Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Tower of London. Contents The history Inhabitants of The Tower Legends and traditions Architecture.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Tower of London. Contents The history Inhabitants of The Tower Legends and traditions Architecture."— Presentation transcript:

1 Tower of London

2 Contents The history Inhabitants of The Tower Legends and traditions Architecture

3 Tower through the history In its nine hundred year history the Tower of London has been a palace, a fortress, a prison and a Royal menagerie. At its heart is the White Tower which was built by William the First to defend its newly acquired city and to show the citizens who was in charge. Many State prisoners were later to be held within its walls and several would loose their heads on Tower Green including three Queens of England. The Crown Jewels are kept here under lock and key including the regalia used during the coronation ceremony. The Tower is guarded by yeomen warders or beefeaters who still wear traditional Tudor uniforms. Ravens have been here since the Tower was built and tradition has it that a disaster will happen to the Tower and the Kingdom if they leave. So the birds have their wings clipped to prevent them from flying away.Ravens

4 The history It was begun by a man who was not even English, William of Normandy. On October 14, 1066, he conquer England. On Christmas Day later that year, William - now called William the conqueror - was crowned King of England. Immediately after William took over as king, he built forts everywhere. New Tower would be the "symbol of his power, a fortress for his defense, and a prison for his enemies". He named it the Tower of London.William the conqueror The Tower was finished twenty years later, rising nearly one hundred feet high, with its walls fifteen feet thick in certain places. Inside was a chapel, apartments, guardrooms, and crypts. The Tower was protected by a wide ditch, a new stone wall, the old Roman wall, and the river. This was done to secure the fact that this tower was a prison that no prisoner would escape from.

5 The reign of the next king John ( ) saw little new building work at the Tower. John died of dysentery and his son, Henry III, was crowned.king John Henry III With England at war with France, the start of King Henry’s long reign ( ) could have hardly been less auspicious, but within seven months of his accession the French had been defeated and the business of securing the kingdom could begin. King Henry III made this tower his home. He whitewashed the tower, widened the grounds to include a church, a great hall, and other buildings. He renamed the entire new area the Tower of London, and renamed the Tower the White Tower. Although the tower was still a prison, Henry had turned the White Tower into a breathtaking palace. He entertained many important visitors, many of which came with animals as gifts. Near the drawbridge of the tower, Henry built the Lion Tower, a zoo where visitors would be greeted with roaring beasts.White Tower

6 In 1272 King Edward I ( ) came to the throne determined to complete the defensive works begun by his father and extend them as a means of further emphasising royal authority over London.Edward I Edward II Edward II did little more than improve the walls put up by his father, but he was a regular resident during his turbulent reign and he moved his own lodgings from the Wakefield Tower and St Thomas’s Tower to the area round the present Lanthorn Tower. The old royal lodgings were now used for his courtiers and for the storage of official papers by the King’s Wardrobe (a department of government which dealt with royal supplies). The use of the Tower for functions other than military and residential had been started by Edward I who put up a large new building to house the Royal Mint and began to use the castle as a place for storing records. The Tower also served as a treasury (the Crown Jewels were moved from Westminster Abbey to the Tower in 1303) and as a showplace for the King’s animals.Westminster Abbey

7 After the unstable reign of Edward II came that of Edward III ( ). Edward III’s works at the Tower were fairly minor, but he did put up a new gatehouse between the Lanthorn Tower and the Salt Tower, together with the Cradle Tower and its postern (a small subsidiary entrance), a further postern behind the Byward Tower and another at the Develin Tower. He was also responsible for rebuilding the upper parts of the Bloody Tower and creating the vault over the gate passage, but his most substantial achievement was to extend the Tower Wharf eastwards as far as St Thomas’s Tower. This was completed in its present form by his successor Richard II ( ).Edward III Salt TowerCradle Tower Byward Tower Bloody Tower Richard II In 1377, when Richard II was king, the Tower continued to be a stronghold. But four years later, on June 14, a group of overtaxed farmers stormed the Tower. Richard and his brothers safely hid themselves inside. But the farmers found the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Royal Treasurer, a tax official, and a doctor. These men were taken to Tower Hill where their heads where chopped off. Richard later made peace with these farmers. Richard was eventually thrown into a Tower dungeon, where he was forced to give up the throne to Henry IV.Henry IV

8 Henry VII Henry VII moved into the Tower in 1485 after killing Richard III in a battle. King Henry was a very frugal man. He seldom gave parties and tried very hard to avoid war, which both cost a lot of money.Richard III After the death of Henry VII, the Tower of London was never again used to house an English queen or king. The marriage of King Henry VIII to his second wife, Anne Boleyn, took place at the Tower on May 19, A huge party was thrown for the next 11 days at the Tower, topped off with an enormous feast.Henry VIII Anne Boleyn But on May 19, 1536, Anne Boleyn was executed under Henry's orders at the Tower Green. Anne had been accused of misconduct, but the plain truth was that she had born a daughter rather than a son, who would become a future king of England. This daughter was Elizabeth I, who would later become the Queen of England. Elizabeth was held prisoner in the Tower for two months by the order of her half sister, Queen Mary. If you look really carefully, you can see Anne Boleyn's Ghost about the tower. Elizabeth IQueen MaryAnne Boleyn's Ghost

9 The reign of Edward VI ( ) saw no end to the political executions which had begun in his father’s reign. During Edward’s reign the English Church became more Protestant, but the King’s early death in 1553 left the country with a Catholic heir, Mary I (1553-8). During her brief reign many important Protestants and political rivals were either imprisoned or executed at the Tower. The most famous victim was Lady Jane Grey, and the most famous prisoner the Queen’s sister Princess Elizabeth. Elizabeth was released on May 19, In 1558, Elizabeth became the queen of England. She spent three days on her coronation in the Tower, to symbolize that it was her duty to "take possession" of it as the royal monarch of England. On January 15, 1559, she left in a festive parade to be crowned at Westminster Abby. Elizabeth would never return to the Tower. Queen Elizabeth I spent much of her reign warding off the threat from Catholic Europe, and important recusants (people who refused to attend Church of England services) and others who might have opposed her rule were locked up in the Tower.Edward VI Lady Jane Grey

10 After a long period of peace at home, the reign of Charles I saw civil war break out again in 1642, between King and Parliament. As during the Wars of the Roses and previous conflicts, the Tower was recognised as one of the most important of the King’s assets. Londoners, in particular, were frightened that the Tower would be used by him to dominate the City. In 1643, after a political rather than a military struggle, control of the Tower was seized from the King by the parliamentarians and remained in their hands throughout the Civil War (1642-9). The loss of the Tower, and of London as a whole, was a crucial factor in the defeat of Charles I by Parliament. It was during this period that a permanent garrison was installed in the Tower for the first time, by Oliver Cromwell, soon to be Lord Protector but then a prominent parliamentary commander.Oliver Cromwell Today’s small military guard, seen outside the Queen’s House and the Waterloo Barracks, is an echo of Cromwell’s innovation.

11 The monarchy was restored in 1660 and the reign of the new king, Charles II ( ), saw further changes in the functions of the Tower. Its role as a state prison declined, and the Office of Ordnance (which provided military supplies and equipment) took over responsibility for most of the castle, making it their headquarters. During this period another long-standing tradition of the Tower began - the public display of the Crown Jewels. They were moved from their old home to a new site in what is now called the Martin Tower, and put on show by their keeper Talbot Edwards. Under the control of the Office of Ordnance the Tower was filled with a series of munitions stores and workshops for the army and navy. The most impressive and elegant of these was the Grand Storehouse begun in 1688 on the site where the Waterloo Barracks now stand. It was initially a weapons store but as the 17th century drew to a close it became more of a museum of arms and armour.

12 Between 1800 and 1900 the Tower of London took on the appearance which to a large extent it retains today. Early in the century many of the historic institutions which had been based within its walls began to move out. The first to go was the Mint which moved to new buildings to the north east of the castle in 1812, where it remained until 1968, when it moved to its present location near Cardiff. The Royal Menagerie left the Lion Tower in 1834 to become the nucleus of what is now London Zoo, and the Record Office (responsible for storing documents of state), moved to Chancery Lane during the 1850s, vacating parts of the medieval royal lodgings and the White Tower. Finally, after the War Office assumed responsibility for the manufacture and storage of weapons in 1855, large areas of the fortress were vacated by the old Office of Ordnance. The second half of the 19th century saw a great increase in the number of visitors to the Tower, although sightseers had been admitted as early as In 1841 the first official guidebook was issued. By the end of Queen Victoria’s reign in 1901, half a million people were visiting the Tower each year.Queen Victoria’s

13 The 20th Century The First World War ( ) left the Tower largely untouched. However, the war brought the Tower of London back into use as a prison for the first time since the early 19th century and between eleven spies were held and subsequently executed in the Tower. During the Second World War the Tower was closed to the public. The Crown Jewels were removed from the Tower and taken to a place of safety, the location of which has never been disclosed. Today the Tower of London is one of the world’s major tourist attractions and 2.5 million visitors a year come to discover its long and eventful history, its buildings, ceremonies and traditions.

14 Westminster Abbey Collegiate Church of St Peter in Westminster is one of the most final examples of Early English Gothic architecture, founded by Edward the Confessor in 1065 on the site of a church which had been built 500 years earlier. These is where all the English monarchs have been crowned for over 600 years and many of them subsequently buried. Holding pride of place is the tomb of the Unknown Warrior, just inside the west door, commemorating the nation's dead of all ranks and services, nearly a million who perished in the First World War. Among the famous persons buried or commemorated here are Queen Elizabeth 1; King George 2 (the last sovereign to be buried in the Abbey); Scientists: Sir Isaac Newton, Darwin; Writers: Burns, Dickens, Shakespeare, and many, many others. The Abbey's founder is buried in the Chapel of Edward the Confessor where his time-worn tomb was for hundreds of years a place of pilgrimage.

15 King John Lackland Born: 24-Dec-1166 Oxford, England Died: 18-Oct-1216 Newark, Lincolnshire, England Cause of death: Illness Remains: Buried, Worcester Cathedral, Worcester, Religion: Roman Catholic Occupation: Royalty Nationality: England Executive summary: Signed the Magna Carta, then reneged Father: King Henry II Mother: Eleanor of Aquitaine Brother: Henry, Geoffrey, King Richard the Lionheart Wife: Avisa, Isabella of Angoulême Son: King Henry III, Richard, Richard Fitz Roy, Oliver FitzRoy, Geoffrey FitzRoy, John FitzRoy, Henry FitzRoy, Osbert Gifford, Eudes FitzRoy, Bartholomew FitzRoy Daughter: Joanna, Isabella Plantagenet, Eleanor, Maud FitzRoy Mistress: Hawise U.K. Monarch Exiled to France 1180s

16 King Henry III Born: 1-Oct-1207 Birthplace: Winchester, Hampshire, England Died: 16-Nov-1272 Location of death: London, England Cause of death: unspecified Religion: Roman Catholic Occupation: Royalty Nationality: England Executive summary: King of England 1216–72 Father: King John Lackland Mother: Isabella of Angouleme Sister: Eleanor Wife: Eleanor of Provence Son: King Edward I Edmund, Crouchback Daughter: Margaret, Beatrice, Katherine U.K. Monarch 1216–72

17 King Edward I Born: 17-Jun-1239 Birthplace: Palace of Westminster Died: 7-Jul-1307 Location of death: Burgh on Sands, Scotland Cause of death: unspecified Remains: Buried, Westminster Abbey Occupation: Royalty Nationality: England Executive summary: Conquered Wales, persecuted Jews Father: Henry III Mother: Eleanor of Provence Wife: Eleanor de Montfort, Marguerite of France U.K. Monarch Escaped from Prison Hereford, May-1265

18 King Edward III Born: 13-Nov-1312 Birthplace: Windsor, Berkshire, England Died: 21-Jun-1377 Location of death: Sheen Palace, Surrey, England Cause of death: Stroke Remains: Buried, Westminster Abbey, London, England Occupation: Royalty Nationality: England Executive summary: King of England Father: King Edward II Mother: Isabella of France Wife: Philippa of Hainaut Son: Edward the Black Prince, Lionel of Antwerp, John of Gaunt, Edmund of Langley, Thomas of Woodstock Daughter: Isabella Plantagenet, Joan Plantagenet, Blanche Plantagenet, Mary Plantagenet, Margaret Plantagenet Brother: John, Earl of Cornwall U.K. Monarch 29-Jan-1327 to 21-Jun-1377

19 King Edward II Born: 25-Apr-1284 Birthplace: Caernarfon Castle Died: 11-Oct-1327 Cause of death: Murder Occupation: Royalty Nationality: England Executive summary: King of England Father: King Edward I Mother: Eleanor of Castile Brother: Alfonso Wife: Isabella of France Son: King Edward III, John of Eltham, Earl of Cornwall, Adam FitzRoy Daughter: Eleanor, Joanna U.K. Monarch 1307 to 11-Oct-1327 Exiled 2-Oct-1326

20 William the conqueror Born: c Birthplace: Falaise, France Died: 9-Sep-1087 Location of death: Rouen, France Cause of death: Accident - Fall Remains: Buried, St. Stephen's Church, Caen, France Occupation: Royalty, Military Nationality: England Executive summary: Invaded, conquered England in 1066 Father: Robert the Magnificent Mother: Herleva (known as Arletta) Wife: Matilda of Flanders Son: Robert Curthose, King William II, Richard, King Henry I Daughter: Adeliza, Cecilia, Agatha, Adela, Constance, Matilda U.K. Monarch

21 White Tower The first stones of this imposing structure were laid around 1078 by order of William the Conqueror. Its mighty walls are now home to displays from the Royal armouries including original amours worn by Henry VIII and Charles I plus a reconstructed display of the massive collection of weapons once housed in the Grand Storehouse. The 'Spanish Armoury' which contains The Tower's historic instruments of torture, including the infamous block and axe, and then pause for a more peaceful moment in the beautifully preserved 11th century Chapel of St John the Evangelist.

22 Anne Boleyn Born: c Died: 19-May-1536 Cause of death: Execution Remains: Buried, Tower of London, London, England Occupation: Royalty Executive summary: Wife of English King Henry VIII Father: Sir Thomas Boleyn, Earl of Wiltshire and Ormonde Mother: Elizabeth Howard Sister: Mary Boleyn Brother: Marc Smeaton Husband: King Henry VIII Daughter: Queen Elizabeth I (Queen of England) Adultery May-1536 Conspiracy May-1536 Incest May-1536 Prostitution May-1536 Treason May-1536 Witchcraft May-1536

23 Lady Jane Grey Born: 12-Oct-1537 Birthplace: Bradgate Park, Leicestershire, England Died: 12-Feb-1554 Location of death: Tower of London, London, England Cause of death: Execution Religion: Anglican/Episcopalian Occupation: Royalty Nationality: England Executive summary: Queen of England for nine days Father: Henry Grey, Marquess of Dorset Mother: Frances Brandon Husband: Guilford Dudley U.K. Monarch 7-Jul-1553 to 19-Jul-1553 (nine days, deposed)

24 King Richard II Born: 6-Jan-1367 Birthplace: Bordeaux, France Died: 14-Feb-1400 Location of death: Pontefract, Yorkshire, England Cause of death: unspecified Remains: Buried, Westminster Abbey Occupation: Royalty Nationality: England Executive summary: King of England Father: Edward the Black Prince Mother: Joan (aka The Fair Maid of Kent) Wife: Anne of Bohemia, Isabella of Valois U.K. Monarch 1377 to 29-Sep-1399 Abdication 29-Sep-1399

25 King Henry IV Born: 3-Apr-1367 Birthplace: Bolingbroke Castle, Lincolnshire, England Died: 20-Mar-1413 Location of death: London, England Cause of death: unspecified Remains: Buried, Canterbury Cathedral Occupation: Royalty Nationality: England Executive summary: King of England Father: John of Gaunt Mother: Blanche Wife: Mary de Bohun, Joanna of Navarre Son: King Henry V Daughter: Philippa U.K. Monarch 30-Sep-1399 to 20-Mar-1413 Assassination Attempt multiple Exiled by King Richard II 1398 Exhumed

26 King Richard III Born: 2-Oct-1452 Birthplace: Fotheringay Castle, Northamptonshire, England Died: 22-Aug-1485 Location of death: Leicestershire, England Cause of death: War Occupation: Royalty Nationality: England Executive summary: King of England Father: Richard, Duke of York Mother: Cecily Neville Brother: King Edward IV Brother: George, Duke of Clarence Wife: Anne Neville Son: Edward Plantagenet, John of Gloucester Daughter: Kathryn U.K. Monarch 30-Apr-1483 to 22-Aug-1485

27 Queen Elizabeth I Born: 7-Sep-1533 Birthplace: Greenwich, London, England Died: 24-Mar-1603 Location of death: Richmond Palace, Surrey, England Cause of death: Illness Remains: Buried, Westminster Abbey, London, England Religion: Anglican/Episcopalian Occupation: Royalty Nationality: England Executive summary: The Virgin Queen Father: King Henry VIII Mother: Anne Boleyn Brother: King Edward VI Sister: Queen Mary I U.K. Monarch Queen of England, 1558–1603

28 Queen Mary I Born: 18-Feb-1516 Birthplace: Palace of Placentia, Greenwich, England Died: 17-Nov-1558 Location of death: St James's Palace, London, England Cause of death: Influenza Remains: Buried, Westminster Abbey, London, England Religion: Roman Catholic Occupation: Royalty Nationality: England Executive summary: Queen of England Father: King Henry VIII Mother: Catherine of Aragon (Queen of England) Husband: Philip U.K. Monarch 19 July 1553 to 17-Nov-1558 Risk Factors: Insomnia

29 King Henry VIII Born: 28-Jun-1491 Birthplace: Greenwich Palace, London, England Died: 28-Jan-1547 Location of death: Whitehall Palace, London, England Remains: Buried, Windsor Castle, Berkshire, England Religion: Anglican/Episcopalian Occupation: Royalty Nationality: England Executive summary: King of England, Father: King Henry VII Mother: Elizabeth of York Brother: Arthur Sister: Margaret, Mary Wife: Catherine of Aragon, Anne Boleyn, Jane Seymour, Catherine Parr, Catherine Howard, Anne of Cleves Son: Henry, Duke of Cornwall, King Edward VI Daughter: Queen Mary I, Queen Elizabeth I U.K. Monarch 22-Apr-1509 to 28-Jan-1547 (death) Risk Factors: Obesity, Depression

30 Oliver Cromwell Born: 25-Apr-1599 Birthplace: Huntingdon, England Died: 3-Sep-1658 Location of death: London, England Cause of death: unspecified Remains: Buried, Buried Westminster Abbey 1658, then exhumed 1661 and hanged, decapitated Occupation: Government Nationality: England Executive summary: Lord Protector of England Father: Robert Cromwell Mother: Elizabeth Steward Wife: Elizabeth Bourchier Son: Richard Cromwell, Henry Cromwell U.K. Monarch Lord Protector, Exhumed 1661

31 King Edward VI Born: 12-Oct-1537 Birthplace: Placentia Palace, Greenwich, England Died: 6-Jul-1553 Location of death: Greenwich, England Cause of death: Tuberculosis Remains: Buried, Westminster Abbey, London, England Religion: Anglican/Episcopalian Ethnicity: White Occupation: Royalty Nationality: England Executive summary: King of England Father: King Henry VIII Mother: Jane Seymour U.K. Monarch 28-Jan-1547 to 6-Jul-1553

32 Ravens The Ravens are one of The Tower's most famous sights. These magnificent birds have lived within its walls for hundreds of years and legend has it that, if they leave, the kingdom will fall. Look out for these unique guardians around The Tower and make sure you visit their lodgings.

33 The Ghost of Anne Boleyn The King, Henry VIII, after learning the baby she carried for nine months was a boy and still born, accused by her of infidelity. She was taken to Tower Green and was beheaded on May 19, Queen Anne appears near the Queen’s House, close to the site where her execution was carried out. She can be seen leading a ghostly procession of Lords and Ladies down the aisle of the Chapel Royal of St. Peter ad Vincula. She floats down the aisle to her final resting place. Queen Anne is buried under the Chapel’s altar. Her headless body has also been seen walking the corridors of the Tower.

34 Anne Boleyn Anne Boleyn was an intelligent middle class girl who rose through the ranks to become consort to one of Europe's great matrimonial prizes - King Henry VIII. She was the daughter of Thomas Boleyn. When Henry VIII's first wife, Catherine of Aragon, failed to produce a male heir, the King started to rove. Anne, however, was a perfect foil to an ageing king.. Henry sought a divorce from Catherine. Henry VIII, after having left the Catholic fold, became supreme head of the Church of England and married his lover, Anne Boleyn. The coronation of this new consort was the first time that cannons were used at the Tower of London to mark a celebration. The public didn't like Anne Boleyn. A sign of the new era can be seen in one of the motifs of Anne Boleyn; the image shows a white dove (Anne's heraldic image) pecking at a pomegranate (Catherine's emblem). Anne Boleyn

35 When she became pregnant, everybody was certain that it would be a prince. However, Anne gave birth to the future Elizabeth I. This was the start of the end for Anne. Henry VIII Henry VIII believed that this new marriage was cursed and he wasn't given a male heir as punishment. He needed an escape from the marriage. An exit was provided by the death of Catherine of Aragon. Anne Boleyn was arrested on charges of treason, sorcery and incest with her brother Viscount Rochford (to produce that all important male heir) - all of them false accusations. Anne was executed at the scaffold site on 19 May She has the distinction of being the only one of the ladies who was beheaded with a sword, as is the French way, by the Swordsman of Calais. Anne Boleyn and Henry VIII

36 King Henry VIII Born: 28-Jun-1491 Birthplace: Greenwich Palace, London, England Died: 28-Jan-1547 Location of death: Whitehall Palace, London, England Remains: Buried, Windsor Castle, Berkshire, England Religion: Anglican/Episcopalian Occupation: Royalty Nationality: England Executive summary: King of England, Father: King Henry VII Mother: Elizabeth of York Brother: Arthur Sister: Margaret, Mary Wife: Catherine of Aragon, Anne Boleyn, Jane Seymour, Catherine Parr, Catherine Howard, Anne of Cleves Son: Henry, Duke of Cornwall, King Edward VI Daughter: Queen Mary I, Queen Elizabeth I U.K. Monarch 22-Apr-1509 to 28-Jan-1547 (death) Risk Factors: Obesity, Depression

37 King Henry VII Born: 28-Jan-1457 Birthplace: Pembroke, Wales Died: 21-Apr-1509 Cause of death: unspecified Remains: Buried, Westminster Abbey, London, England Occupation: Royalty Nationality: England Executive summary: King of England Father: Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond Mother: Margaret Beaufort Wife: Elizabeth of York (m. 18-Jan-1486, d. 2-Feb-1503) Son: Arthur, Prince of Wales, King Henry VIII, Edmund Tudor, Duke of Somerset Daughter: Margaret Tudor, Elizabeth Tudor, Mary Tudor, Katherine Tudor U.K. Monarch 22-Aug-1485 to 21-Apr-1509

38 Queen Victoria Born: 24-May-1819 Birthplace: Kensington Palace, Kensington, London Died: 22-Jan-1901 Location of death: Osborne House, East Cowes, Isle of Wight, England Cause of death: Cerebral Hemorrhage Remains: Buried, The Mausoleum, Frogmore, Windsor Castle, England Occupation: Royalty Nationality: England Executive summary: Longest-reigning British monarch Father: Prince Edward Augustus Mother: Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld Husband: Albert Augustus Saxe-Coburg-Gotha Daughter: Princess Victoria, Princess Beatrice, Princess Alice, Princess Helena, Princess Louise Son: King Edward VII, Prince Alfred, Prince Arthur, Prince Leopold U.K. Monarch

39 Kings and Queens of England 25-Dec Sep-1087William the Conqueror(b. 1027, d. 1087) 26-Sep Aug-1100King William II(b. 1056, d. 1100) 05-Aug Dec-1135King Henry I(b. 1068, d. 1135) 22-Dec Oct-1154King Stephen(b. circa 1097, d. 1154) 19-Dec Jul-1189King Henry II(b. 1133, d. 1189) 06-Jul Apr-1199King Richard the Lionheart(b. 1157, d. 1199) 06-Apr Oct-1216King John Lackland(b. 1167, d. 1216) 28-Oct Nov-1272King Henry III(b. 1207, d. 1272) 20-Nov Jul-1307King Edward I(b. 1239, d. 1307) 07-Jul Jan-1327King Edward II(b. 1284, d. 1237) 24-Jan Jun-1377King Edward III(b. 1312, d. 1377)

40 21-Jun Sep-1399King Richard II(b. 1367, d. 1400) 30-Sep Mar-1413King Henry IV(b. 1366, d. 1413) 20-Mar Aug-1422King Henry V(b. 1387, d. 1422) 31-Aug Mar-1461King Henry VI(b. 1421, d. 1471) 04-Mar Apr-1483King Edward IV(b. 1442, d. 1483) 09-Apr Jun-1483King Edward V(b. 1470, d. 1483) 30-Apr Aug-1485King Richard III(b. 1452, d. 1485) 22-Aug Apr-1509King Henry VII(b. 1457, d. 1509) 22-Apr Jan-1547King Henry VIII(b. 1491, d. 1547) 28-Jan Jul-1553King Edward VI(b. 1537, d. 1553) 07-Jul Jul-1553Lady Jane Grey(b. 1537, d. 1554)

41 19-Jul Nov-1558Queen Mary I(b. 1516, d. 1558) 17-Nov Mar-1603Queen Elizabeth I(b. 1533, d. 1603) 24-Mar Mar-1625King James I(b. 1566, d. 1625) 27-Mar Jan-1649King Charles I(suspended; b. 1600, d. 1649) The Commonwealth Rule by Oliver Cromwell et. al.Oliver Cromwell 29-May Feb-1685King Charles II(b. 1630, d. 1685) 06-Feb Dec-1688King James II(abdicated; b. 1633, d. 1701) 24-Dec Feb-1689InterregnumParliamentary rule 23-Feb Mar-1702William of Orange(b. 1650, d. 1702) 23-Feb Jan-1695Queen Mary II(b. 1662, d. 1695) 19-Mar Aug-1714Queen Anne(b. 1665, d. 1714)

42 12-Aug Jun-1727King George I(b. 1660, d. 1727) 22-Jun Oct-1760King George II(b. 1683, d. 1760) 25-Oct Jan-1820King George III(b. 1738, d. 1820) 29-Jan Jun-1830King George IV(b. 1762, d. 1830) 26-Jun Jun-1837King William IV(b. 1765, d. 1837) 20-Jun Jan-1901Queen Victoria(b. 1819, d. 1901) 22-Jan May-1910King Edward VII(b. 1841, d. 1910) 06-May Jan-1936King George V(b. 1865, d. 1936) 20-Jan Dec-1936King Edward VIII(abdicated; b. 1894, d. 1972) 11-Dec Feb-1952King George VI(b. 1895, d. 1952) 06-Feb-1952presentQueen Elizabeth II(b. 1926

43 William the conqueror Born: c Birthplace: Falaise, France Died: 9-Sep-1087 Location of death: Rouen, France Cause of death: Accident - Fall Remains: Buried, St. Stephen's Church, Caen, France Occupation: Royalty, Military Nationality: England Executive summary: Invaded, conquered England in 1066 Father: Robert the Magnificent Mother: Herleva (known as Arletta) Wife: Matilda of Flanders Son: Robert Curthose, King William II, Richard, King Henry I Daughter: Adeliza, Cecilia, Agatha, Adela, Constance, Matilda U.K. Monarch

44 King William II Born: c Died: 2-Aug-1100 Location of death: New Forest, Hampshire, England Cause of death: Accident - Misc Remains: Buried, Winchester, England Occupation: Royalty Nationality: England Executive summary: King of England Father: William the Conqueror Mother: Matilda of Flanders Brother: Robert Curthose Brother: King Henry I U.K. Monarch

45 King Henry I Born: c Birthplace: Selby, Yorkshire, England Died: 1-Dec-1135 Location of death: Lyons-la-Forêt, Normandy Cause of death: unspecified Remains: Buried, Reading Abbey Occupation: Royalty Nationality: England Executive summary: King of England Father: William the Conqueror Mother: Matilda Brother: King William II, Robert Wife: Edith (known as Matilda), Adeliza Daughter: Maud Son: William Adelin U.K. Monarch

46 King Stephen Born: 1096 Birthplace: Blois, France Died: 25-Oct-1154 Location of death: Dover, England Cause of death: unspecified Remains: Buried, Faversham Abbey Religion: Roman Catholic Occupation: Royalty Nationality: England Executive summary: King of England Father: Stephen, Count of Blois Mother: Adela of Normandy Wife: Matilda Son: Eustace IV, Baldwin, William of Blois, Gervase Daughter: Matilda, Mary U.K. Monarch 22-Dec-1135 to 25-Oct-1154

47 King Henry II Born: 5-Mar-1133 Birthplace: Le Mans, Maine, France Died: 6-Jul-1189 Location of death: Tours, France Cause of death: unspecified Occupation: Royalty Nationality: England Executive summary: King of England Father: Geoffrey the Fair, Duke of Anjou (d. 1151) Mother: Empress Matilda Wife: Eleanor of Aquitaine (m. 1152) Son: William, Henry, King Richard the Lionheart, Geoffrey, King John Lackland, William de Longespee, Geoffrey, Morgan Daughter: Matilda, Eleanor, Joan, Matilda Mistress: Rosamund Clifford, Alys, Ida, Ykenai U.K. Monarch

48 King Richard the Lionheart Born: 8-Sep-1157 Birthplace: Oxford, England Died: 6-Apr-1199 Location of death: Chalus, France Cause of death: War Remains: Buried, Fontevraud Abbey, near Chinon, France Religion: Roman Catholic Occupation: Head of State Nationality: England Executive summary: King of England, Father: King Henry II Mother: Eleanor of Aquitaine Brother: King John Lackland Wife: Berengaria of Navarre Son: Philip Fitzroy U.K. Monarch French Ancestry Maternal

49 King John Lackland Born: 24-Dec-1166 Oxford, England Died: 18-Oct-1216 Newark, Lincolnshire, England Cause of death: Illness Remains: Buried, Worcester Cathedral, Worcester, Religion: Roman Catholic Occupation: Royalty Nationality: England Executive summary: Signed the Magna Carta, then reneged Father: King Henry II Mother: Eleanor of Aquitaine Brother: Henry, Geoffrey, King Richard the Lionheart Wife: Avisa, Isabella of Angoulême Son: King Henry III, Richard, Richard Fitz Roy, Oliver FitzRoy, Geoffrey FitzRoy, John FitzRoy, Henry FitzRoy, Osbert Gifford, Eudes FitzRoy, Bartholomew FitzRoy Daughter: Joanna, Isabella Plantagenet, Eleanor, Maud FitzRoy Mistress: Hawise U.K. Monarch Exiled to France 1180s

50 King Henry III Born: 1-Oct-1207 Birthplace: Winchester, Hampshire, England Died: 16-Nov-1272 Location of death: London, England Cause of death: unspecified Religion: Roman Catholic Occupation: Royalty Nationality: England Executive summary: King of England 1216–72 Father: King John Lackland Mother: Isabella of Angouleme Sister: Eleanor Wife: Eleanor of Provence Son: King Edward I Edmund, Crouchback Daughter: Margaret, Beatrice, Katherine U.K. Monarch 1216–72

51 King Edward I Born: 17-Jun-1239 Birthplace: Palace of Westminster Died: 7-Jul-1307 Location of death: Burgh on Sands, Scotland Cause of death: unspecified Remains: Buried, Westminster Abbey Occupation: Royalty Nationality: England Executive summary: Conquered Wales, persecuted Jews Father: Henry III Mother: Eleanor of Provence Wife: Eleanor de Montfort, Marguerite of France U.K. Monarch Escaped from Prison Hereford, May-1265

52 King Edward II Born: 25-Apr-1284 Birthplace: Caernarfon Castle Died: 11-Oct-1327 Cause of death: Murder Occupation: Royalty Nationality: England Executive summary: King of England Father: King Edward I Mother: Eleanor of Castile Brother: Alfonso Wife: Isabella of France Son: King Edward III, John of Eltham, Earl of Cornwall, Adam FitzRoy Daughter: Eleanor, Joanna U.K. Monarch 1307 to 11-Oct-1327 Exiled 2-Oct-1326

53 King Edward III Born: 13-Nov-1312 Birthplace: Windsor, Berkshire, England Died: 21-Jun-1377 Location of death: Sheen Palace, Surrey, England Cause of death: Stroke Remains: Buried, Westminster Abbey, London, England Occupation: Royalty Nationality: England Executive summary: King of England Father: King Edward II Mother: Isabella of France Wife: Philippa of Hainaut Son: Edward the Black Prince, Lionel of Antwerp, John of Gaunt, Edmund of Langley, Thomas of Woodstock Daughter: Isabella Plantagenet, Joan Plantagenet, Blanche Plantagenet, Mary Plantagenet, Margaret Plantagenet Brother: John, Earl of Cornwall U.K. Monarch 29-Jan-1327 to 21-Jun-1377

54 King Richard II Born: 6-Jan-1367 Birthplace: Bordeaux, France Died: 14-Feb-1400 Location of death: Pontefract, Yorkshire, England Cause of death: unspecified Remains: Buried, Westminster Abbey Occupation: Royalty Nationality: England Executive summary: King of England Father: Edward the Black Prince Mother: Joan (aka The Fair Maid of Kent) Wife: Anne of Bohemia, Isabella of Valois U.K. Monarch 1377 to 29-Sep-1399 Abdication 29-Sep-1399

55 King Henry IV Born: 3-Apr-1367 Birthplace: Bolingbroke Castle, Lincolnshire, England Died: 20-Mar-1413 Location of death: London, England Cause of death: unspecified Remains: Buried, Canterbury Cathedral Occupation: Royalty Nationality: England Executive summary: King of England Father: John of Gaunt Mother: Blanche Wife: Mary de Bohun, Joanna of Navarre Son: King Henry V Daughter: Philippa U.K. Monarch 30-Sep-1399 to 20-Mar-1413 Assassination Attempt multiple Exiled by King Richard II 1398 Exhumed

56 King Henry V Born: 9-Aug-1387 Birthplace: Monmouth, Wales Died: 31-Aug-1422 Location of death: Bois de Vincennes, France Cause of death: Illness Occupation: Royalty Nationality: England Executive summary: King of England Father: King Henry IV Mother: Mary de Bohun Wife: Catherine of Valois (m. Jun-1420) Son: King Henry VI U.K. Monarch 20-Mar-1413 to 31-Aug-1422

57 King Henry VI Born: 6-Dec-1421 Birthplace: Windsor Castle Died: 21-May-1471 Location of death: Tower of London, London, England Cause of death: Murder Remains: Buried, Windsor Castle Occupation: Royalty Nationality: England Executive summary: King of England Father: King Henry V Mother: Catherine of Valois Wife: Margaret of Anjou (m. 1445) Son: Edward, Prince of Wales (b. 13-Oct-1453, d. 20-May-1471) U.K. Monarch 31-Aug-1422 to 04-Mar-1461 Nervous Breakdown Jul-1453 to 25-Dec-1454 Exiled to Scotland 4-Mar-1461 French Ancestry Maternal

58 King Edward IV Born: 28-Apr-1442 Birthplace: Rouen, France Died: 9-Apr-1483 Cause of death: unspecified Remains: Buried, Windsor Castle Occupation: Royalty Nationality: England Executive summary: King of England Father: Richard, Duke of York Mother: Cecily Neville Wife: Lady Eleanor Talbot, Elizabeth Woodville Son: Edward de Wigmore, King Edward V, Richard, George, Arthur Plantagenet Daughter: Elizabeth of York, Mary of York, Cecily of York, Margaret of York, Anne of York, Catherine of York, Bridget of York, Elizabeth Plantagenet, Grace Plantagenet, Mary Plantagenet Mistress: Elizabeth Lucy U.K. Monarch 4-Mar-1461 to 9-Apr-1483

59 King Edward V Born: 4-Nov-1470 Birthplace: Westminster Abbey, London, England Died: c Cause of death: unspecified Occupation: Royalty Nationality: England Executive summary: King of England 1483 Father: King Edward IV Mother: Queen Elizabeth Woodville Brother: Richard, Duke of York (b. 17-Aug-1473, d. c. 1483) U.K. Monarch 9-Apr-1483 to 25-Jun-1483

60 King Richard III Born: 2-Oct-1452 Birthplace: Fotheringay Castle, Northamptonshire, England Died: 22-Aug-1485 Location of death: Leicestershire, England Cause of death: War Occupation: Royalty Nationality: England Executive summary: King of England Father: Richard, Duke of York Mother: Cecily Neville Brother: King Edward IV Brother: George, Duke of Clarence Wife: Anne Neville Son: Edward Plantagenet, John of Gloucester Daughter: Kathryn U.K. Monarch 30-Apr-1483 to 22-Aug-1485

61 King Henry VII Born: 28-Jan-1457 Birthplace: Pembroke, Wales Died: 21-Apr-1509 Cause of death: unspecified Remains: Buried, Westminster Abbey, London, England28-Jan21-Apr1509 Occupation: RoyaltyRoyalty Nationality: England Executive summary: King of England Father: Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond Mother: Margaret Beaufort Wife: Elizabeth of York Son: Arthur, Prince of Wales, King Henry VIII, Edmund Tudor, Duke of Somerset Daughter: Margaret Tudor, Elizabeth Tudor, Mary Tudor, Katherine TudorKing Henry VIIIMargaret Tudor U.K. MonarchU.K. Monarch 22-Aug-1485 to 21-Apr-1509

62 King Henry VIII Born: 28-Jun-1491 Birthplace: Greenwich Palace, London, England Died: 28-Jan-1547 Location of death: Whitehall Palace, London, England Remains: Buried, Windsor Castle, Berkshire, England Religion: Anglican/Episcopalian Occupation: Royalty Nationality: England Executive summary: King of England, Father: King Henry VII Mother: Elizabeth of York Brother: Arthur Sister: Margaret, Mary Wife: Catherine of Aragon, Anne Boleyn, Jane Seymour, Catherine Parr, Catherine Howard, Anne of Cleves Son: Henry, Duke of Cornwall, King Edward VI Daughter: Queen Mary I, Queen Elizabeth I U.K. Monarch 22-Apr-1509 to 28-Jan-1547 (death) Risk Factors: Obesity, Depression

63 King Edward VI Born: 12-Oct-1537 Birthplace: Placentia Palace, Greenwich, England Died: 6-Jul-1553 Location of death: Greenwich, England Cause of death: Tuberculosis Remains: Buried, Westminster Abbey, London, England Religion: Anglican/Episcopalian Ethnicity: White Occupation: Royalty Nationality: England Executive summary: King of England Father: King Henry VIII Mother: Jane Seymour U.K. Monarch 28-Jan-1547 to 6-Jul-1553

64 Lady Jane Grey Born: 12-Oct-1537 Birthplace: Bradgate Park, Leicestershire, England Died: 12-Feb-1554 Location of death: Tower of London, London, England Cause of death: Execution Religion: Anglican/Episcopalian Occupation: Royalty Nationality: England Executive summary: Queen of England for nine days Father: Henry Grey, Marquess of Dorset Mother: Frances Brandon Husband: Guilford Dudley U.K. Monarch 7-Jul-1553 to 19-Jul-1553 (nine days, deposed)

65 Queen Mary I Born: 18-Feb-1516 Birthplace: Palace of Placentia, Greenwich, England Died: 17-Nov-1558 Location of death: St James's Palace, London, England Cause of death: Influenza Remains: Buried, Westminster Abbey, London, England Religion: Roman Catholic Occupation: Royalty Nationality: England Executive summary: Queen of England Father: King Henry VIII Mother: Catherine of Aragon (Queen of England) Husband: Philip U.K. Monarch 19 July 1553 to 17-Nov-1558 Risk Factors: Insomnia

66 Queen Elizabeth I Born: 7-Sep-1533 Birthplace: Greenwich, London, England Died: 24-Mar-1603 Location of death: Richmond Palace, Surrey, England Cause of death: Illness Remains: Buried, Westminster Abbey, London, England Religion: Anglican/Episcopalian Occupation: Royalty Nationality: England Executive summary: The Virgin Queen Father: King Henry VIII Mother: Anne Boleyn Brother: King Edward VI Sister: Queen Mary I U.K. Monarch Queen of England, 1558–1603

67 King James I Born: 19-Jun-1566 Birthplace: Edinburgh Castle, Edinburgh, Scotland Died: 27-Mar-1625 Location of death: Theobalds, Hertfordshire, England Cause of death: unspecified Remains: Buried, Westminster Abbey, London, England Occupation: Royalty Nationality: England Executive summary: King of England Father: Henry Stuart, Duke of Albany (d. 10-Feb-1567, murder) Mother: Queen Mary I Wife: Anne of Denmark (m. 21-Jan-1590) Son: Henry, Prince of Wales 19 February November 1612 Daughter: Elizabeth Stuart, Margaret Stuart, Mary Stuart Son: King Charles I, Robert U.K. Monarch 24-Mar-1603 to 27-Mar-1625 Scottish Monarch 1567 forward (as James VI) Assassination Attempt Gunpowder Plot 1605

68 King Charles I Born: 19-Nov-1600 Died: 30-Jan-1649 Location of death: Whitehall Palace, London, England Cause of death: Execution Occupation: Royalty Executive summary: King of England, Scotland, Ireland Father: James VI, King of Scots Mother: Anne of Denmark Brother: Henry, Prince of Wales Sister: Elizabeth Wife: Henrietta Maria Son: Charles James, Duke of Cornwall, King Charles II, King James II, Henry, Duke of Gloucester Daughter: Mary, Princess Royal, Elizabeth Stuart, Anne Stuart, Catherine Stuart, Henrietta Anne Stuart U.K. Monarch 27-Mar-1625 to 30-Jan-1649 Escaped from Prison 11-Nov-1647 Treason

69 Oliver Cromwell Born: 25-Apr-1599 Birthplace: Huntingdon, England Died: 3-Sep-1658 Location of death: London, England Cause of death: unspecified Remains: Buried, Buried Westminster Abbey 1658, then exhumed 1661 and hanged, decapitated Occupation: Government Nationality: England Executive summary: Lord Protector of England Father: Robert Cromwell Mother: Elizabeth Steward Wife: Elizabeth Bourchier Son: Richard Cromwell, Henry Cromwell U.K. Monarch Lord Protector, Exhumed 1661

70 King James II Born: 14-Oct-1633 Died: 16-Sep-1701 Location of death: Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France Cause of death: unspecified Remains: Buried, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France Occupation: Royalty Military service: French Army; Royal Navy Parents: King Charles I, Henrietta Maria Brother: King Charles II (d. 1685) Wife: Lady Anne Hyde, Mary of Modena Son: Charles, Duke of Cambridge, James Francis Edward Stuart, Charles, Edgar, Duke of Cambridge, Charles, James Daughter: Queen Mary II, Queen Anne, Henrietta, Catherine, Catherine, Isabel, Elizabeth, Charlotte, Louise U.K. Monarch 6-Feb-1685 to 11-Dec-1688 Scottish Monarch as James VII House Arrest Oxford 1646 Escaped from Prison 1648 Converted to Catholicism 1668 Assassination Attempt The Rye House Plot, 1683 Abdication 11-Dec-1688 Exiled to France, 1690

71 William of Orange Born: 14-Nov-1650 Birthplace: The Hague, Netherlands Died: 8-Mar-1702 Cause of death: Accident - Fall Remains: Buried, Westminster Abbey Religion: Protestant Occupation: Royalty, Military Nationality: England Executive summary: Conquered England, Scotland, Ireland Father: William II, Prince of Orange Mother: Mary Wife: Mary (m. 4-Nov-1677, d. Dec-1694, smallpox) U.K. Monarch

72 Queen Mary II Born: 30-Apr-1662 Birthplace: St. James's Palace, London, England Died: 28-Dec-1694 Location of death: Kensington Palace, London, England Cause of death: Illness Remains: Buried, Westminster Abbey, London, England Religion: Anglican/Episcopalian Occupation: Head of State, Royalty Nationality: England Executive summary: Queen of England Father: King James II Mother: Lady Anne Hyde (d. 1671) Sister: Queen Anne Husband: King William III (King of England, m. 4-Nov-1677) U.K. Monarch 13-Feb-1689 to 28-Dec-1694

73 Queen Anne Born: 6-Feb-1665 Birthplace: St. James's Palace, London, England Died: 1-Aug-1714 Location of death: Kensington Palace, London, England Cause of death: Stroke Remains: Buried, Westminster Abbey, London, England Religion: Anglican/Episcopalian Occupation: Royalty Nationality: England Executive summary: Queen of England Father: King James II Mother: Lady Anne Hyde Sister: Queen Mary II Husband: Prince George of Denmark Daughter: Mary, Anne Sophia, Mary Son: William, George U.K. Monarch 8-Mar-1702 to 1-Aug-1714

74 King George I Born: 28-May-1660 Birthplace: Hanover, Germany Died: 11-Jun-1727 Location of death: Osnabrück, Germany Cause of death: Stroke Occupation: Royalty Nationality: England Executive summary: King of England Father: Ernst August Mother: Sophia Wife: Princess Sophia of Celle Son: King George II Daughter: Sophia Dorothea Mistress: Ehrengard Melusine von der Schulenburg U.K. Monarch 1-Aug-1714 to 11-Jun-1727 German Ancestry

75 King George II Born: 10-Nov-1683 Birthplace: Herrenhausen Palace, Hanover, Germany Died: 25-Oct-1760 Location of death: London, England Cause of death: Stroke Remains: Buried, Westminster Abbey, London, England Religion: Anglican/Episcopalian Nationality: England Executive summary: King of Britain, Military service: Battle of Dettingen Father: King George I Mother: Sophia Dorothea of Celle Wife: Caroline of Ansbach Son: Frederick Louis, Prince George William, Prince William Augustus Daughter: Princess Anne, Princess Amelia Sophia Eleanor, Princess Caroline Elizabeth, Princess Mary, Princess Louisa U.K. Monarch Naturalized U.K. Citizen 1705

76 King George III Born: 4-Jun-1738 Birthplace: London, England Died: 29-Jan-1820 Location of death: Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England Cause of death: unspecified Remains: Buried, St. George's Chapel, Windsor, Berkshire Religion: Anglican/Episcopalian Executive summary: King of England, Father: Prince Frederick Mother: Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha Wife: Princess Sophia Charlotte Son: King George IV, Ernest Augustus I, Prince Frederick, Prince Edward Augustus Daughter: Princess Charlotte, Princess Augusta Sophia, Princess Elizabeth U.K. Monarch

77 King George IV Born: 12-Aug-1762 Birthplace: St. James's Palace, London, England Died: 26-Jun-1830 Location of death: Windsor Castle, Berkshire, England Cause of death: unspecified Remains: Buried, Windsor Castle Occupation: Royalty Nationality: England Executive summary: King of England Father: King George III Mother: Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz Wife: Maria Anne Fitzherbert, Caroline of Brunswick Daughter: Princess Charlotte Augusta, Georgina Frederica Augusta Elliott Son: George Milbanke Mistress: Mary Robinson, Grace Dalrymple, Frances, Lady Jersey, Elizabeth Milbanke U.K. Monarch 29-Jan-1820 to 26-Jun-1830

78 King William IV Born: 21-Aug-1765 Died: 20-Jun-1837 Cause of death: Heart Failure Remains: Buried Executive summary: King of England Military service: British Royal Navy ( ) Parents: King George III, Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz Brother: King George IV, Frederick Wife: Princess Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen Daughter: Charlotte Augusta Louisa Hanover, Elizabeth Georgiana Adelaide Hanover, Sophia FitzClarence, Mary FitzClarence, Elizabeth FitzClarence, Augusta FitzClarence, Amelia FitzClarence Son: George Augustus Frederick FitzClarence, Henry Edward FitzClarence, Frederick FitzClarence, Adolphus FitzClarence, Augustus FitzClarence, William von Linsingen Mistress: Dorothea Jordan U.K. Monarch 26-Jun-1830 to 20-Jun-1837 Knight of the British Empire (Order of the Thistle) 5-Apr-1770 Knight of the British Empire (Order of the Garter) 19-Apr-1782

79 Queen Victoria Born: 24-May-1819 Birthplace: Kensington Palace, Kensington, London Died: 22-Jan-1901 Location of death: Osborne House, East Cowes, Isle of Wight, England Cause of death: Cerebral Hemorrhage Remains: Buried, The Mausoleum, Frogmore, Windsor Castle, England Occupation: Royalty Nationality: England Executive summary: Longest-reigning British monarch Father: Prince Edward Augustus Mother: Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld Husband: Albert Augustus Saxe-Coburg-Gotha Daughter: Princess Victoria, Princess Beatrice, Princess Alice, Princess Helena, Princess Louise Son: King Edward VII, Prince Alfred, Prince Arthur, Prince Leopold U.K. Monarch

80 King Edward VII Born: 9-Nov-1841 Birthplace: Buckingham Palace, London, England Died: 6-May-1910 Cause of death: unspecified Religion: Anglican/Episcopalian Occupation: Royalty Nationality: England Executive summary: King of England, Father: Albert Augustus Saxe-Coburg-Gotha Mother: Queen Victoria Wife: Princess Alexandra Oldenburg Son: Albert Victor, King George V Daughter: Louise Victoria Alexandra, Victoria, Maud University: Trinity College, Cambridge University U.K. Monarch British Museum Trustee Assassination Attempt 1899, Brussels Freemasonry

81 King George V Born: 3-Jun-1865 Birthplace: Marlborough House, London, England Died: 20-Jan-1936 Location of death: Sandringham, Norfolk, England Cause of death: Influenza Remains: Buried, Windsor, Berkshire, England Religion: Anglican/Episcopalian Occupation: Royalty Executive summary: King of England, Father: King Edward VII Mother: Princess Alexandra Oldenburg Brother: Albert Victor Sister: Louise Victoria Alexandra, Victoria, Maud Wife: Mary Von Teck Son: King Edward VIII, King George VI, Henry William Frederick Windsor, George Edward Alexander Windsor, John Charles Francis Windsor Daughter: Victoria Alexandra Alice Mary Windsor U.K. Monarch Danish Ancestry Maternal side

82 King Edward VIII Born: 23-Jun-1894 Birthplace: White Lodge, Surrey, England Died: 28-May-1972 Location of death: Bois De Boulogne, Paris, France Cause of death: Cancer - Throat Remains: Buried, Frogmore, Windsor, Berkshire, England Religion: Anglican/Episcopalian Occupation: Royalty Executive summary: King of England, 1936 Military service: British Army Father: King George V Mother: Mary Von Teck Brother: King George VI, Henry William Frederick Windsor, George Edward Alexander Windsor, John Charles Francis Windsor Sister: Victoria Alexandra Alice Mary Windsor Wife: Wallis Simpson U.K. Monarch 1936 Emperor of India 20-Jan-1936 to 11-Dec-1936 Abdication 11-Dec-1936

83 King George VI Born: 14-Dec-1895 Birthplace: Sandringham, Norfolk, England Died: 6-Feb-1952 Location of death: Sandringham, Norfolk, England Cause of death: Cancer - Lung Religion: Anglican/Episcopalian Occupation: Royalty Executive summary: King of England, Became King of England following the abdication of his brother, King Edward VIII. Father: King George V Mother: Mary Von Teck Brother: King Edward VIII, Henry William Frederick Windsor, George Edward Alexander Windsor, John Charles Francis Windsor Sister: Victoria Alexandra Alice Mary Windsor Wife: Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon Daughter: Queen Elizabeth II, Princess Margaret U.K. Monarch

84 Queen Elizabeth II Born: 21-Apr-1926 Birthplace: London, England Religion: Anglican/Episcopalian Occupation: Royalty Nationality: England Executive summary: Queen of England, Has quite a thing for corgis. Father: King George VI Mother: Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon Sister: Princess Margaret Husband: Prince Philip Son: Prince Charles, Prince Andrew, Prince Edward Daughter: Princess Anne Time Man of the Year 1952 Star of India U.K. Monarch Birthday Is Holiday 21-Apr Queen's Birthday (Commonwealth) Risk Factors: Depression

85 King Charles II Born: 29-May-1630 Birthplace: St. James's Palace, London, England Died: 6-Feb-1685 Location of death: Whitehall Palace, London, England Cause of death: Stroke Remains: Buried, Westminster Abbey, London, England Father: King Charles I Mother: Henrietta Maria of France Brother: King James II Wife: Catherine of Braganza Mistress: Lucy Walter, Barbara Villiers, Nell Gwynne, Louise Renée de Penancoët de Kérouaille, Elizabeth Killigrew, Catherine Pegge, Mary Davis, Hortense Mancini, Winifred Wells, Jane Roberts, Mary Sackville, Elizabeth Fitzgerald Son: James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth U.K. Monarch 29-May-1660 to 6-Feb-1685 Converted to Catholicism on his deathbed English Ancestry Paternal, French Ancestry Maternal

86 Legends and traditions Ravens Yeoman Warders Ghosts

87 Ravens Legend has it that if the ravens leave, The Tower of London will fall and so will the monarchy. A decree by King Charles II ordered that there would always be at least six ravens in residence. Therefore, when the birds get older, new ones are brought in to take their place. The Tower’s ravens, which are world renowned as a tourist attraction, are probably the most pampered birds on earth. Each is fed daily with six ounces of raw meat and special biscuits soaked in blood, supplemented by an occasional egg, a whole rabbit and scraps from the kitchen. In the unlikely event that the ravens might prefer to take their chances in the wild, rather than having all their meals provided, they are prevented from flying away by having their lifting feathers carefully clipped by the Raven Master. This is a painless procedure that simply unbalances their flight. Even so, there have been some raven escapes over the years. One, named Grog, was found outside a public house in the East End of London.

88 Very occasionally, ravens have been subject to military discipline and banished from the Tower. For example, in 1996 two ravens were dismissed by the governor. A Tower order stated “On 4 May, having spent the past few months under close arrest for conduct unbecoming to Tower residents, these ravens are to be removed from the Tower establishment. Services no longer required.” Ravens live to a ripe old age. The oldest recorded Tower raven was Jim Crow who lived until he was 44. Today, the oldest resident is Hardey – a mere 26 years old.

89 Yeoman Warders One of the most popular Tower attractions involves people: the Yeoman Warders to be exact. They were originally established in 1485 as King Henry VIII's bodyguard. They are perhaps best known for their gorgeous scarlet and gold dress uniforms which date to 1552 and are worn on state occasions. They are usually seen at the Tower in the blue undress uniform granted to them by Queen Victoria in The Yeomen Warders, also known as the beefeaters, are armed with a haberd or pike known as a partisan. The Chief Warder carries a staff surmounted by a silver model of the White Tower, while his second-in-command, the Yeoman Gaoler, possesses a ceremonial axe.

90 According to The London Encyclopedia, the popular name beefeaters may have been derived from their fondness for roast beef; however, it has also been suggested that it comes from the French buffetier. Moreover, the term may originally have been derogatory, used by the lower classes in sneering at the "pampered guards" who regularly ate beef, while they rarely had any. There are 36 Yeoman Warders at the Tower plus the Chief Yeoman Warder and Yeoman Gaoler There are two uniforms for the Body. The ceremonial uniform is worn for State Occasions ie, when the monarch visits the Palace or for any state occasion that the Body attends. It is predominantly red and gold with red stockings, white ruff and black patent shoes. For everyday wear, the Yeoman Warders wear a blue undress uniform. There are two weights - for summer and winter - and this is the uniform visitors will see day to day when they come to the Tower.

91 The Salt Tower The Salt Tower was built by King Henry III The date the Salt Tower was built was between The Chief Architect and Master Builder of the Salt Tower was Henry de Reyns together with John of Gloucester and Robert of Beverley The purpose of the Salt Tower was initially residential History - The Salt Tower was once referred to as Baliol's Tower having once imprisoned John Baliol the King of Scotland in Another prisoner was a man named Hugh Draper of Bristol who was imprisoned in the Salt Tower in 1561 under suspicion of Sorcery. Whilst he was imprisoned in the Salt Tower he carved a huge, incredibly intricate, astronomical clock which can still be seen. The inscription records that "Hew Draper of Brystow made this sphere the 30 daye of Maye anno 1561". Jesuits were also imprisoned here and their carvings depicting religious scenes can also be seen on the walls

92 Origins of the name 'Salt Tower' The Salt Tower was initially called the Julius Caesar’s Tower and then Baliol's Tower. It is possible that the building was given the lasting nickname of the 'Salt Tower' as in medieval England salt was extremely expensive and only afforded by the higher Nobility. These Lords sat on the dais at the 'high table' and their commoner servants at lower trestle tables. The salt was placed in the centre of the high table and only those of the appropriate rank had access to it. Those less favoured on the lower tables were "beneath the salt". It is possible that this expensive commodity was traditionally stored in this building.

93 The Cradle Tower This tower was used as a prison lodging - through its proximity to the Wharf made it rather unsuitable for this function, as was demonstrated in 1599 when two prisoners managed to escape from the tower. Father John Gerard and John Arden swung to freedom on a rope stretched from the Cradle Tower across the moat where they were met by friends waiting in a boat.

94 The Byward Tower This gatehouse was originally defended by two portcullises, one of which survives today together with a series of so-called 'murder holes' probably used to douse fires lit against the gates by intruders. Just beyond the gateway is a small postern gate, or private entrance, often used by royalty in the 15th and 16th centuries. The Byward Tower's name probably derives from its association with the Yeoman Warders, whose still have their offices here.

95 The Bloody Tower ( Garden Tower ) The Bloody Tower was built by King Henry III The date the Bloody Tower was built was between The Chief Architect and Master Builder of the Bloody Tower was Henry de Reyns together with John of Gloucester and Robert of Beverley The purpose of the Bloody Tower was defensive - the grooves for working the massive portcullis, which was raised by chains and a windlass can still be seen on the upper floor. It was also used as an infamous prison - Sir Walter Raleigh spent his long term of imprisonment in the Bloody Tower but was not killed there in mysterious circumstances as do the unfortunate people detailed below

96 History - The Bloody Tower was originally named the Garden Tower as its upper storey opens on that part of the parade ground which was formerly the Constable's Garden. But was given this nickname from the murderous events which were believed to have occurred in the building. It is believed to first derive its name from the suicide in it of Henry Percy, eighth Earl of Northumberland, in 1585 (father of the Wizard Earl). It was then believed to be the scene of the murder of the two little Princes in the Tower - Edward V and his brother the Duke of York. Finally it was believed that Henry VI also met his gruesome death here Others who suffered imprisonment or death in the Bloody Tower included: Archbishop Cranmer, Bishops Ridley and Latimer, who were condemned to death for heresy, were imprisoned in the Tower before being burned at the stake at Oxford in 1556 Henry Percy died there in mysterious circumstances in 1585 Hanging Judge Jeffreys died in the Tower - he had sentenced 320 at the 'Bloody Assizes' to be executed or transported to the Penal colonies Sir Thomas Overbury, poet and courtier, was poisoned here in 1613

97 Tower of London Ghosts During her long and illustrious 900 years, The Tower of London has developed a reputation as being one of the most haunted places in Britain. She has been home to beheadings, murders, torture and hangings, as well as being a prison to Nobles.

98 What is a Ghost? A ghost is often defined as the spirit or soul of a person who has remained on Earth after death. When Ghosts appear, they are said to appear in bodily likeness to living persons and often haunt their former habitats. Ghosts are believed to have a surviving emotional memory typical of someone who has died violently, traumatically and tragically. The soul of a ghost is not able to rest in peace and they remain in old and familiar places, repeating the same acts indefinitely until they are released from their endless haunting.

99 Famous Tower of London Ghosts The Ghost of Thomas Becket The Ghosts of the two little Princes in the Tower The Ghost of Anne Boleyn The Ghost of the Margaret, Countess of Salisbury The Ghost of Lady Jane Grey The Ghost of Catherine Howard Other Ghosts

100 The Ghost of Thomas Becket Thomas A. Becket is the first reported sighting of a ghost at the Tower of London. During the construction on the Inner Curtain Wall, Thomas appeared apparently unhappy about the construction, and it is said he reduced the wall to rubble with a strike of his cross. Henry III’s grandfather was responsible for the death of Thomas Becket, so Henry III wasted no time building a chapel in the Tower of London, naming it for the archbishop. This must have pleased Thomas’ ghost because there were no further interruptions during the construction of the wall.

101 The Ghosts of the two little Princes in the Tower The sad mystery of the two little princes in the Tower have intrigued historians for hundreds of years. The two little princes were Edward V and his younger brother Richard, Duke of York. The Bloody Tower was the scene of the infamous disappearance of the two princes; Edward V (12) and Richard Duke of York (10), who are thought to have been murdered in 1483 on the probable command of the Duke of Gloucestershire, who was to be crowned Richard the III. According to one story, guards in the late 15th century, who were passing the Bloody Tower, spotted the shadows of two small figures gliding down the stairs still wearing the white night shirts they had on the night they disappeared. They stood silently, hand in hand, before fading back into the stones of the Bloody Tower.

102 Gruesome discovery in the White Tower - The Two Little Princes In 1674 two skeletons were discovered in the White Tower under the stairs leading to the chapel. The skeletons were subsequently reburied in Westminster Abbey as ordered by King Charles II. The skeletons were believed to be the remains of the bodies of the two tragic Little Princes, Edward V and his younger brother Richard, Duke of York. The two little Princes were reputedly killed on the orders of their uncle the Duke of Gloucester, afterwards King Richard III. No one knows who was behind the murder of the Two Little Princes whose bodies were discovered in the White Tower. The Tudors firmly pointed the finger at Richard III but many scholars now name King Henry VII as the real culprit. In 1933 a forensic examination conducted by Mr. Tannery and Professor Wright was unable to confirm whether the bones discovered in the White Tower were those of the Princes in the Tower...

103 The Ghost of Anne Boleyn Anne BoleynAnne Boleyn, the most celebrated of the wives of Henry VIII was beheaded on Tower Green in Her ghost has frequently been seen both on the Green and more spectacularly in the Chapel Royal situated in the White Tower. It was in the Chapel that a Captain of the Guard saw a light burning in the locked Chapel late at night. Finding a ladder, he was able to look down on the strange scene being enacted within. A nineteenth century account described it thus: Slowly down the aisle moved a stately procession of Knights and Ladies, attired in ancient costumes; and in front walked an elegant female whose face was averted from him, but whose figure greatly resembled the one he had seen in reputed portraits of Anne Boleyn. Another sighting of Anne Boleyn is alleged in 1864 by a sentry standing guard at the Queen's house. The guard saw and challenged a white shape that appeared suddenly veiled in mist. When the challenge went unanswered the sentry put his bayonet into the figure but he was overcome with shock when it went straight through the figure without meeting any resistance. This story was corroborated by two onlookers who saw the whole event from a window of the Bloody Tower.

104 The Ghost of the Margaret, Countess of Salisbury Margaret Pole, Countess of Salisbury holds a special place in English history as being the last Plantagenet princess. Margaret was extraordinary, reaching the age of 69 or 70 in an era where the average life expectancy for a woman was 45 years. The reason why Margaret, Countess of Salisbury was executed is simple. Her family were not only too close to the body of the throne to make their own claims to crown and country, but also her son was dedicated to the old Catholic faith. Her execution was timed for Henry VIII's marriage to Catherine Howard to show that the old era had passed. Margaret was executed at the scaffold site on 27 May The feisty Countess refused to put her head on the block like a common traitor. When her executioner came after her she ran, but was pursued by him, with his axe in hand hacking at her until he had hewn the Countess to death. Her ghost has been seen reliving this truly gruesome act. Also the shadow of a great axe has been seen falling across the scene of her murder.

105 The Ghost of Lady Jane Grey Her father was involved in a rebellion against Mary I, Lady Jane and her husband were again placed in the tower. Lady Jane watched as her husband was taken to Tower Hill where he was beheaded. She saw his body being carried back to the chapel, after which she was taken to Tower Green where she was beheaded. She was only 17 years old. Lady Jane Grey’s ghost was last seen by two Guardsmen on February 12, 1957, the 403rd anniversary of her execution. She was described as a "white shape forming itself on the battlements". Her husband, Guildford Dudley, has been seen in Beauchamp Tower weeping. Lady Jane Grey was queen for nine days and one of the most famous political pawns of history. She was the grand daughter of Henry VIII's sister Mary. She was forced to marry Lord Guildford after her father's machinations to marry her to Edward VI failed. When Edward VI died, Jane was proclaimed queen in order to keep a Protestant on the throne of England and stop Henry VIII's Catholic daughter Mary seizing power.

106 The Ghost of Catherine Howard Catherine Howard was the fifth wife of Henry VIII. Before Catherine married Henry VIII, she had two affairs one with a man called Dereham and another with a man called Culpeper. At the time, if two people had intercourse, it had the power of marriage which would mean that the Queen was in fact a bigamist. The king discovered his wife's infidelities through a message pressed into his palm during a religious service. Shortly thereafter, Catherine Howard, Dereham and Culpeper were arrested. Dereham and Culpepper were executed in December 1541, but Catherine was released from prison. Catherine Howard escaped from her room in the Tower of London. "She ran down the hallway screaming for help and mercy. She was caught and returned to her room." The next day she was beheaded. Her ghost has been seen sill running down the hallway screaming for help.

107 Other Ghosts Witnesses at the Tower of London have also reported 'anonymous' ghosts. These Tower of London Ghosts are simply referred to as the 'Gray Lady' and the 'White Lady'. Names which reflected the appearance of the apparition. The ghost of the ' Gray Lady' has been described as a woman in mourning garments. A black void is where her face should be. A phantom squad of ghost soldiers has also been sighted marching in the grounds of the Tower of London. Other strange sightings at the Tower of London have been "Phantom funeral carriages“.

108 Something unseen and very frightening is in the Salt Tower. This is one of the most haunted areas of the Tower of London complex. This is a very old section, dogs will not enter this ancient building, and ever since one of the Yeoman Warders was nearly throttled by a force unseen, they will not go in the area after nightfall. In 1864, a soldier whose post was to guard the Queen’s House at the Tower of London, saw a apparition so real, that after ignoring the soldiers three challenges, he charged with all his might at the intruder with his bayonet, only to go straight through the figure. He was found unconscious at his post and was court-martialled for neglecting his duty. Luckily there were two witnesses who corroborated his story. The soldier was eventually acquitted. At one time the Tower of London was home to the Royal Menagerie. Lions, leopards, bears, birds, monkeys and an elephant, that was a gift from the King of France, were kept on exhibit. On the stroke of midnight in January of 1815 a sentry saw a bear from this menagerie emerge from a doorway. He lunged at it with his bayonet, it passed right through the apparition. The Sentry was later found unconscious, it is said he died of fright within two months of this encounter.

109 Other Ghosts The most recent eerie occurrence happened only last year. During a photo shoot for a well-known magazine, the photographer became increasingly uneasy when flashes went off unexpectedly and bulbs blew for no reason. When the pictures were developed that evening, he found to his dismay that many were blank and one contained an unexplainable ball of white light which seemed to explode in the centre of the picture. The photographer, by this time convinced of ghostly interference, vowed never to return to the Tower.

110 Tower of London map

111 The Design and Structure of the Tower of London Construction of the stone tower keep started in 1078 and was completed in The Tower of London assumed its form as a 'Concentric Castle' with successive lines of fortification, only after hundreds of years and several different reigns. There are 21 different towers which form a major part of the Tower of London castle complex. The design and structure of the Tower of London started with William the Conqueror as a timber Motte and Bailey castle.

112 The Beauchamp Tower The Bell Tower The Bloody Tower The Brick Tower The Broad Arrow Tower The Byward Tower The Constable Tower The Cradle Tower The Develin Tower The Deveraux Tower The Flint Tower Tower of London map The Fusiliers' Museum The Lanthorn Tower The Martin Tower The Middle Tower The Salt Tower The St Thomas's Tower The Wakefield Tower The Wardrobe Tower The Well Tower The Wharf The White Tower

113 The oldest part of the Tower complex, construction is thought to have begun in 1078 under the orders of William the Conqueror. It is the oldest example of a Norman keep in England. Its dimensions are 90 feet tall and 107x118 feet across. The entrance to the Tower is on the first floor via a removable staircase, designed to make invasion of the Tower more difficult. The name "White Tower" probably comes from when it was painted white during the reign of Henry III ( ). The onion domes were added to the turrets in the 16th century. The earlier ones were probably cones or pyramids. The White Tower is the most important building in the Tower of London - it is the Keep of the castle. The word 'Keep' means "that which keeps or protects - the strongest and securest part of a castle. The White Tower has been used as a residence, a prison, a place for state events, an astronomical observatory and a repository for papers.

114 Key Facts and Information about the White Tower The White Tower was built by the Norman - William the Conqueror The date the White Tower was built was between The Chief Architect and Master Builder of the White Tower was Gundulf, Bishop of Rochester The purpose of the White Tower was to provide a power base for the Norman invaders and control and intimidate the people of the City of London History - The Tower was originally built as timber Motte and Bailey castle shortly after the Norman Invasion of 1066 but the timber structure was replaced by the massive stone keep. The stone building was started in 1078 and completed in 1097 The White Tower was originally referred to as the Great Tower In the reign of Edward III ( ) the 'Great Tower' began to assume its modern name, as "La Blanche Tour" - the White Tower due to the continuous tradition of applying whitewash to the walls

115 Richard II signed his abdication statement here on the 30th of September. Parliament ordered that Richard should be kept close prisoner, and he was sent secretly to Pontefract Castle where he died in February 1400 just 5 months later In 1530 the White Tower's most famous features – the onion-shaped domes on the turrets, complete with weather vanes Extensive building and repairs work to the Royal Lodgings was conducted under the orders of Henry VIII in preparation of the coronation of Anne Boleyn. The work was supervised by Thomas Cromwell. This included the repair and decoration of the magnificent Great Hall and new chamber for the Queen. In 1666 the Tower narrowly escaped destruction from the Great Fire of London Records show that 9,677 barrels of gunpowder were stored in the White Tower In 1674 two skeletons were discovered in the White Tower believed to be Edward V and his younger brother Richard, Duke of York. These tragic boys are referred to as the Princes in the Tower

116 The White Tower is 90 feet high The thickness of the walls ranged from 15 feet at the base to almost 11 feet in the upper storeys Above the battlements four turrets were built The White Tower was built by Norman masons but the labourers were English (Anglo-Saxon) The East and South sides of the White Tower were protected to the by the old Roman London City walls The entrance to the Tower was on the first floor accessed via a removable staircase, designed to make invasion of the White Tower more difficult The first structure on the site was a Motte and Bailey castle The White Tower was commissioned by William the Conqueror in 1078 and completed in 1097 The North and West sides of the White Tower were originally protected by ditches

117 The White Tower Dungeon - the 'Little Ease' The basement of the White Tower was believed to have housed the notorious dungeon known as the "Little Ease". This terrifying chamber was built in the thickness of the wall and measured just 1.2m square (4sq ft). The hapless prisoner of the 'Little Ease' could neither sit, stand, nor lie, but was compelled to serve his sentence in a cramped and crouching position. Guy Fawkes was shackled hand and foot in the ‘Little Ease’ following his arrest for his part in the Gunpowder plot. On the 5th November 1605 Guy Fawkes was caught in the cellars of the Houses of Parliament with several dozen barrels of gunpowder. Guy Fawkes was subsequently tried as a traitor with his co- conspirators for plotting against King James I and the government. Fawkes was sentenced to death and the form of the execution was one of the most horrendous ever practised (hung,drawn and quartered) which reflected the serious nature of the crime of treason.

118 The Bloody Tower ( Garden Tower ) The Bloody Tower was built by King Henry III The date the Bloody Tower was built was between The Chief Architect and Master Builder of the Bloody Tower was Henry de Reyns together with John of Gloucester and Robert of Beverley The purpose of the Bloody Tower was defensive - the grooves for working the massive portcullis, which was raised by chains and a windlass can still be seen on the upper floor. It was also used as an infamous prison - Sir Walter Raleigh spent his long term of imprisonment in the Bloody Tower but was not killed there in mysterious circumstances as do the unfortunate people detailed below

119 History - The Bloody Tower was originally named the Garden Tower as its upper storey opens on that part of the parade ground which was formerly the Constable's Garden. But was given this nickname from the murderous events which were believed to have occurred in the building. It is believed to first derive its name from the suicide in it of Henry Percy, eighth Earl of Northumberland, in 1585 (father of the Wizard Earl). It was then believed to be the scene of the murder of the two little Princes in the Tower - Edward V and his brother the Duke of York. Finally it was believed that Henry VI also met his gruesome death here Others who suffered imprisonment or death in the Bloody Tower included: Archbishop Cranmer, Bishops Ridley and Latimer, who were condemned to death for heresy, were imprisoned in the Tower before being burned at the stake at Oxford in 1556 Henry Percy died there in mysterious circumstances in 1585 Hanging Judge Jeffreys died in the Tower - he had sentenced 320 at the 'Bloody Assizes' to be executed or transported to the Penal colonies Sir Thomas Overbury, poet and courtier, was poisoned here in 1613

120 The Byward Tower This gatehouse was originally defended by two portcullises, one of which survives today together with a series of so-called 'murder holes' probably used to douse fires lit against the gates by intruders. Just beyond the gateway is a small postern gate, or private entrance, often used by royalty in the 15th and 16th centuries. The Byward Tower's name probably derives from its association with the Yeoman Warders, whose still have their offices here.

121 The Cradle Tower This tower was used as a prison lodging - through its proximity to the Wharf made it rather unsuitable for this function, as was demonstrated in 1599 when two prisoners managed to escape from the tower. Father John Gerard and John Arden swung to freedom on a rope stretched from the Cradle Tower across the moat where they were met by friends waiting in a boat.

122 The Constable Tower In 1641 the Constable Tower was one of several towers designated as prison lodgings. Today it houses a model of the Tower of London as it might have appeared in c1335 during the reign of Edward III.

123 The Middle Tower From the Lion Tower a second drawbridge, now destroyed, led to the Middle Tower which was constructed by Edward I but substantially altered and refaced in 1717, when the arms of George I were erected over the gate. The entrance passage was originally defended by two portcullises, the grooves of which are still visible inside the archway. Today it houses the offices of the Royal Armouries and is not open to the public.

124 The Salt Tower The Salt Tower was built by King Henry III The date the Salt Tower was built was between The Chief Architect and Master Builder of the Salt Tower was Henry de Reyns together with John of Gloucester and Robert of Beverley The purpose of the Salt Tower was initially residential History - The Salt Tower was once referred to as Baliol's Tower having once imprisoned John Baliol the King of Scotland in Another prisoner was a man named Hugh Draper of Bristol who was imprisoned in the Salt Tower in 1561 under suspicion of Sorcery. Whilst he was imprisoned in the Salt Tower he carved a huge, incredibly intricate, astronomical clock which can still be seen. The inscription records that "Hew Draper of Brystow made this sphere the 30 daye of Maye anno 1561". Jesuits were also imprisoned here and their carvings depicting religious scenes can also be seen on the walls

125 Origins of the name 'Salt Tower' The Salt Tower was initially called the Julius Caesar’s Tower and then Baliol's Tower. It is possible that the building was given the lasting nickname of the 'Salt Tower' as in medieval England salt was extremely expensive and only afforded by the higher Nobility. These Lords sat on the dais at the 'high table' and their commoner servants at lower trestle tables. The salt was placed in the centre of the high table and only those of the appropriate rank had access to it. Those less favoured on the lower tables were "beneath the salt". It is possible that this expensive commodity was traditionally stored in this building.

126 The Wardrobe Tower The Wardrobe Tower was built during the reigns of Richard the Lionheart by his regent William Longchamp, the Bishop of Ely The date the Wardrobe Tower was built was between The Chief Architect and Master Builder of the Wardrobe Tower is unknown The purpose of the Wardrobe Tower was to store clothing, jewels, and personal articles of the Royal family History and Purpose - The origin of the modern word wardrobe was derived from Garderobe (the castle latrine) which was originally used to store clothes as the pungent smells deterred moths! The lords clothes were expensive and the wardrobe eventually became a department of a royal or noble household entrusted with the care of clothing, jewels, and personal articles. A portion of the wall of the Roman city of Londinium was found built into the Wardrobe Tower, the plinth of the existing wall being above the present level of the groundGarderobe

127 The Fusiliers' Museum The Museum of the Royal Regiment of Fusiliers stands immediately to the north east of the White Tower and contains a wealth of exhibits relating to the many campaigns in which the regiment has participated during its 300-year history. The Royal Regiment of Fusiliers was founded in 1685 by James II to protect the royal guns kept within the Tower. The Fusiliers were the first regiment to be armed with an improved musket, a fusil, which gave them their name.. The museum contains accounts and exhibits from the many campaigns the regiment has been involved in, such as the American War of Independence, the Napoleonic Wars, the Crimean War, the Boer War, the First and Second World Wars, the Troubles in Northern Ireland and the Gulf War.

128 The Wharf The great wharf at the Tower of London was built in stages during the 14th century, principally as a place where goods could be loaded and unloaded from boats on the river. In the following centuries it accommodated at different times cannon-foundries, a small arms factory and a gunpowder proof yard. The wharf also had a ceremonial role as the landing-place of royalty and of foreign dignitaries before they entered the city and since the time of Henry VIII ( ) guns have been fired from here on occasions of national rejoicing. Today, royal salutes are still fired from the wharf: 62 gun salutes on important royal anniversaries, and 41 guns at the State Opening of Parliament and when a foreign Head of State arrives on an official visit to The Queen.

129 The Bell Tower The Bell Tower is the oldest tower in the castle after the White Tower and dates from an early enlargement of the castle in the 1190s. Under the Tudors, the Bell Tower became the lodging of several particularly important prisoners, among them the Roman Catholic saint, John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester and, perhaps, his friend and fellow martyr, Sir Thomas More. The curfew bell has been rung from this tower for at least 500 years although the present bell dates from As access to the Bell Tower is only possible through the Queen's House, home of the Resident Governor, the building is not usually open to the public.

130

131 The Well Tower Key Facts and Information about the Well Tower The Well Tower was built by King Edward I The date the Well Tower was built was between The Chief Architect and Master Builder of the Well Tower was Master James of St George The Architecture / Style of the Medieval Well Tower is described as Edwardian / Gothic The purpose of the Well Tower was to protect the new river frontage History - Two water shafts ran from the tower to an underground well from which fresh water could be drawn

132 The St Thomas's Tower St Thomas's Tower was built by King Edward I - He also built the infamous river entrance to the Tower of London known as Traitors' Gate The date St Thomas's Tower was built was between The Chief Architect and Master Builder of St Thomas's Tower was Master James of St George The Architecture / Style of the Medieval Tower is described as Gothic The purpose of St Thomas's Tower was defensive and to provide direct access from the River Thames History - King Edward I ( ) completed the defensive works begun by Henry III and filled the new moat Below St. Thomas's Tower is a stone archway with a strong double gate, known as the Traitor's Gate, This famous entrance to the Tower was used for the admission of State prisoners who were brought to the Tower of London by the River Thames. The flight of steps from the Traitor's Gate leads to the Bloody Tower...

133 The Beauchamp Tower The Beauchamp Tower was built by King Edward I The date the Beauchamp Tower was built was between The Chief Architect and Master Builder of the Beauchamp Tower was Master James of St George The Architecture / Style of the Medieval Beauchamp Tower is described as Edwardian / Gothic The purpose of the Beauchamp Tower was for defensive purposes. It was quickly used in which to lodge prisoners of rank, and in consequence many of the most interesting mural inscriptions are to be found in its chambers

134 History - Its present name probably refers to the residence in it as a prisoner of Thomas, third Earl of Warwick, of the Beauchamp family, who was attainted under Richard II in 1397, but restored to his honours and liberty two years later under Henry IV. The Beauchamp family descend from the children of John of Gaunt and his mistress Katherine Swynford. Their liaison was eventually legitimised and they married. The Tudor line can be traced to this union Lady Jane RochfordLady Jane Rochford was instrumental in bringing about the deaths of two Queens of England - Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard. She was taken to Beauchamp Tower at the Tower of London to force a full confession - she was driven insane by the interrogation An inscription to Lady Jane Grey can be found on the wall of this towerLady Jane Grey Anthony Salvin, a Victorian architect, was appointed in 1851 to 'restore' the Tower to a pseudo-medieval form so it could be opened to the public. He repaired doors and windows, recreated the battlements and improved the outside facade. Salvin also built a pump house, used today as the Tower shop. Salvin remained at the Tower until 1870, when John Taylor took over the restoration

135 The Wakefield Tower The Wakefield Tower - Key Facts and Information about the Towers The Wakefield Tower was built by King Henry III The date the Wakefield Tower was built was between The Chief Architect and Master Builder of the Wakefield Tower was Henry de Reyns together with John of Gloucester and Robert of Beverley The Architecture / Style of the Medieval Wakefield Tower is described as Norman (Romanesque) History - This tower was part of the original Norman plan. The upper storey was rebuilt by Henry III, who made it the entrance to his palace on the east. In 1360 the records of the kingdom, which had previously been kept in the White Tower, were removed here, and this is called in ancient surveys sometimes the Record or the Hall Tower The Great Hall of the Wakefield Tower, memorable as the scene of Queen Anne Boleyn's trial, was pulled down during the Commonwealth

136 Murder in the Wakefield Tower The present name is said to be derived from the imprisonment of Yorkists after the Lancastrian victory at The Battle of Wakefield in 1460 during the War of the Roses The mentally unstable and pious Lancastrian King Henry VI and his headstrong and ambitious wife Margaret of Anjou were imprisoned in the Tower of London from 1465 until Henry was briefly restored to power in 1470 and returned to reside in the Tower on the 21st May. The last Lancastrian king was murdered in the Wakefield Tower, whilst he was at prayer, the following day - 22nd May He was probably murdered on the orders of Edward IV The chambers in the Wakefield Tower were used as a presence chamber. A small chapel was separated from this chamber by a painted timber screen - this was where King Henry VI was murdered

137 The Develin Tower Key Facts and Information about the Develin Tower The Develin Tower was built by King Edward I The Develin Tower was built during 1282 and the late 1500's a causeway ran from the Develin Tower across the moat to the since demolished Iron Gate. The Chief Architect and Master Builder of the Develin Tower was Master James of St George The Architecture / Style of the Medieval Develin Tower is described as Gothic History - The furthest tower to the East is the Develin Tower. It was partly rebuilt during the seventeenth century it then refaced in the nineteenth century by Anthony Salvin, a Victorian architect, who was appointed in 1851 to 'restore' the Tower to a pseudo-medieval form so it could be opened to the public

138 The Deveraux Tower The Deveraux Tower was built by King Henry III The date the Deveraux Tower was built was between The Chief Architect and Master Builder of the Deveraux Tower was Henry de Reyns together with John of Gloucester and Robert of Beverley The Architecture / Style of the Medieval Deveraux Tower is described as Norman (Romanesque) / Edwardian / Gothic History - The Deveraux Tower was named after Robert Devereux the Earl of Essex who was executed for treason by Queen Elizabeth I and nearly implicated William Shakespeare with him! In January 1601, the rebel earl led an abortive raid against the Queen and London - he plotted to start a rebellion to overthrow the Queen. The supporters of Essex arranged for Richard II to be played at the Globe the day before the rebellion. The play, Richard II, tells the story of how Richard II was overthrown by Henry IV and how Richard the King, like Elizabeth the present Queen, had abdicated many of her powers. The Earl of Essex marched into the streets of London with his followers but the Londoners stayed away from the trouble. The rebellion collapsed and Essex was captured and, on 25th February 1601 he was executed for treason

139 The Martin Tower The Martin Tower was built by King Henry III The date the Martin Tower was built was between The Chief Architect and Master Builder of the Martin Tower was Henry de Reyns together with John of Gloucester and Robert of Beverley The Architecture / Style of the Medieval Martin Tower is described as Norman (Romanesque) / Edwardian / Gothic The purpose of the Martin Tower was to be used as a prison. It was also used to store the Crown Jewels between 1669 and 1841 when it was referred to as the Jewel Tower Colonel Thomas Blood and his men tried to steal the Crown Jewels from the Martin Tower in 1671 History - The story of the Wizard Earl. Henry Percy the ninth Earl of Northumberland was imprisoned in the Martin Tower in 1605, for seventeen years, implicated in the Gunpowder Plot. He was a scholar, cartographer, astronomer and alchemist. He was also a central figure in what became known later as "The School of Night" 11 German spies were imprisoned here during the First World War and executed in the Tower

140 The Lanthorn Tower The Lanthorn Tower was built by King Henry III The date the Lanthorn Tower was built was between The Chief Architect and Master Builder of the Lanthorn Tower was Henry de Reyns together with John of Gloucester and Robert of Beverley Style of the Medieval Lanthorn Tower is described as Norman History - This tower was also part of the original Norman plan. It is the second largest tower. The Lanthorn Tower was named for the lantern which was placed in the small turret on top of the tower at night as a guide for ships on the Thames. Lanterns - or 'lanthorns' were a common form of lighting in a Medieval castle. A candle was stuck into a metal frame with sides made of thin, transparent horns Prisoners were later housed in the Lanthorn Tower which was partly destroyed by fire in 1774 and subsequently demolished. Anthony Salvin, a Victorian architect, was appointed in 1851 to 'restore' the Tower to a pseudo-medieval form so it could be opened to the public. He repaired doors and windows, recreated the battlements and improved the outside facade. Salvin also built a pump house, used today as the Tower shop. Salvin remained at the Tower until 1870, when John Taylor took over the restoration

141 The Brick Tower The Brick Tower was built by King Henry III The date the Brick Tower was built was between The Chief Architect and Master Builder of the Brick Tower was Henry de Reyns together with John of Gloucester and Robert of Beverley The Architecture / Style of the Medieval Brick Tower is described as Romanesque History - Sir Walter Raleigh ( ) was briefly imprisoned in the Brick Tower in 1592, when he offended the vain Queen Elizabeth by marrying Elizabeth Throckmorton, a maid of honor, without permission. He was released later that year. He met his real downfall upon the accession of James I in He was found guilty of intrigues with Spain against England and of participation in a plot to kill the king and enthrone Arabella Stuart, grand daughter of Bess Of Hardwick. He was finally released again in 1616 to make another voyage to the Orinoco in search of gold. He was arrested upon his return and executed on a charge of conspiring with the Spanish

142 The Broad Arrow Tower The Broad Arrow Tower was built by King Henry III The date the Broad Arrow Tower was built was between The Chief Architect and Master Builder of the Broad Arrow Tower was Henry de Reyns together with John of Gloucester and Robert of Beverley The Architecture / Style of the Medieval Broad Arrow Tower is described as Norman (Romanesque) The purpose of the Broad Arrow Tower was to house part of the garrison History - The name of the Tower is believed to reflect the weapons of the armed men who were garrisoned there

143 The Flint Tower The Flint Tower was built by King Henry III The date the Flint Tower was built was between The Chief Architect and Master Builder of the Flint Tower was Henry de Reyns together with John of Gloucester and Robert of Beverley The Architecture / Style of the Medieval Flint Tower is described as Norman (Romanesque) History - The origins of the name of the tower are uncertain but it is believed that it was named after The flint stone which was used to build part of the tower


Download ppt "Tower of London. Contents The history Inhabitants of The Tower Legends and traditions Architecture."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google