United States neutral in the European wars His Farewell Address in 1796 warned against entangling alliances, suggested isolationism, and warned of political party factions Date: Card #93

68 Judiciary Act of 1789 Date: 1789 Card #94

69 Judiciary Act of 1789 Provided for a Supreme Court with a Chief Justice and five associates Established office of Attorney General Created federal district courts and circuit courts Date: 1789 Card #94

70 Alexander Hamilton Date: Card #95

71 Alexander Hamilton First Secretary of Treasury
Proposed the federal assumption of state debts, the establishment of a national bank, and federal stimulation of industry through excise tax and tariffs Opponents, including Jefferson, saw program as aiding a small, elite group at the expense of the average citizen Hamilton died from wounds sustained in a pistol duel with Aaron Burr, Jefferson's vice president Date: Card #95

72 Jeffersonian Republicans (Democratic-Republicans)
Date: Card #96

73 Jeffersonian Republicans (Democratic-Republicans)
Political Party that absorbed members of the Anti-Federalist Party Proponents included Thomas Jefferson and James Madison Favored states' rights and power in the hands of commoners; supported by Southern agriculture and frontiersmen Believed that the federal government was denied all powers that were not expressly given to it by the Constitution (a "strict interpretation" of the document) Date: Card #96

74 Eli Whitney Date: Card #97

75 Eli Whitney Inventor and manufacturer
Invented the cotton gin in 1793, revolutionizing the cotton industry and increasing the need for slaves Established first factory to assemble muskets with interchangeable, standardized parts His Innovations led to an "American system" of manufacture, where those laborers with less skill could use tools and templates to make identical parts; also, the manufacture and assembly of parts could be done separately Date: Card #97

76 Jay's Treaty Date: 1794 Card #98

77 Jay's Treaty Attempt at settling the conflict between the United States and England over commerce, navigation, and violations of the Treaty of Paris of 1783 Provided for eventual evacuation by the British of their posts in the Northwest, but allowed them to continue their fur trade Allowed for the establishment of commissions to settle united States-Canada border disputes and United States-Britain losses during the Revolutionary War The generous terms to Britain upset Americans because these were promises that had been made and not fulfilled in the Treaty of Paris of 1783 Date: 1794 Card #98

78 Whiskey Rebellion Date: 1794 Card #99

79 Whiskey Rebellion Western whiskey farmers refused to pay taxes on which Hamilton's revenue program was based A group of farmers terrorized the tax collectors; Washington responded with a federalized militia George Washington and Alexander Hamilton rode out to Pennsylvania themselves to emphasize their commitment First test of federal authority Established federal government’s right to enforce laws Date: 1794 Card #99

80 Pinckney Treaty Date: 1795 Card #100

81 Pinckney Treaty Signed by the United States and Spain
Free navigation of the Mississippi River was given to the United States United States gained area north of Florida that had been in dispute (present-day Mississippi and Alabama) Gave western farmers the "right of deposit" in New Orleans, enabling them to use the port for their goods, making it easier for them to get their goods to the East The United States would later make the Louisiana Purchase, which would cement the right of deposit. Date: 1795 Card #100

82 Colonial Painting Date: Card #101

83 Colonial Painting Copied European styles, but featured portraits of important Americans Famous artists included John Trumbull, Charles Peale, Benjamin West, and John Copley Gilbert Stuart painted the portrait of George Washington that is now on the one-dollar bill Date: Card #101

84 John Adams Date: Card #102

85 John Adams Second President First Vice-President
Diplomat and Signer of the Declaration of Independence Led the country through the XYZ affair, the Alien and Sedition Acts, and the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions Kept nation from war during tenure as president Date: Card #102

86 XYZ Affair Date: 1798 Card #103

87 XYZ Affair The United States wanted an end to French harassment of American shipping To settle the issue, French representatives demanded a bribe from the United States just to open negotiations with French Minister Talleyrand The United States refused the bribe and suspended trade with the French Led to the creation of the American Navy Date: 1798 Card #103

88 Alien and Sedition Acts
Date: Card #104

89 Alien and Sedition Acts
Legislation was elected by the Federalists to reduce foreign influences and increase their power. New hurdles to citizenship were established. Broadened power to quiet print media critics. The legislation was used to silence Jeffersonian Republican critics of the Federalists and was indicative of the poisoned relations between the two parties. These Acts tested the strength of the First Amendment and limited the freedom of the press. The Federalist Party gained a reputation as being a less democratic party, quickening its demise as a political organization Date: Card #104

90 Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
Date: Card #105

91 Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
Response by Jeffersonian Republicans to the Alien and Sedition Acts Included text written by Jefferson and by Madison Suggested that states should have the power within their territory to nullify federal law Stated that federal government had no right to exercise powers not specifically delegated to it. The resolutions represented a future argument that would be used when secession and Civil War threatened the country. Called into question the paradox of the Elastic Clause and the Tenth Amendment Date: Card #105

92 The Napoleonic Wars Date: Card #106

93 The Napoleonic Wars War between Napoleon's France and the other European powers, led by Britain Both sides tried to prevent neutral powers, especially the United States, from trading with the enemy American ships were seized by both sides and American sailors were "impressed," or forced, into the British navy. The United States was angered by this violation of the "freedom of the seas" principle, which holds that outside its territorial waters, a state may not claim sovereignty over the seas These violations would escalate and lead to the War of 1812 Date: Card #106

94 Judiciary Act of 1801 Date: 1801 Card #107

95 Judiciary Act of 1801 Created new judgeships to be filled by the president John Adams filled the vacancies with party supporters ("Midnight Judges") before he left office Led to bitter resentment by the incoming Jeffersonian Republican Party Act would play a role in the case of Marbury v. Madison Date: 1801 Card #107

96 Thomas Jefferson Date: Card #108

97 Thomas Jefferson Third President
Author of the Declaration of Independence Before becoming president, he served as the first Secretary of State First president to reside in Washington, D.C. Jefferson's taking of office was called the "Revolution of 1800" as it was the first time America changed presidential political leadership (Federalist to Jeffersonian Republican) His embodiment of the Jeffersonian Republican Party helped increase its strength, while weak leadership in the Federalist Party was a reason for its demise Date: Card #108

98 John Marshall Date: Card #109

99 John Marshall Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court ( ) He was a federalist installed by Adams His decisions defined and strengthened the powers of the judicial branch and asserted the power of judicial review over federal legislation. His Court made determinations that cemented a static view of contracts. His Court's decisions advanced capitalism Significant cases included Marbury v. Madison, Fletcher v. Peck, Dartmouth College v. Woodward, McCulloch v. Maryland, and Gibbons v. Ogden Date: Card #109

100 Marbury v. Madison Date: 1803 Card #110

101 Marbury v. Madison William Marbury had been commissioned justice of the peace in D.C. by President John Adams His commission was part of Adam's "midnight appointments" during his last days in office Marbury's commission was not delivered, so he sued President Jefferson's Secretary of State, James Madison Chief Justice John Marshall held that while Marbury was entitled to the commission, the statute which allowed Marbury's remedy was unconstitutional, as it granted the Supreme Court powers beyond what the Constitution permitted This decision paved the way for judicial review, which gave courts the power to declare statutes unconstitutional. Date: 1803 Card #110

102 Louisiana Purchase Date: April 30, 1803 Card #111

103 Louisiana Purchase Purchased for $15 million from France
Jefferson was concerned about the constitutionality of purchasing land without having this authority granted by the Constitution; to make the purchase, he employed the presidential power of treaty-making United States’ territory was doubled The purchase helped remove France from the western borders of the United States Farmers could now send their goods (furs, grains, tobacco) down the Mississippi River and through New Orleans, facilitating transportation to Europe Opened land to agrarian expansion, helping fulfill one of the tenets of Jefferson’s social ideology The expansion westward created more states with Jeffersonian Republican representation to the point that the Federalist became a marginalized party Date: April 30, 1803 Card #111

104 Lewis and Clark Expedition
Date: Card #112

105 Lewis and Clark Expedition
Expedition through the Louisiana Purchase and the West Departed from St. Louis and explored areas including the Missouri River, the Yellowstone River, and the Rockies Sacajawea, a Shoshone guide, helped them in their journey Opened up new territories to America Date: Card #112

106 Burr Conspiracy Date: 1806 Card #113

107 Burr Conspiracy Burr planned to take Mexico from Spain and establish a new nation in the west. Burr, a fugitive in politics after Alexander Hamilton's death, was arrested in Natchez and tried for treason. Under John Marshall, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, Burr was acquitted. Marshall determined that the charge of treason required more than just proof of conspiracy to commit reason; this helped narrow the legal definition of treason. Date: 1806 Card #113

108 Embargo of 1807 Date: Card #114

109 Embargo of 1807 American declaration to keep its own ships from leaving port for any foreign destination. Jefferson hoped to avoid contact with vessels of either of the warring sides of the Napoleonic Wars. The result was economic depression in the United States; this angered the Federalists, who were well-represented in the Northeast commerce and were hit hard by the depression. Date: Card #114

110 James Madison Date: Card #115

111 James Madison Fourth President
His work before becoming president led him to be considered the "Father of the Constitution" Participated in the writing of the Federalists Papers In Congress, he wrote the Virginia Plan Was a republican president in a Federalist-controlled Congress. Faced pressure from "War Hawks" like Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun to get involved in the Napoleonic Wars and end the damaging embargo Led the United States into the war of 1812 and concluded the war in 1814 Date: Card #115

112 Non-Intercourse Act Date: 1809 Card #116

113 Non-Intercourse Act Congress opened trade to all nations except France and Britain Trade boycott appeared to have little effect on curbing French and British aggression stemming from the Napoleonic Wars. Though the embargo act was a protective measure, the Non-Intercourse Act re-engaged the United States in trade while continuing its stance against alliances with either France or Britain. The Non-Intercourse Act was repealed in 1810. Date: 1809 Card #116

114 Fletcher v. Peck Date:1810 Card #117

115 Fletcher v. Peck Marshall Court decision
The first time state law was voided on the grounds that it violated a principle of the United States Constitution. The Georgia legislature had issued extensive land grants in a corrupt deal. A legislative session repealed that action because of the corruption The Supreme Court decided that the original contract was valid, regardless of the corruption Reaffirmed the sanctity of contracts Date:1810 Card #117

116 Expansion of Electorate
Date: Card #118

117 Expansion of Electorate
Most states had already eliminated the property qualifications for voting. Blacks were still excluded from polls across the south and most of the north. The political parties established national nomination conventions. Date: Card #118

118 Tecumseh Date: 1811 Card #119

119 Tecumseh Native American chief who was encouraged by the British forces to fight against pressured removal from Western territories William Henry Harrison destroyed the united Native American Confederacy at Tippecanoe Date: 1811 Card #119

120 Causes of the War of 1812 Date: Card #120

121 Causes of the War of 1812 British impressments of American sailors
American frontiersmen wanted more free land, as the West was held by Native Americans and the British The United States suspected the British were encouraging Native American rebellion "War Hawk" Congressional leaders, such as Henry Clay and John Calhoun, pressed for intervention War Hawks desired annexation of Canada and Florida Despite the Embargo Act and Non-Intercourse Act, hostilities could not be cooled The United States sided with France against Britain Date: Card #120

122 War of 1812 Events Date: 1812 Card #121

123 War of 1812 Events Early victories at sea by the United States, then overcome by British. The United States' Admiral Perry took Lake Erie with the navy. Opened the way for William Henry Harrison to invade Canada and defeat the British and Native American forces Andrew Jackson led the American charge through the Southwest. Battle of New Orleans was a decisive conflict where Andrew Jackson defeated the British; battle fought after the signing of the Treaty of Ghent. Date: 1812 Card #121

124 Washington Burned Date: 1814 Card #122

125 Washington Burned During the War of 1812, a British armada sailed up the Chesapeake Bay and burned the White House Attack came in response to the American burning of Toronto The armada proceeded toward Baltimore; America's Fort McHenry held firm through bombardment Inspired Francis Scott Key's "Star Spangled Banner" Date: 1814 Card #122

126 After the War of 1812 Date: Post-1814 Card #123

127 After the War of 1812 Increased American nationalism
High foreign demand for cotton, grain and tobacco Turn from agrarian origins towards industrialization Depression of 1819 due to influx of British goods; the Bank of the United States responded by tightening credit to slow inflation Business Slump Date: Post-1814 Card #123

128 Rush-Bagot Agreement Date: 1817 Card #124

129 Rush-Bagot Agreement The Treaty of Ghent, which ended hostilities after the War of 1812, set the groundwork for this agreement by encouraging both sides to continue to study boundary issues between the United States and Canada Rush-Bagot was an agreement between Britain and the United States to stop maintaining armed fleets on the Great Lakes Served as the first "disbarment" agreement and laid the foundation for future positive relations between Canada and the United States Date: 1817 Card #124

130 James Monroe Date: Card #125

131 James Monroe Fifth President
Led during the "Era of Good Feelings," which was marked by the domination of his political party, the Democratic-Republicans, and the decline of the Federalist Party National identity grew, most notably through the westward movement of the country and various political works projects. Monroe Doctrine -The United States would not allow foreign powers to lead new colonies in the western hemisphere or allow existing colonies to be influenced by outside powers America feared international influence because of a period of world-wide revolutionary fervor after napoleon's fall The "Era" saw the beginnings of North-South tensions over slavery. Date: Card #125

132 Convention of 1818 Date: 1818 Card #126

133 Convention of 1818 Provided for boundary between the United States and Canada at the forty-ninth parallel Allowed joint occupancy of Oregon Territory by Americans and Canadians Permitted American fisherman to fish in the waters of Newfoundland, and Labrador. Date: 1818 Card #126

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