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1 The Saudi Economy: An Economic Overview The Saudi Economy: An Economic Overview Contents  Objective  Population and Labor Force  National Economy.

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Presentation on theme: "1 The Saudi Economy: An Economic Overview The Saudi Economy: An Economic Overview Contents  Objective  Population and Labor Force  National Economy."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 The Saudi Economy: An Economic Overview The Saudi Economy: An Economic Overview Contents  Objective  Population and Labor Force  National Economy  Stock Market  Industrial Sector  Electricity Sector  Agriculture Sector  Energy Sector  Summary and Conclusion Contents  Objective  Population and Labor Force  National Economy  Stock Market  Industrial Sector  Electricity Sector  Agriculture Sector  Energy Sector  Summary and Conclusion

2 2Objective To Provide an Analytical Economic Overview of Various Sectors of the Saudi Economy.

3 3 Saudi Population, Thousands

4 4 1992….. ………2000 % Population Cumulative A.(01:09) …….. (10:18) B.(10:14) …….. (19:23) C.(15:19) …….. (24:28) D.(20:24) …….. (29:33) Total l Number of Saudi people are able to join labor market in 2000 is more than 1.8 Million. Estimates of Age Structure of Saudi Population, Million

5 5 Geographical Distribution of KingdomPopulation, 2000 Geographical Distribution of Kingdom Population, 2000

6 6 Economic Sectors 1995 % of Total2000 % of Total Annual Rate of Growth l Productive Sectors Agriculture Minerals Refined Oil Petrochemical Others Industries Public Utilities l Construction Sub Total l Service Sectors Trade Transportation Finance & Real Estate Personal Services Sub Total l Government Sector Grand Total Note : Non-oil Sector Oil Sector Distribution of Kingdom Labor Force 1995 and 2000

7 7 Reasons for Increasing Saudi Unemployed Labor Force l Decreasing Annual Government Spending l Lower Share of Private Sector in the Economy l Increasing Number of Graduating Students

8 8 Number of Students in Various Educational Levels

9 Trade Balance Total Exports Oil Exports (Excluding Bunker) Other Exports Total Imports % of Oil Exports in Total Exports87 87 Receipts Investment Payments Bunker Others Payments Current Account Current Account as % GDP Saudi Aramco’s Contribution to National Economy Current Account ( $ Billion)

10 10 It Can Be Concluded From This Current Account Analysis That l Saudi Economy Needs a Financial Supports From Sources Besides Oil Exports Such As Investment Abroad. l Saudi Aramco Could Build a Highly Diversified Foreign Investment Portfolio in Order to Contribute Positively to the Saudi Current Account and hence to the National Economy.

11 11 Impact of Oil Price Reduction On Current Account, $Million By $1/Barrel By $8/Barrel Decline Decline Saudi Arabia 2,443 19,544 Algeria240 1,920 Indonesia 390 3,120 Iran1,103 8,824 Kuwait603 4,824 Libya403 3,224 Nigeria619 4,952 Qatar195 1,560 UAE657 5,260 Venezuela 894 7,152 OPEC7,548 60,376

12 12 Negative Contribution to Current Account Government Borrowing from Local Banks, $Billion %

13 13 Saudi Annual Budget Estimates $ Billion

14 14 Inflation & Recession Low Real Rate Of Interest Impact of Government Deficit On Saudi Aramco Dry Up National Saving Crowding Out

15 15 Share of Oil Sector in GDP

16 16 Impact of Stock market on Oil Sector An efficient stock market would indirectly help oil sector by energizing non-oil sector because stock market is: l A source of finance for current investment expansion and new investment projects. This would increase demand for oil products. l A source of stockholders wealth and hence increases demand for goods and services including oil products. l As a result, non-oil sector would absorb employment That could have been thrown on the oil sector.

17 17 Value of Market Value ofDepth ofPrice Index Stocks Traded Outstanding Stocksthe Market1985= Depth of Saudi Stock Market $ Billion

18 Total Assets (SR Billions) Category % Change % Share in 1999 Bonds Money Markets 6, , Non-interest 7, , Others Stocks 2, , Stocks Local TOTAL 18, , The impact of Mutual Fund on Investment

19 19 BankingIndustryCementServicesElectricityAgricultureTotal Impact of Foreign Participation in Domestic Economy Percentage Share of Total Stock Values Impact of Foreign Participation in Domestic Economy Percentage Share of Total Stock Values

20 20 Privatization stimulates non-oil Sector The Saudi Privatization Policy Aims at Achieving the Following Goals: l Privatization of Financing. l Privatization of Management. l Privatization of Public Ownership. l Liberalization of Economic Activities.

21 21 The Industrial Sector l Average Annual Share of the Saudi Industrial Sector in GDP Is 9% During the Period From 1988 to 1998 l Average Rate of Growth of GDP Industry Is 7% During the Same Period. l Number of Operating Factories in the Kingdom in 1998 Is 3,148 Factories Employing About 292 Thousand Employees With Total Capital Investment of $70 Billion.

22 Distribution of Total Capital Investment In Industrial Sector, 1998: l Petrochemicals (58%)………… $40 Billion l Non-Petrochemical (31%)..…… $22 Billion l Saudi Aramco (11%).……. $8 Billion

23 23 % Share in % Share in Total GDP Non-Oil GDP Sabic’s Contribution to the National Economy, %

24 Average Sabic Saudi Industrial Average Chemical Companies Of Which: US-Based Rate of Return on Investment (ROI, %) for Sabic and Some Energy Companies

25 25 Profit Margin on Sales, % %

26 26 Return Earning Dividends on EquityPer SharePer Share Rate of Change % Some Financial Indicators for Sabic, %

27 E Kingdom Demand ,062 Sabic Demand % Share of Sabic to the Kingdom Actual Demand for Gas , MBDOE

28 CP L CP L CP L CP L CP L Butane % Discount of CP NG % Discount of CP *CP Is the Contract Price in the International Market and L Is the Local Price. L Is the Local Price World and Domestic Prices, $

29 29 Without Discount With Discount Subsidy Discount ‏ Total4,054 2,573 1, Subsidy on NGL Sales to Local Industry, $ Million’

30 30 Saudi ArabiaJapan European UnionUSA Difference from Domestic Price l In 1998 the Government increased Methane price to only $0.75 MMBTU Domestic and International Prices of Methane in 1997, $/MMBTU

31 Public Investment Fund (PIF) Saudi Industrial Development Fund Commercial Loans Total Sabic Long Term Loans ($ Billion) Sabic Long Term Loans ($ Billion)

32 Thereafter1.8 Total6.1 Scheduled Repayments of Long-Term Loans at December 31, 1998 ($ Billion) Scheduled Repayments of Long-Term Loans at December 31, 1998 ($ Billion)

33 Dividends Payable Retained Earning 3,081 2,878 Dividends Payable, $ 000’ Dividends Payable, $ 000’

34 34 The Electricity Sector l Total Consumption of Electricity Is Expected to Increase From 100,932 Million W/hr in 1998 to 161,596 Million W/hr in 2010 or by 60% Within 12 Years. l Industrial Consumption of Electricity Represent About 25% in Total Consumption and It Is Expected to Increase From 25 Billion W/Hr to 40 Billion W/HR or by Also 60% During the Same Period.

35 35 Electricity demand and Forecast, Billion W/HR

36 36 The Agriculture Sector l The Average Annual Share of the Saudi Agriculture Sector in GDP Is 7% During the Period From 1988 to 1998 l The Average Rate of Growth of GDP Agriculture Is 5% During the Same Period.

37 37 AreaProduction 19931,5968, ,5968, ,3988, ,1678, ,2639,018 Agriculture Area (Thousand Hectares) and Production (Thousand Tons)

38 38 Number of LoansValue of LoansValue of Subsidies 19943, , , , , Total 16, Loans and Subsidies ( $ Million)

39 39 Share of Food Food Imports Total Imports Imports % Shares of Food Imports in Total Imports, $ Billion

40 40 Prime Energy Consumption by Sectors, % 1999

41 41 Gas & NGL Consumption by Sectors, % 1999

42 42 Crude Oil Consumption by Sectors, % 1999

43 43 Rate of Change of Energy Demand, % %

44 44 Rates of Change of Gas and Oil Demand, % %

45 45 LPG Gasoline Diesel Fuel Oil Bunker Jet A-1 Asphalt CV % Rates of Changes of Demand for Some Energy Products (%)

46 46 Up to Nov From June 1999 % Change Gasoline Diesel Kerosene Jet A JP LPG Fuel Oil (A)-40 l A= average of three teir prices. Changes of Retail Prices of Some Energy Products, SR/liter.

47 Summary & Conclusions l The Overall Assessment of the Domestic Economic Activities Shows That the Economy Is in Doldrums, a Situation Results in a High Risk for New Domestic Investment Opportunities. l The Average Rate of Increase in Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply Are So Modest and Do Not Indicate a Sudden Positive Shift in Economic Activities.

48 l The Economic Recession Resulted in a Constant Small Share of Private Investment in GDP was Reflected into Low Level of Domestic Employment. l The Economy Is Suffering From Continuous High Public Debt and Large Budget Deficit Which Could Definitely Lead to Higher Future Inflation Rate.

49 l The Annual Average Rate of Return on Petrochemical Industry Is overestimated at 7.7% Despite the Low Costs of Feed Stocks and Utility Relative to Foreign Petrochemical Industry. l The Average Annual Rate of Increase of Total Demand for Energy Has Been Fluctuating Since 1995, and Decreased Dramatically in 1999.

50 l The Low Current Domestic Economic Activities That Resulted into Lower Economic Indicators and High Risk and Uncertainty Should Encourage Saudi Aramco to Seek a Highly Diversified Foreign Investment Portfolio at Higher Rate of Return, Lower Risk and Lower Uncertainty In Order To Improve Current Account. l With the Exception of Covering the Badly Required Domestic Demand for Energy, the Economic Situation Would Imply a Low Rate of Return on New Domestic Energy Related Investment Opportunities.

51 51 Level % Of Risk Rate of Growth of Population2.5% Low Rate of Change in Nominal GDP1.0%High Share of Oil Exports in GDP42%High Share of Deficit in GDP7.4%High Share of Debt in GDP20%High Average Share of Investment in GDP19%High Share Current Account Balance in GDP8%High Level of Risk With Respect to Population and GDP, Average

52 52 Level % Of Risk Rate of Change of Demand for Domestic Energy3.39%High Rate of Change of Demand for Refined Products2.5%High Rate of Change of Demand for Gas 4.18%High Share Oil Exports in Aggregate Supply 50%High Dependence on Oil Revenues72%High Rate of Return on Investment in Petrochemical7.7%High Rate of Increase of Domestic 4%High Sales of Petrochemicals Rate of Return on Investment in 8%High Domestic Industry Rate of Change of Electricity Consumption 4% High Level of Risk With Respect to Energy and Industrial Sectors Average,

53 53 Level % Of Risk Rate of Growth of Aggregate Demand3.4%High Rate of Growth of Aggregate Supply3.4%High Share of Imports in Aggregate Demand54%High Share of Exports in Aggregate Supply61%High Level of Risk With Respect to Economic Aggregate, Average

54 54 Level Of Risk Current Account Deficit ($ Billion) 10High Government Debt ($ Billion) 27High Rate of Unemployment IncreasingHigh Industrial Growth SlowHigh Stock Market Growth SlowHigh Level of Risk With Respect to Financial Market, Average

55 55 Level Of Risk Level of RegulationsHighHigh WTO No AccessionHigh Overall Assessment of SlowHigh Economic Activities Level of Risk With Respect to Regulation, WTO and Overall Assessment

56 56 Decisions for Future Investment l The Three Scenarios Are Recommended:  Scenario 1: Continuation of the Status Quo of the Saudi Economy.  Scenario 2: Reasonable Rate of Growth of the Saudi Economy.  Scenario 3: High Rate of Growth of the Saudi Economy.

57 57 Type of Investment Level of Investment Scenario 1GasTo Cover Local Demand and Export Scenario 2Gas and to Cover Further Petrochemical Local Demand and Export Scenario 3Gas, to Cover the Petrochemicals Increasing Demand and Electricity and Export Proposed Scenarios for Energy Sector

58 58 People's Republic of China Beijing Capital – Beijing Location Eastern Asia Size 9.6 Million Sq Km Population1.2 Billion Rate of Growth0.8 Percent Per Year. Age Structure0-14 Years: 26% of the Population Years: 68% of the Population 65 Years & Over: 6% of the Population

59 59 Natural Resources l Coal l Iron Ore l Petroleum l Natural Gas l Mercury l Tin l Tungsten l Antimony l Manganese l Molybdenum l Vanadium l Magnetite l Aluminum l Lead l Zinc l Uranium l Hydropower Potential (World's Largest).

60 60 Risk and Uncertainty l China Is a Member, Among 151 Member Countries, in the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) Which Is an Affiliate of the World Bank.

61 61 Land Transportation Pipelines l Crude Oil 9,070 KM l Petroleum Products 560 KM l Natural Gas 9,383 KM(1998) Highways l Total: 1.21 Million KM l Paved: 271,300 KM (With at Least 24,474 KM of Motorways) l Unpaved: 938,700 KM Railways l Total: 64,900 KM (Incl’g 5,400 KM of Provincial "Local" Rails) l Standard Gauge: 61,300 KM1.435-M Gauge (12,000 KM Electrified; 20,000 KM Double Track) l Narrow Gauge: 3,600 KM M Gauge Local Industrial Lines (1998 Est.) l Note: A New Total of 68,000 KM Has Been Est’d for Early 1999

62 62 Number of Airports l With Paved Runways192 l With Unpaved Runways 14 l Total206

63 63 Sea Transportation Waterways: l 109,800 KM navigable Ports and Harbors: l Dalian, Fuzhou, Guangzhou, Haikou, Huangpu, Lianyungang, Nanjing, Nantong, Ningbo, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao, Shanghai, Shantou, Tianjin, Xiamen, Xingang, Yantai, Zhanjiang Merchant Marine: l Total: 1,759 Ships (1,000 GRT or Over) Totaling 16,828,349 GRT/24,801,291 DWT

64 64 Trade with Saudi Arabia l Saudi Arabia Mainly Imports From China Food Products, Textiles, Chemicals, Light and Heavy Equipment, Electronics and Electric Products, and Shoes. l The Average Share of Saudi Imports From China Is About 3% of the Saudi Total Imports From 1996 to l The Average Share of Saudi Crude Exports to China to Total Saudi Crude Exports Is 0.4% From 1995 to 1999.

65 65 Values of Saudi Imports from People’s Republic of China ($Million) ChinaSaudi Arabia% of Total , , ,9733.2

66 66 Saudi Crude Oil Exports to People’s Republic of China (Million of Barrels) Exports to ChinaSaudi Total Exports% Share , , , , ,

67 67 Political Environment l Although There Has Been Considerable Attempts in Economic Front to Switch From a Centrally Planned Economy to a Market Oriented One - the Same Is Not True at the Political Level. l Major Decisions Are Still Made by Key Leaders of the Chinese Communist Party. At the National and Regional Levels, Party Members Hold Almost All of the Top Government Positions.

68 68 Political Environment l Ultimate Authority Rests With the Members of the 22-person Politburo. l Government Ministries And/or the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (China's Parliament, NPC) Formulate Policy on Day-to-day Issues.

69 69 Political Environment However : l Senior Political Figures Generally Agree on the Need for Further Economic Reforms, but Stability Remains a Paramount Concern and There Are Differences Among Them Over the Content, Pace and Goal of Reform. l The 15th Communist Party Congress, Held in September 1997, Enhanced the Power of Party Secretary Jiang Zemin and Endorsed Policies Aimed at Overhauling the State Sector Via the Restructuring and Closing or Privatizing of the Bulk of China's State Enterprises.

70 70 The Economy l Beginning in Late 1978 the Chinese Leadership Has Been Trying to Move the Economy From a Sluggish Soviet-style Centrally Planned Economy to a More Market-oriented Economy but Still Within a Rigid Political Framework of Communist Party Control. l Chinese Market Still Has Barriers and Bottlenecks That Make It Relatively Difficult for Foreign Firms to Realize the Vast Potential of the Market.

71 71 The Economy l The Rate of Growth of Industrial Production Was in 1998 About 8.8% l Major Agriculture Products Are Rice, Wheat, Potatoes, Sorghum, Peanuts, Tea, Millet, Barley, Cotton, Oilseed, Pork and Fish.

72 72 The Economy l Major Industrial Products Are Iron and Steel, Coal, Machine Building, Armaments, Textiles and Apparel, Petroleum, Cement, Chemical Fertilizers, Footwear, Toys, Food Processing, Autos, Consumer Electronics, Telecommunications l Major Exports Commodities Are Electrical Machinery and Equipment, Machinery and Mechanical Appliances, Woven Apparel, Knit Apparel, Footwear, Toys and Sporting Goods l Major Exports Partners Are:  Hong Kong21%  Us21%  Japan14%  Germany, South Korea, Netherlands, 44% UK, Singapore, and Taiwan

73 73 The Economy l Major Imports Commodities Are Electrical Machinery and Equipment, Machinery and Mechanical Appliances, Plastics, Iron and Steel, Scientific and Photograph Equipment, Paper and Paper Board. l Major Imports Partners Are:  Japan20%  Us12%  Taiwan12%  South Korea11%  Germany, Hong Kong, Singapore, and Russia60%

74 74 The composition of the Chinese GDP by Sector is Roughly : l Agriculture19% l Industry49% l Services32%

75 75 Some Economic Indicators (Billion of 1990 US $) %CH.2004%CH. GDP Per Capita GDP Total Fixed Investment Current Account External Debt (B Current $US)

76 76 Unemployment and Inflation l Chinese Labor Force Amounts About 700 Million:  Agriculture 50% ( 350 Million People)  Industry 24% ( 167 Million People)  Services 26% (182 Million People) l Rate of Inflation 3%

77 77 Energy Sector Primary Energy Reserve ChinaWorld% Share Oil (Billion Barrels) 241, Natural Gas (Trillion Cubic Feet) 485, Coal (Billion Short Tons)1261,14311

78 78 Energy Consumption Total Energy Consumption:34 Quadrillion Btu 9 % of World Total Energy Consumption Per Capita Energy Consumption:27 Million Btu Vs US Value of 351 Million Btu Energy Consumption by Sector:Industrial74 % Residential12 % Transportation5 % Commercial6 %

79 79 Fuel Share of Energy Consumption Coal66 % Oil25 % Natural Gas3 % Others6 %

80 80 Oil Demand, MMBD ChinaWorld % Share

81 81 Oil Supply, MMBD ChinaWorld % Share

82 82 ChinaWorld% Share Net oil Imports, MMBD

83 83 Total Oil Refinery Capacity 4.3 MMBD Major Oil Refineries Capacity Fushun184,800b/d Maoming170,700b/d Qilu160,700b/d Gaoqiao150,600b/d Dalian142,600b/d Yanshan190,800b/d Jinling140,600b/d Total1,140,800b/d

84 84 Petroleum Industry Structure l China’s Petroleum Industry Has Been Going Through Major Changes. In 1998, Most State Owned Oil and Gas Assets Were Reorganized Into Two Vertically Integrated Firms: 1- China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) 2- China Petrochemical Corporation (Sinopec)

85 85 Natural Gas & Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Reserves TCF Natural Gas Production0.75 TCF Natural Gas Consumption0.75 TCF Coal Coal Production1.55 Billion Short Tons Coal Consumption1.53 Billion Short Tons Net Coal Exports34.00 Billion Short Tons

86 86Electricity l Electric Generation Capacity237 Million Kilowatts l Electricity Production Amounted1.2 Trillion Kilowatts in Where It Is Produced by:  Fossil Fuel 93%  Hydro 6%  Nuclear 1%

87 87Environment l China Is the World’s Second Largest Emitter of Carbon Emissions, Due Primarily to Its Highest Dependence on Coal. China’s Current 5-year Plan ( ) Is the First to Include Environmental Protection. l Air Pollution (Greenhouse Gases, Sulfur Dioxide Particulates) From Reliance on Coal, Produces Acid Rain; Water Shortages, Particularly in the North; Water Pollution From Untreated Wastes; Deforestation; Estimated Loss of One-fifth of Agricultural Land Since 1949 to Soil Erosion and Economic Development; Desertification; Trade in Endangered Species.

88 88Emissions l Energy-related Carbon Emissions 740 Million Metric Tons of Carbon 12% of World Carbon Emissions l Per Capita Carbon Emissions 0.6 Metric Tons of Carbon vs U.S. Value of 5.5 Metric Tons of Carbon l Carbon Intensity 0.85 Metric Tons of Carbon/Thousand $1990 vs U.S.Value of 0.21 Metric Tons/Thousand $1990

89 89 Sectoral Share of Carbon Emissions l Industrial75 % l Residential12 % l Transportation8 % l Commercial5 %

90 90 Fuel Share of Carbon Emissions l Coal76 % l Oil22 % l Natural Gas2 %

91 91 The Banking System l China's Banking System Is Changing Rapidly Under the Impetus of Economic Reforms. At the Top of the System Is China's Central Bank, the People's Bank of China (PBOC), Which Sets Monetary And, Together With the State Administration of Foreign Exchange (SAFE), Foreign-exchange Policies.

92 92 Central Bank l Under the Central Bank There Are the State-owned Specialized Banks:  Bank of China  People's Construction Bank of China  Agricultural Bank of China  Industrial and Commercial Bank of China

93 93 Investment Banking Activities l In the Midst of the Reforms of the 1980s, the Government Established Some New Investment Banks Which Engage in Various Forms of Merchant and Investment Banking Activities. These Banks Operate on a Profit-loss Basis. l They Are:  China International Trust and Investment Corporation (CITIC)  CITIC Industrial Bank  Investment Bank of China

94 94 Foreign Investment l The Chinese Government Has Encouraged Foreign Investment, in Some Sectors of the Economy and Subject to Constraints, Since 1980’s, Offering Several “Special Economic Zones” in Which Foreign Investors Receive Preferable Tax, Tariff, and Investment Treatment

95 95 Types of Foreign Investment l China Permits Four Types of Foreign- Invested Enterprises (FIEs):  Equity Joint Ventures (EJVs)  Cooperative (Contractual) Joint Ventures (CJVs)  Wholly Foreign-owned Enterprises (WFOEs)  Foreign-invested Joint Stock Companies

96 96 Wholly Foreign-Owned Enterprises (WFOEs) l Some companies prefer to establish a WFOE rather than a joint venture, with a view to retaining greater management control, due to concerns over intellectual property rights (IPR) protection, desire for simplicity, or for other reasons of corporate policy. l The law on WFOEs requires that they either provide advanced technology or be primarily export-oriented, and restricts or prohibits them in a number of service and public utility sectors.

97 97 Wholly Foreign-Owned Enterprises (WFOEs) l Net Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in China fell in 1998 to $36.7 billion, down from $41.7 billion in 1997, due largely to the effects of the Asian financial crisis, but it is still very significant for China’s economic growth. Hong Kong, Japan, Taiwan. And the United States are the most important sources of FDI.

98 98 Trade Regulations Import Tariff Rates Are Divided Into Two Categories:  General Tariff  Minimum (Most-favored-nation) Tariff The Customs General Administration (CGA). Collects a Value-added-tax (VAT), Generally Equal to 17%, on Imported Items.

99 99 Trade Regulations l China, Also Administers a Complex of Non- Tariff Trade Barriers Such As Imports Barriers and Imports Quotas. Transparency of Laws, Rules, Regulations, Administrative Guidance and Policies Still Remains a Problem in China.

100 100 Trade Regulations l Certain Designated Commodities Must Go Through an Automatic Registration Process and Secure a "Certificate of Registration for the Import of Special Commodities" Prior to Importation. China, However, Is in the Process of Eliminating a Great Number of Import Licensing Requirements and Imports.

101 101 Trade Regulations l China Maintains Export Bans and Restrictive Licensing Procedures on Certain Items. Products Banned From Export Include Musk, Copper, Platinum, Specified Chemical Compounds, and Products Whose Export Is Banned Under International Treaties.

102 102 Trade Regulations l Products Subject to Strict Licensing Controls Include Dual-use Chemicals, Chemical Precursors, Heavy Water, and Exports of Fish, Fresh Vegetables and Fruits to Hong Kong and Macao. Foreign-invested Enterprises Are Restricted to Exporting Out of China Only the Products They Manufacture.

103 103 Infrastructure Investment l Infrastructure Investment Is a Key Element in China's Ninth Five-year Plan, With Major Infusions Scheduled for the Road, Railway, Port, Telecommunications, Oil and Gas, and Coal Sectors. Based on an Analysis of a Number of Estimates, Investment Totals in These Key Sectors During Period Will Be

104 104 Estimates of Some Investments Project During Plan ProjectsAmount Power$ Billion (60-90 GW Capacity Added) Telecommunications$60 Billion Rail$40-45 Billion Oil/Gas Prod/Explr.$35-45 Billion Roads$30-40 Billion Coal Prod$20-25 Billion Ports$10 Billion Airports$5 Billion Refinery Capacity$35-40 Billion Total$ Billion

105 105 Contracted and Utilized Foreign Direct Investment in China ($ Millions) Number of Value ofActual FDI New ContractsNew ContractsUtilized ,6081, ,02851,80045,278

106 106 Estimates of Some Investments Project During Plan Number New Contracts Value of New Contracts Actual FDI Utilized Hong Kong8,40518,22020,630 Taiwan3,0142,8103,290 Macao Japan1,4023,4004,330 U.S.2,1884,9403,240 Singapore7344,4702,610 Korea (ROK)1,7532,1802,140 U.K.3041,4501,860 Germany Canada Australia Total21,02851,80045,278

107 Republic ofIndia Republic of India New Delhi Capital - New Delhi Size:3.3 Million Square Kilometer

108 108India l LocationSouthern Asia l Population 1,000,848,550 l Rate of Growth 1.7 % Per Year l Age Structure 0-14 Years: 34% of Population Years: 61% of Population 65 Years and Over: 5% of Population

109 109 Natural Resources l Coal (Fourth Largest Reserves in the World) l Petroleum l Iron Ore l Titanium Ore l Natural Gas l Limestone l Diamonds l Chromite

110 110 Territorial Disputes l Boundary With China in Dispute l Status of Kashmir With Pakistan l Water-sharing Problems With Pakistan Over the Indus River (Wular Barrage) l A Portion of the Boundary With Bangladesh Is Indefinite l Dispute With Bangladesh Over New Moore/South Talpatty Island

111 111Government l Type:Federal Republic l Political Parties:  Multiparties l Bicameral Parliament:  Council of States  People’s Assembly l Administrative Division:  25 States  7 Union Territories

112 112 Land Transportation l Pipelines  Crude Oil3,005 KM  Product Oil 2,687 KM  Natural Gas1,700 KM l Highways  Total3,3 Million KM  Paved1,5 Million KM  Unpaved1,8 Million KM l Railways  Total 62,915 KM

113 113 Sea Transportation l Waterways  16,180 Km; Navigable by Large Vessels l Ports and Harbors  Calcutta, Chennai (Madras), Cochin, Jawaharal Nehru, Kandla, Mumbai (Bombay), Vishakhapatnam. l Merchant Marine:  Total: 311 Ships (1,000 GRT Or Over) Totaling 6,627,497 GRT/ 11,038,723 DWT

114 114 Sea Transportation (Continued) l Ships by Type  Bulk 126  Cargo 63  Chemical Tanker 11  Container 12  Liquefied Gas Tanker 10  Combination Bulk 2  Oil Tanker 76  Passenger – Cargo 5  Combination Ore/oil 3  Specialized Tanker 2  Short Sea Passengers 1

115 115 Number of Airports l Paved Run Ways230 l Unpaved Run Ways111 l Total 341

116 116 Risk and Uncertainty l India Is A Member, Among The 151 Member Countries, In The Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) Which Is An Affiliate Of The World Bank.

117 117 Trade with Saudi Arabia l Saudi Arabia Mainly Imports From India Food Products, Textiles, Chemicals, Construction Materials and Equipment. l The Average Share of Saudi Imports From India Is 2.4% of Saudi Total Imports From 1996 to l The Average Share of Saudi Crude Exports to India to Total Saudi Crude Exports Is 2.2% From 1995 to 1999.

118 118 Values of Saudi Imports from India ($ Million) IndiaSaudi Arabia% of Total , , ,

119 119 Saudi’s Crude Oil exports to India (Million of Barrels) Exports Saudi To IndiaTotal Exports% Share , , , , ,2872.8

120 120 The Economy Major Industries: Textiles, Chemicals, Food Processing, Steel, Transportation Quipment, Cement, Mining, Petroleum, Machinery Industrial Production Growth Rate:6% Major Agriculture Products: Rice, Wheat, Oilseed, Cotton, Jute, Tea, Sugarcane, Potatoes; Cattle, Water Buffalo, Sheep, Goats, Poultry; Fish

121 121 The Economy Exports: $33 Billion Textile Goods, Gems and Jewelry, Engineering Goods, Chemicals, Leather Agricultural Products and Fisheries Exports Partners:  US19%  Japan 6%  Singapore11%  Hong Kong 6%  Germany5%  UK 6%

122 122 The Economy (Continued) Imports: $41 Billion Crude Oil, Petroleum Products, Machinery, Gems, Fertilizer, Chemicals. Imports Partners:  Japan 6%  US 10%  Belgium7%  Germany7%

123 123 Gross Domestic Products ( GDP ) l The Composition of GDP by Sector Is Roughly:  Agriculture 25%  Industry 30%  Services 45% l Some Economic Indicators ( Billion of 1990 US $): %CH.2004%CH. GDP Per Capita GDP Total Fixed Investment Current Account External Debt (Billion Current $US)

124 124 Unemployment and Inflation l Unemployment Rate NA. l Labor Force Amounts NA — by Occupation:  Agriculture67%  Industry 15%  Services 18% l Inflation Rate (Consumer Prices) 14%

125 125 Energy Sector IndiaWorld% of Total Oil (Billion Barrels) 41, Natural Gas (Trillion cf) 195, Coal (Billion Short Tons) 771,1437

126 126 Energy Consumption l Total Energy Consumption: 13 Quadrillion Btu 3.3% of World Total Energy Consumption l Per Capita Energy Consumption: 13 Million Btu l Energy Intensity (1997E): 27,200 Btu/$1990

127 127 Energy Consumption by Sector Fuel Share of Energy Consumption:  Industrial68 %  Residential12 %  Transportation16 %  Commercial4 %

128 128 Fuel Share of Energy Consumption Fuel Share of Energy Consumption:  Oil 31%  Natural Gas 8%  Coal 53%

129 129 Oil Demand, MMBD IndiaWorld% Share

130 130 Oil Supply, MMBD IndiaWorld% Share

131 131 Net oil Imports, MMBD IndiaWorld% Share

132 132 Major Oil Refineries l Reliance-Jamnagar360,000 bbl/d l Koyali-Gujarat185,100 bbl/d l Mangalore180,000 bbl/d l Mathura-Uttar Pradesh156,000 bbl/d l Mahul-Bombay (Bharat Petroleum) 120,000 bbl/d l Madras130,660 bbl/d l Mahul-Bombay (Hindustan Petroleum) 110,452 bbl/d

133 133 Natural Gas & Coal Natural Gas l Natural Gas Production761 Bcf l Natural Gas Consumption761 Bcf Coal l Coal Production359 Million Short Tons l Coal Consumption370 Million Short Tons l Net Coal Imports11 Million Short Tons

134 134Electricity Electric Generation Capacity:100 Giga Watts (GW)  75 GW Thermal  22 GW Hydro  2 GW Nuclear Electricity Generation: 446 Billion Kilowatt/Hours  80% Conventional Thermal  18% Hydro  2% Nuclear

135 135 Energy Sector Organization Structure Energy Sector Organization Structure Petroleum Industry Structure:  Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC)  Oil India Ltd. (OIL)  Indian Oil Corporation (IOC) Natural Gas:  Gas Authority of India Limited (GAIL) Coal:  Coal India Limited (CIL) Electric Power :  National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC)  National Hydroelectric Power Corporation  State Electricity Boards

136 136 Major Oil Terminals l Bombay l Cochin l Haldia l Kandla l Madras l Vizag

137 137Environment Energy-Related Carbon Emissions: Million Metric Tons of Carbon 4.1% of World Carbon Emissions Per Capita Carbon Emissions: 0.3 Metric Tons of Carbon (Vs U.S. Value of 5.5 Metric Tons of Carbon) Carbon Intensity: 0.55 Metric Tons of Carbon/thousand $1990 (Vs U.S. Value of 0.22 Metric Tons/thousand $1990)

138 138 Emissions Emissions Sectoral Share of Carbon Emissions:  Industrial67.1%  Transportation16.0%  Residential 13.4%  Commercial3.6% Fuel Share of Carbon Emissions:  Coal 67.8%  Oil 26.7%  Natural Gas 5.5%

139 139 Kingdom of Thailand Bangkok Kingdom of Thailand Capital - Bangkok l Location Southeast Asia l Number61 Million l Rate of Growth0.93 percent per year l Age Structure 0-14 Years: 24% of Population Years: 70% of Population 65 Years & Over: 6% of Population Size: 514 Thousands Square Kilometer

140 140 Natural Resources l Tin l Rubber l Timber l Tungsten l Natural Gas l Lead l Fish l Gypsum l Lignite l Tantalum l Fluorite

141 141 Territorial Disputes l Parts of the Border With Laos Are Indefinite l Maritime Boundary With Vietnam Resolved, August 1997 l Parts of Border With Cambodia Are Indefinite l Maritime Boundary With Cambodia Not Clearly Defined l Sporadic Conflict With Burma Over Alignment of Border

142 142 Land Transportation Pipelines l Product Oil67 KM l Natural Gas350 KM Highways l Total:64,600 KM l Paved:62,985 KM l Unpaved:1,615 KM Railways l Total:4,628 KM

143 143 Sea Transportation Waterways: l 3,999 KM Navigable Ports and Harbors: l Bangkok, Laem Chabang, Pattani, Phuket, Sattahip, Si Racha, Songkhla Merchant Marine: l Total: 293 Ships (1,000 GRT or Over) Totaling 1,848,626 GRT/2,989,382 DWT

144 144 Ships by Type l Bulk 41 l Cargo 135 l Chemical Tanker 5 l Container 13 l Liquefied Gas Tanker 17 l Combination Bulk 1 l Oil Tanker 61 l Passenger 1 l Refrigerated Cargo 11 l Roll-on/roll-off Cargo 2 l Specialized Tanker 2 l Multifunction Large-Load 3 Carrier l Short Sea Passenger 1

145 145 Number of Airports l With Paved Runways56 l With Unpaved Runways 51 l Total107

146 146 Trade with Saudi Arabia l Saudi Arabia Mainly Imports From Thailand Food Products, Textiles and Construction Materials. l The Average Share of Saudi Imports From Thailand Is 1% of Saudi Total Imports From 1996 to l Average Saudi Crude Exports to Thailand Is About 0.55% of Total Saudi Exports of Crude Oil From 1955 to 1999.

147 147 Values of Saudi Imports from People’s Republic of Thailand ($Million) Thailand Saudi Arabia% of Total , , ,9730.8

148 148 Saudi Crude oil Exports to People’s Republic of Thailand (MM Barrels) Exports to ThailandSaudi Total Exports% Share , , , , ,

149 149 The Economy l The Composition of GDP by Sector Is Roughly:  Agriculture12%  Industry39%  Services 49% l Some Economic Indicators ( Billion of 1990 US$) Thailand : %CH %CH. GDP Per Capita GDP 2,1662, , Total Fixed Investment Current Account External Debt (Billion of $US)

150 150 Unemployment and Inflation l Unemployment Rate Is 5% l Labor Force Amounts About 33 Million People — by Occupation  Agriculture 54%  Industry 15%  Services 31% l Inflation Rate (Consumer Prices) 4%

151 151Industry l Industries Tourism; Textiles and Garments, Agricultural Processing, Beverages, Tobacco, Cement, Light Manufacturing, Such As Jewelry; Electric Appliances and Components, Computers and Parts, Integrated Circuits, Furniture, Plastics; World's Second-largest Tungsten Producer and Third-largest Tin Producer l Industrial Production Growth Rate10% l Major Agriculture Products Products: Rice, Cassava (Tapioca), Rubber, Corn, Sugarcane, Coconuts, Soybeans

152 152Exports Exports $51.6 Billion Major Exports Products Manufactures ( Including Computers and Parts 16%) 82% Agricultural Products and Fisheries14% Exports Partners US 20% Japan15% Singapore 11% Hong Kong 6% Malaysia 4% UK 4%

153 153Imports Imports $73.5 Billion Major Imports Products Capital Goods 50% Intermediate Goods and Raw Materials22% Consumer Goods10 % Fuels9 % Imports Partners Japan 26% US14% Singapore5% Taiwan5% Germany5% Malaysia4%

154 154 Risk and Uncertainty Thailand Is Applying to Be a Member, Among the 151 Member Countries, in the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) Which Is an Affiliate of the World Bank.

155 155 Energy Sector Primary Energy Reserves ThailandWorld% Share Oil (Billion Barrels) 0.31, Natural Gas (Trillion cf) , Coal (Billion Short Tons) 1.01,

156 156 Energy Consumption Total Energy Consumption2.3 Quadrillion Btu 0.6 % of World Total Energy Consumption Per Capita Energy Consumption39 Million Btu Energy Intensity19,300 Btu/$1997

157 157 Energy Consumption Energy Consumption by Sector  Industrial40 %  Residential19 %  Transportation31 %  Commercial10 % Fuel Share of Energy Consumption  Oil62 %  Natural Gas25 %  Coal13 %

158 158 Oil Demand (MMBD) ThailandWorld% Share

159 159 Oil Supply (MMBD) ThailandWorld% Share

160 160 Net oil Imports (MMBD) ThailandWorld% Share

161 161 Major Oil Refineries Thailand Has Five Oil Refineries, With a Combined Capacity of 704,250 Bbl/d. l Thai Oil Co. Ltd., Located in Sriracha (207,000 Bbl/d) l Esso Standard Thailand Ltd. (167,000 Bbl/d), Also Located in Sriracha l Shell Co. Of Thailand Ltd. (145,000 Bbl/d) in Rayong l Star Petroleum Refining Company (123, 500 Bbl/d) l There Is a Smaller 61,750 Bbl/d Refinery Owned by PTT

162 162 Major Companies Major Foreign Companies -Unocal, Total, Mitsubishi State Energy Companies -PTT is the State Oil Company Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) Thailand has 2 Other State-owned Electric Companies: The Metropolitan Electricity Authority (MEA) The Provincial Electricity Authority (PEA)

163 163 Natural Gas & Coal Natural Gas l Natural Gas Production523 Bcf l Natural Gas Consumption523 Bcf Coal l Coal Production24 Million Short Tons l Coal Consumption28 Million Short Tons l Net Coal Imports4 Million Short Tons

164 164Electricity Generation Capacity:19 Giga Watts (GW) Generation:95 Billion Kilowatt/hours Production by Source:  Fossil Fuel92%  Hydro8% Consumption: 95 Billion Kilowatt/hours Exports:79 Million Kilowatt/hours Imports:640 Million Kilowatt/hours

165 165Environment Energy-related Carbon Emissions: 43 Million Metric Tons of Carbon 0.7% of World Carbon Emissions Per Capita Carbon Emissions: 0.7 Metric Tons of Carbon (Vs U.S. Value of 5.5 Metric Tons of Carbon) Carbon Intensity: 0.35 Metric Tons of Carbon/thousand $1990 (Vs U.S. Value of 0.22 Metric Tons/thousand $1990)

166 166 Emissions Emissions Sectoral Share of Carbon Emissions:  Industrial41%  Transportation39%  Residential 10%  Commercial10% Fuel Share of Carbon Emissions:  Coal 63%  Oil 19%  Natural Gas 18%

167 167 Malaysia Kuala Lampur Malaysia Capital - Kuala Lampur l LocationSoutheast Asia l Number21 Million l Rate of Growth2.1 percent per year l Age Structure0-14 Years: 35% of Population Years: 68% of Population 65 Years & Over: 4% of Population Size: 330 Thousands Square Kilometer

168 168 Natural Resources l Tin l Petroleum l Timber l Copper l Iron Ore l Natural Gas l Bauxite

169 169 Territorial Dispute l Involved in a Complex Dispute Over the Spratly Islands With China, Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, and Possibly Brunei; Philippines Have Not Fully Revoked Claim to Sabah State; Two Islands in Dispute With Singapore; Two Islands in Dispute With Indonesia

170 170 Risk and Uncertainty Malaysia Is a Member, Among 151 Member Countries, in the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) Which Is an Affiliate of the World Bank

171 171 Land Transportation Pipelines l Crude Oil1,307 KM l Natural Gas379 KM Highways l Total 94,500 KM l Paved 70,970 KM l Unpaved 23,530 KM Railways l Total 1,798 KM

172 172 Sea Transportation Waterways: l 7,296 KM Navigable Ports and Harbors: l Bintulu, Kota Kinabalu, Kuantan, Kuching, Kudat, Labuan, Lahad Datu, Lumut, Miri, Pasir Gudang, Penang, Port Dickson, Port Kelang, Sandakan, Sibu, Tanjung Berhala, Tanjung Kidurong, Tawau Merchant Marine: l Total: 378 Ships (1,000 GRT or Over) Totaling 5,059,272 GRT/428,623 DWT

173 173 Ships by Type l Bulk 62 l Cargo 128 l Chemical Tanker 30 l Container 58 l Liquefied Gas Tanker 19 l Livestock Carrier 1 l Oil Tanker 61 l Passenger 2 l Refrigerated Cargo 2 l Roll-on/roll-off Cargo 6 l Specialized Tanker 2 l Vehicle Carrier 7

174 174 Number of Airports l With Paved Runways32 l With Unpaved Runways 83 l Total115

175 175 Trade with Saudi Arabia l Saudi Arabia Mainly Imports From Malaysia Food Products, Textiles and Construction Materials l The Average Share of Saudi Imports From Malaysia Is 0.8% of Saudi Total Imports From 1996 to 1998 l The Average Share of Saudi Crude Exports to Malaysia to Total Saudi Crude Exports Is 0.2% From 1997 and 1999

176 176 Values of Saudi Imports from People’s Republic of Malaysia ($ Million) MalaysiaSaudi Arabia% of Total , , ,9730.7

177 177 Saudi Crude oil Exports to People’s Republic of Malaysia (MM Barrels) Exports to MalaysiaSaudi Total Exports% Share , ,

178 178 The Economy Gross Domestic Products (GDP) l The Composition of GDP by Sector Is Roughly:  Agriculture13%  Industry46%  Services 41% l Some Economic Indicators ( Billion of 1990 US$) Thailand: %CH %CH. GDP Per Capita GDP 3,1303, , Total Fixed Investment Current Account External Debt (Billion of $US)

179 179 The Economy Unemployment and Inflation l Unemployment Rate Is 2.6% l Labor Force Amounts About 8.4 Million People — by Occupation  Agriculture 21%  Industry 25%  Services 12%  Local Trade and Tourism17%  Others25% l Inflation Rate (Consumer Prices) 5.3%

180 180Industry l Industries Rubber and Oil Palm Processing and Manufacturing, Light Manufacturing Industry, Electronics, Tin Mining and Smelting, Logging and Processing Timber; Sabah— logging, Petroleum Production; Sarawak—agriculture Processing, Petroleum Production and Refining, Logging l Industrial Production Growth Rate14% l Major Agriculture Products Rubber, Palm Oil, Rice, Subsistence Crops, Rubber, Timber, Coconuts, Rice, Rubber, Pepper; Timber

181 181Exports Exports $74.3 Billion Electronic Equipment, Petroleum and Petroleum Products, Palm Oil, Wood and Wood Products, Rubber, Textiles Exports Partners US21% Singapore20% Japan12% Hong Kong5% UK4% Thailand4% Germany3%

182 182Imports Imports $59 Billion Machinery and Equipment, Chemicals, Food Imports Partners Japan27% US16% Singapore12% Taiwan5% Germany4% South Korea4%

183 183 Energy Sector Primary Energy Reserves MalaysiaWorld% Share Oil (Billion Barrels) 3.91, Natural Gas (Trillion cf) , Coal (Billion Short Tons) 0.41,

184 184 Energy Consumption Total Energy Consumption1.7 Quadrillion Btu 0.4% of World Total Energy Consumption Per Capita Energy Consumption78 Million Btu Energy Intensity17,200 Btu/$1997 (vs US value of 11,600 Btu/$1997)

185 185 Energy Consumption Energy Consumption by Sector  Industrial57 %  Residential13 %  Transportation22 %  Commercial8 % Fuel Share of Energy Consumption  Oil56 %  Natural Gas37 %  Coal5 %

186 186 Oil Demand (MMBD) MalaysiaWorld% Share

187 187 Oil Supply (MMBD) MalaysiaWorld% Share

188 188 Net oil Imports (MMBD) MalaysiaWorld% Share

189 189 Major Oil Refineries l Port Dickson-Shell105,000 l Melaka I100,000 l Melaka II100,000 l Kerteh-Petronas 40,000 l Port Dickson-Esso84,400 l Lutong-Shell45,000

190 190 Major Companies l Major Foreign Companies  Amoco  Conoco  Enron  Exxon  International Petroleum Corporation  Mitsubishi  Mobil  Murphy Oil  Nippon Oil  Occidental  Shell  Statoil  Texaco  Triton

191 191 Natural Gas & Coal Natural Gas l Natural Gas Production1,360 Bcf l Natural Gas Consumption590 Bcf Coal l Coal Production0.12 Million Short Tons l Coal Consumption3.06 Million Short Tons l Net Coal Imports3.42 Million Short Tons

192 192Electricity Generation Capacity:12 Giga Watts (GW) Generation:55 Billion Kilowatt/hours Production by Source:  Thermal84%  Hydro16% Consumption: 54 Billion Kilowatt/hours Exports:190 Million Kilowatt/hours Imports:175 Million Kilowatt/hours

193 193Environment Energy-related Carbon Emissions: 28 Million Metric Tons of Carbon 0.7% of World Carbon Emissions Per Capita Carbon Emissions: 1.3 Metric Tons of Carbon (Vs U.S. Value of 5.5 Metric Tons of Carbon) Carbon Intensity: 0.29 Metric Tons of Carbon/Thousand $1997 (Vs U.S. Value of 0.18 Metric Tons/Thousand $1997)

194 194 Emissions Emissions Sectoral Share of Carbon Emissions:  Industrial54%  Transportation27%  Residential 10%  Commercial8% Fuel Share of Carbon Emissions:  Coal 7%  Oil 61%  Natural Gas 32%

195 195 Republic of South Africa Pretoria (Administrative) Republic of South Africa Capital - Pretoria (Administrative)

196 196 South Africa l CapitalPretoria (Administrative) Cape Town (Legislative) Bellefontaine (Judicial) l Chief of StatePresident l Head of Government President l LocationSouthern Africa l Currency 1 Rand ( =100 Cents ) $1 = 5.98 Rand

197 197 South Africa (Continued) Population : l Number43 Million l Rate of Growth1.3% Per Year l Age Structure0-14 Years: 34% of the Population (Male 7.5 Million; Female 7.4 Million) Years: 61% of the Population (Male 13.2 Million; Female 13.3 Million) 65 Years & Over: 5% of the Population (Male 798,825; Female 1.2 Million )

198 198Land Size:1.2 Million Square Kilometer Boundaries: 4,750 KM Border Countries  Botswana1,840 KM  Lesotho909 KM  Mozambique491 KM  Namibia855 KM  Swaziland430 KM  Zimbabwe225 KM

199 199 Natural Resources l Gold l Chromium l Iron Ore l Manganese l Nickel l Coal l Nickel l Phosphates l Tin l Uranium Gem l Gold l Coal l Platinum l Copper l Vanadium l Natural Gas

200 200 Territorial Disputes Swaziland Has Asked South Africa to Open Negotiations on Reincorporating Some Nearby South African Territories That Are Populated by Ethnic Swazis or That Were Long Ago Part of the Swazi Kingdom

201 201Government Type: Republic Political Parties: Multiparty System Bicameral Parliament: National Assembly National Council of Province Administrative Divisions: 9 Provinces

202 202 Land Transportation Pipelines l Crude Oil931 KM l Product Oil1,748 KM l Natural Gas322 KM Highways l Total:331,265 KM l Paved:137,475 KM l Unpaved:193,790 KM Railways l Total:21,431 KM

203 203 Sea Transportation Ports and Harbors:  Cape Town  Durban  East London  Mosselbaai  Port Elizabeth  Richards Bay  Saldanha Merchant Marine: l Total: 9 Ships (1,000 GRT or Over) Totaling 274,797 GRT/270,837 DWT Ships by Type:  Container6  Oil Tanker2  Roll-on/roll-off Cargo1

204 204 Number of Airports l With Paved Runways144 l With Unpaved Runways 605 l Total749

205 205 Trade with Saudi Arabia l Saudi Arabia Mainly Imports From South Africa Food Products, Textiles, Heavy and Light Equipment, Electronics, Vehicles, Chemicals, and Construction Materials l The Average Share of Saudi Imports From South Africa Is 1.2% of Saudi Total Imports From 1996 to l Average Saudi Crude Exports to South Africa Is About 1.1% of Total Saudi Exports of Crude Oil From 1955 to 1999.

206 206 Values of Saudi Imports from People’s Republic of South Africa (SR Million) South AfricaSaudi Arabia% of Total , ,602107, ,713112,3971.5

207 207 Saudi Crude oil Exports to People’s Republic of South Africa (MM Barrels) Exports to South Africa Saudi Total Exports% Share , , , , ,

208 208 Unemployment and Inflation l Unemployment Rate Is 30% l Labor Force Amounts About 15 Million People - by Occupation  Agriculture30%  Industry20%  Services35%  Mining9%  Other6% l Inflation Rate (Consumer Prices) 9%

209 209 Risk and Uncertainty South Africa Is a Member, Among the 151 Member Countries, in the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) Which Is an Affiliate of the World Bank.

210 210 The Economy l The Composition of GDP by Sector Is Roughly:  Agriculture5%  Industry39%  Services 56% l Some Economic Indicators (Billion of 1990 US$) South Africa: %CH %CH. GDP Per Capita GDP 2,7492, ,9346 Total Fixed Investment Current Account External Debt ($US B)

211 211Industry l Industries Mining (World's Largest Producer of Platinum, Gold, Chromium), Automobile Assembly, Metalworking, Machinery, Textile, Iron and Steel, Chemical, Fertilizer, Foodstuffs l Industrial Production Growth Rate1% l Major Agriculture Products Corn, Wheat, Sugarcane, Fruits, Vegetables, Beef, Poultry, Mutton, Wool, Dairy Products

212 212Exports Exports $29 Billion Major Exports Products: Gold20% Other Minerals and Metals25% Food5% Chemicals3% Others47% Exports Partners: UK, Italy, Japan, US, Germany

213 213Imports Imports $27 Billion Major Imports Products: Machinery, Transport Equipment, Chemicals, Petroleum Products, Textiles, Scientific Instruments Intermediate Goods and Raw Materials Imports Partners: Germany, US, UK, Japan, US

214 214 Energy Sector Primary Energy Reserves South AfricaWorld% Share Oil (Billion Barrels) 0.31, Natural Gas (Trillion cf) 0.85, Coal (Billion Short Tons) 61.01,

215 215 Energy Consumption Total Energy Consumption4.4 Quadrillion Btu 1.2% of World Total Energy Consumption Per Capita Energy Consumption100 Million Btu (vs U.S. Value of 351 Million Btu) Energy Intensity37,900 Btu/$1997 (vs U.S. Value of 13,400 Btu/ $1990)

216 216 Energy Consumption Energy Consumption by Sector  Industrial55 %  Residential16 %  Transportation17 %  Commercial11 % Fuel Share of Energy Consumption  Oil22 %  Natural Gas1 %  Coal76 %

217 217 Oil Demand (MMBD) South AfricaWorld% Share

218 218 Oil Supply (MMBD) South AfricaWorld% Share

219 219 Net oil Imports (MMBD) South AfricaWorld% Share

220 220 Natural Gas & Coal Natural Gas l Natural Gas Production55 Bcf l Natural Gas Consumption55 Bcf Coal l Coal Production247 Million Short Tons l Coal Consumption177 Million Short Tons l Net Coal Imports70 Million Short Tons

221 221Electricity Generation Capacity:37 Giga Watts (GW) Generation:192 Billion Kilowatt/hours Production by Source:  Fossil Fuel93%  Hydro 0.7%  Nuclear6.3% Consumption: 188 Billion Kilowatt/hours Exports:7 Million Kilowatt/hours Imports:32 Million Kilowatt/hours

222 222Environment Energy-related Carbon Emissions: 102 Million Metric Tons of Carbon 1.7% of World Carbon Emissions Per Capita Carbon Emissions: 2.3 Metric Tons of Carbon (Vs U.S. Value of 5.5 Metric Tons of Carbon) Carbon Intensity: 0.87 Metric Tons of Carbon/thousand $1990 (Vs U.S. Value of 0.22 Metric Tons/thousand $1990)

223 223 Emissions Emissions Sectoral Share of Carbon Emissions:  Industrial63%  Transportation16%  Residential 13%  Commercial8% Fuel Share of Carbon Emissions:  Coal 82%  Oil 17%  Natural Gas 1%

224 224 Republic of Angola Luanda Republic of Angola Capital - Luanda

225 225Angola l Chief of State President l Head of Government President l Location Southern Africa l Currency Kwanza (Nkz) ( =100 Lwei ) $ 1 = 350,000 Kwanza (Nkz)

226 226Angola Population : l Number;11 Million l Rate of Growth;2.8% Per Year l Age Structure;0-14 Years: 45% of the Population (Male 2.5 Million; Female 2.5 Million) Years: 52% of the Population (Male 2.9 Million; Female 2.9 Million) 65 Years & Over: 6% of the Population (Male 143 Thousand; Female 168 Thousand )

227 227Land Size: 1.2 Million Square Kilometer Boundaries: 5,198 KM Border Countries  Congo2,511 KM  Namibia1,376 KM  Zambia1,110 KM

228 228 Natural Resources l Petroleum l Diamonds l Iron Ore l Phosphates l Copper l Gold l Bauxite l Uranium l Feldspar

229 229Government Type: Democracy With Strong Presidential System Political Parties: Nominally a Multiparty System Administrative Divisions: 18 Provinces Cabinet: Appointed by the President

230 230 Land Transportation Pipelines l Crude Oil179 KM Highways l Total:76,626 KM l Paved:19,156 KM l Unpaved:57,470 KM Railways l Total:2,952 KM

231 231 Sea Transportation Waterways: l 1,295 KM Navigable Ports and Harbors: l Ambriz, Cabinda, Lobito, Luanda, Malongo, Namibe, Porto, Amboim, Soyo Merchant Marine: l Total: 10 Ships (1,000 GRT or Over) Totaling 48,384 GRT/78,357 DWT

232 232 Ships by Type l Cargo 9 l Oil Tanker 1

233 233 Number of Airports l With Paved Runways32 l With Unpaved Runways 220 l Total252

234 234 Territorial Dispute l None

235 235 Risk and Uncertainty Angola Is a Member, Among the 151 Member Countries, in the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) Which Is an Affiliate of the World Bank.

236 236 Trade with Saudi Arabia l None

237 237 The Economy l The Composition of GDP by Sector Is Roughly:  Agriculture13%  Industry53%  Services 34% l Some Economic Indicators (Billion of 1990 US$) Angola : %CH %CH. GDP Per Capita GDP Total Fixed Investment Current Account External debt (Billion of $US)

238 238 Unemployment and Inflation l Unemployment Rate Is 50% l Labor Force Amounts About 5 Million People — by Occupation:  Agriculture 85%  Industry 10%  Services5% l Inflation Rate (Consumer Prices) 90%

239 239Industry l Industries Petroleum; Diamonds, Iron Ore, Phosphates, Feldspar, Bauxite, Uranium, and Gold, Cement; Basic Metal Products, Fish Processing, Food Processing, Brewing, Tobacco Products; Sugar, Textiles l Industrial Production Growth RateN/A l Major Agriculture Products Bananas, Sugarcane, Coffee, Sisal, Corn, Cotton, Manioc (Tapioca), Tobacco, Vegetables, Plantains, Livestock, Forest Products, Fish

240 240Exports Exports $3.4 Billion Major Exports Products Crude Oil90% Diamonds, Refined Petroleum Products, Gas, 10% Coffee, Sisal, Fish and Fish Products, Timber, Cotton Exports Partners US 65% EU, China35%

241 241Imports Imports $2.2 Billion Major Imports Products Machinery and Electrical Equipment, Vehicles and Spare Parts; Medicines, Food, Textiles and Clothing; Substantial Military Goods Imports Partners Portugal 21% US15% France 14% South Africa and others50%

242 242 Energy Sector Primary Energy Reserves AngolaWorld% Share Oil (Billion Barrels) 5.41, Natural Gas (Trillion C F) 1.6 5, Coal (Billion Short Tons) 0.01,143 Total Energy Consumption0.1 Quadrillion Btu 0.03% of World Total Energy Consumption Per Capita Energy Consumption: 9 Million Btu (vs US Value of 351 Million Btu) Energy Intensity: 9,900 Btu/$1990 (vs US Value of 13,400 Btu/$1990)

243 243 Energy Consumption Energy Consumption by Sector  Industrial34 %  Residential16 %  Transportation150 % Fuel Share of Energy Consumption  Oil65 %  Natural Gas21 %  Others14 %

244 244 Oil Demand (MMBD) AngolaWorld% Share

245 245 Oil Supply (MMBD) AngolaWorld% Share

246 246 Net oil Exports (MMBD) AngolaWorld% Share

247 247 Natural Gas l Natural Gas Production20 Bcf l Natural Gas Consumption20 Bcf

248 248Electricity Generation Capacity:617 Giga Watts (GW) Generation:1.9 Billion Kilowatt/hours Production by Source:  Fossil Fuel25%  Hydro75% Consumption: 1.9 Billion Kilowatt/hours Exports:0 Million Kilowatt/hours Imports:0 Million Kilowatt/hours

249 249Environment Energy-related Carbon Emissions: 3.7 Million Metric Tons of Carbon 0.06% of World Carbon Emissions Per Capita Carbon Emissions: 0.3 Metric Tons of Carbon (Vs U.S. Value of 5.5 Metric Tons of Carbon) Carbon Intensity: 0.35 Metric Tons of Carbon/thousand $1990 (Vs U.S. Value of 0.22 Metric Tons/thousand $1990)

250 250 Emissions Emissions Sectoral Share of Carbon Emissions:  Industrial41%  Transportation42%  Residential 17% Fuel Share of Carbon Emissions:  Oil 36%  Natural Gas 64%

251 251 Organization & Major Oil Fields Organization State-owned Sociedade Nacional De Combustiveis De Angola (Sonangol) Oversees Offshore and Onshore Oil Operations in Angola l Major Oil Fields (Production bbl/d) l Takula-Block Zero(126,000 bbl/d) l Numbi-Block Zero(74,000 bbl/d) l Kokongo-Block Zero(52,000 bbl/d) l Pacassa-Block 3(55,000 bbl/d) l Cobo/Pambi- Block 3(50,000 bbl/d)

252 252 Major Oil Refineries & Oil Terminals Major Oil Refineries l Fina Petroleos De Angola - Luanda (39,000 bbl/d) Major Oil Terminals Luanda, Malango (Cabinda), Palanca, Quinfuquena

253 253 Major Foreign Companies l Ajoco l BHP l BP-Amoco l Chevron l Daewoo l Elf Aquitane l Engen l ENI-Agip l Exxon l Falcon Oil l Gulf Energy Resources l INA-Naftaplin l Petrogal l Petro-Inett l Petronas l Phillips l Prodev l Ranger l Saga l Shell l Statoil l Teikoku l Texaco l Total Fina l Lacula Oil l Marathon Oil l Mitsubishi l Mobil l Naftgas l Naphta l Neste l Norsk Hydro l Occidental l Ocean Energy l Pedco l Petrobras

254 254 Italian Republic Rome Italian Republic Capital - Rome

255 255Italy l Chief of StatePresident l Head of Government Prime Minister l LocationSouthern Europe l Currency Lira ( =100 Centesimal ) $1 = 1,689 Lira

256 256 Italy (Continued) Population : l Number57 Million l Rate of Growth0.08 % Per Year l Age Structure0-14 Years: 14% of the Population (Male 4 Million; Female 3.9 Million) Years: 68% of the Population (Male 19 Million; Female 19 Million) 65 Years & Over: 18% of the Population (Male 4 Million; Female 6 Million )

257 257Land Size:301,230 Square Kilometer Boundaries:1,932 KM  Austria 430 KM  France 488 KM  Slovenia 232 KM  Switzerland 740 KM  San Marino 39 KM

258 258 Natural Resources l Mercury l Potash l Marble l Sulfur l Fish l Coal

259 259 Territorial Disputes l Italy and Slovenia Made Progress in Resolving Bilateral Issues; Croatia and Italy Made Progress Toward Resolving a Bilateral Issue Dating From World War II Over Property and Ethnic Minority Rights

260 260Government Type: Republic Political Parties: Multiparty System Bicameral Parliament : Senate Chamber of Deputies Administrative Divisions: 20 Regions Cabinet: Approved by the President

261 261 Risk and Uncertainty Italy Is a Member, Among the 151 Member Countries, in the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) Which Is an Affiliate of the World Bank

262 262 Land Transportation Pipelines l Crude Oil1,703 KM l Petroleum Products2,148 KM l Natural Gas19,400 KM Highways l Total:317,000 KM l Paved:317,000 KM l Unpaved:None KM Railways l Total:19,272 KM

263 263 Sea Transportation Waterways: l 2,400 KM Navigable Ports and Harbors: l Augusta (Sicily), Bagnoli, Bari, Brindisi, Gela, Genoa, La Spezia, Livorno, Milazzo, Naples, Porto Foxi, Porto Torres (Sardinia), Salerno, Savona, Taranto, Trieste, Venice Merchant Marine: l Total: 393 Ships (1,000 GRT or Over) Totaling 5,982,870 GRT/8,413,850 DWT

264 264 Ships by Type l Bulk 38 l Cargo 46 l Chemical Tankers 60 l Container 16 l Oil Tanker 84 l Combination Ore/oil 2 l Liquefied Gas Tanker 35 l Passenger 6 l Roll-on/roll-off Cargo 53 l Short Sea Passenger 28 l Vehicle Carrier 11 l Specialized Tankers 12 l Livestock Carriers 1 l Multifunction Large 1 Load Carriers

265 265 Number of Airports l With Paved Runways97 l With Unpaved Runways 39 l Total136

266 266 Trade with Saudi Arabia l Saudi Arabia Mainly Imports From Italy Food Products, Textiles, Heavy and Light Equipment, Electronics, Vehicles, Chemicals, Construction Materials and Shoes. l The Average Share of Saudi Imports From Italy Is 4.5% of Saudi Total Imports From 1996 to l Average Saudi Crude Exports to Italy Is About 4% of Total Saudi Exports of Crude Oil From 1955 to 1999.

267 267 Values of Saudi Imports from People’s Republic of Italy (SR Million) Italy Saudi Arabia% of Total 19964,901103, ,963107, ,667112,

268 268 Saudi Crude oil Exports to People’s Republic of Italy (MM Barrels) Exports to Italy Saudi Total Exports% Share , , , , ,2873

269 269 The Economy l The Composition of GDP by Sector Is Roughly:  Agriculture3%  Industry33%  Services 64% l Some Economic Indicators ( Billion of 1990 US$) Italy: %CH %CH. GDP Per Capita GDP 20,49421, ,03412 Total Fixed Investment Current Account External debt (B. of $US)

270 270 Unemployment and Inflation l Unemployment Rate Is 13% l Labor Force Amounts About 33 Million People — by Occupation  Agriculture 7%  Industry 32%  Services 61% l Inflation Rate (Consumer Prices) 2%

271 271Industry l Industries Tourism, Machinery, Iron and Steel, Chemicals, Food Processing, Textiles, Motor Vehicles, Clothing, Footwear, Ceramics l Industrial Production Growth Rate0.5% l Major Agriculture Products Fruits, Vegetables, Grapes, Potatoes, Sugar Beets, Soybeans, Grain, Olives; Beef, Dairy Products, Fish

272 272Exports Exports $51.6 Billion Major Exports Products Engineering Products, Textiles and Clothing, Production Machinery, Motor Vehicles, Transport Equipment, Chemicals; Food, Beverages and Tobacco; Minerals and Nonferrous Metals Exports Partners Germany16.4% France12.2% US7.9% UK7.1% Spain5.2% Netherlands2.8%

273 273Imports Imports $202 Billion Major Imports Products Engineering Products, Chemicals, Transport Equipment, Energy Products, Minerals and Nonferrous Metals, Textiles and Clothing; Food, Beverages and Tobacco Imports Partners Japan26% Germany18.0% France13.2% UK6.7% Netherlands6.2% US5.0% Belgium-Luxembourg4.7%

274 274 Energy Sector Primary Energy Reserves ItalyWorld % Share Oil (Billion Barrels) 0.601, Natural Gas (Trillion cf) 8.005, Coal (Billion Short Tons) 0.041,

275 275 Energy Consumption Total Energy Consumption8 Quadrillion Btu 2 % of World Total Energy Consmptn. Per Capita Energy Consumption139 Million Btu (vs US Value of 351 Million Btu) Energy Intensity (1997E) 6,700 Btu/$1990 (vs US value of 13,400 Btu/1990)

276 276 Energy Consumption Energy Consumption by Sector  Industrial44 %  Residential23 %  Transportation26 %  Commercial7 % Fuel Share of Energy Consumption  Oil54 %  Natural Gas28 %  Coal6 %  Others12 %

277 277 Natural Gas & Coal Natural Gas l Natural Gas Production680 Bcf l Natural Gas Consumption2,000 Bcf l Net Natural Gas Imports1,400 Bcf Coal l Coal Production0.20 Million Short Tons l Coal Consumption17 Million Short Tons

278 278 Oil Demand (MMBD) Italy World% Share

279 279 Oil Supply (MMBD) ItalyWorld% Share

280 280 Net oil Imports (MMBD) ItalyWorld% Share

281 281Refining To Ensure Access to Foreign Oil, the Italian Government Has Promoted Italy As an Export Refining Center. There Are Large Facilities Along the Mediterranean Coast and on Mediterranean Islands, Capable of Processing a Wide Range of Crude Oils From North Africa and the Persian Gulf. As a Result, Italy Now Has Europe's Largest Surplus of Refining Capacity. ENI Operates Six of the 16 Major Refineries in Italy. While Underutilized, the Italian Refineries Remain Attractive Because of Their Ability to Handle Large Tankers and Process Many Different Fuel Types, and Also Because of Their Catalytic and Hydro Cracking Abilities.

282 282 Major Ports Major Ports: Cagliari (Sardinia), Genoa, La Spezia, Livorno, Naples, Palermo, Trieste, Venice Major Pipelines (Gas): Transmed, Trans-Austria Gasleitung

283 283Electricity Generation Capacity:61 Million Watts (MW) Generation:235 Billion Kilowatt/hours Production by Source:  Fossil Fuel80%  Hydro18%  Other2% Consumption: 257 Billion Kilowatt/hours Exports:800 Million Kilowatt/hours Imports:38 Million Kilowatt/hours

284 284Environment Energy-Related Carbon Emissions: 120 Million Metric Tons of Carbon 2% of World Carbon Emissions Per Capita Carbon Emissions: 2 Metric Tons of Carbon (Vs U.S. Value of 5.5 Metric Tons of Carbon) Carbon Intensity: 0.10 Metric Tons of Carbon/Thousand $1990 (Vs U.S. Value of 0.22 Metric Tons/Thousand $1990)

285 285 Emissions Emissions Sectoral Share of Carbon Emissions:  Industrial41%  Transportation30%  Residential 22%  Commercial7% Fuel Share of Carbon Emissions:  Coal 9%  Oil 64%  Natural Gas 27%

286 286 Kingdom of Spain Madrid Kingdom of Spain Capital - Madrid

287 287Spain l Chief of StateMonarch l Head of Government President l LocationSouthwestern Europe l Currency 1 Peseta ( Pta) = 100 Centimes $1 = 144 Pesetas

288 288 Spain (Continued) Population : l Number39 Million l Rate of Growth0.1% Per Year l Age Structure0-14 Years: 15% of the Population (Male 3 Million; Female 2.8 Million) Years: 68% of the Population (Male 13 Million; Female 13 Million) 65 Years & Over 17% of the Population (Male 2.7 Million; Female 3.8 Million )

289 289Land Size:504,750 Square Kilometer Boundaries: 1,919 KM Border Countries  Andorra 65 KM  France 623 KM  Gibraltar 1.2 KM  Portugal 1,214 KM  Morocco (Ceuta) 6.3 KM  Morocco (Melilla) 9.6 KM

290 290 Natural Resources l Coal l Lignite l Iron Ore l Uranium l Mercury l Pyrites l Fluorspar l Gypsum l Lead l Tungsten l Copper l Zinc l Kaolin l Potash l Hydropower

291 291 Territorial Disputes l Gibraltar Issue With UK; Spain Controls Five Places of Sovereignty (Plazas De Soberania) on and off the Coast of Morocco—the Coastal Enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla, Which Morocco Contests, As Well As the Islands of Penon De Alhucemas, Penon De Velez De La Gomera and Islas Chafarinas

292 292Government Type: Parliamentary Monarchy Political Parties: Multiparty System Bicameral Parliament: National Assembly Congress of Deputies Administrative Divisions: 17 Autonomous Communities Cabinet: Designated by the president

293 293 Land Transportation Pipelines l Crude Oil265 KM l Petroleum Products1,794 KM l Natural Gas1,666 KM Highways l Total:346,858 KM l Paved:343,389 KM l Unpaved:3,469 KM Railways l Total:15,079 KM

294 294 Sea Transportation Waterways: l 1,045 KM Navigable Ports and Harbors: l Aviles, Barcelona, Bilbao, Cadiz, Cartagena, Castellon de la Plana, Ceuta, Huelva, La Coruna, Las Palmas (Canary Islands), Malaga, Melilla, Pasajes, Gijon, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Canary Islands), Santander, Tarragona, Valencia, Vigo Merchant Marine: l Total: 137 Ships (1,000 GRT or Over) Totaling 1,094,408 GRT/1,695,708 DWT

295 295 Ships by Type l Bulk 11 l Cargo 29 l Chemical Tanker 10 l Container10 l Oil Tanker 25 l Liquefied Gas Tanker 3 l Passenger 1 l Roll-on/roll-off Cargo35 l Short Sea Passenger 6 l Specialized Tankers 1 l Refrigerated Cargo 6

296 296 Number of Airports l With Paved Runways66 l With Unpaved Runways 33 l Total99

297 297 Risk and Uncertainty Spain Is a Member, Among the 151 Member Countries, in the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) Which Is an Affiliate of the World Bank.

298 298 Trade with Saudi Arabia l Saudi Arabia Mainly Imports From Spain Food Products, Textiles, Heavy and Light Equipment, Electronics, Vehicles, Chemicals, Construction Materials and Shoes. l The Average Share of Saudi Imports From Spain Is 1.4% of Saudi Total Imports From 1996 to l The Average Share of Saudi Exports to Spain Is 2.4% of Saudi Total Exports From 1995 to 1999.

299 299 Values of Saudi Imports from Spain (SR Million) SpainSaudi Arabia% of Total 19961,414103, ,415107, ,813112,3971.6

300 300 Saudi Crude oil Exports to Spain (MM Barrels) Exports to SpainSaudi Total Exports% Share , , , , ,

301 301 The Economy l The Composition of GDP by Sector Is Roughly:  Agriculture3%  Industry33%  Services 64% l Some Economic Indicators ( Billion of 1990 US$) Spain: %CH %CH. GDP Per Capita GDP13,42315, ,41815 Total Fixed Investment Current Account External debt (B. of $US)

302 302 Unemployment and Inflation l Unemployment Rate Is 20% l Labor Force Amounts About 16 Million People — by Occupation  Agriculture 8%  Industry 28%  Services 64% l Inflation Rate (Consumer Prices) 2%

303 303Industry l Industries Textiles and Apparel (Including Footwear), Food and Beverages, Metals and Metal Manufactures, Chemicals, Shipbuilding, Automobiles, Machine Tools, Tourism l Industrial Production Growth Rate6% l Major Agriculture Products Grain, Vegetables, Olives, Wine Grapes, Sugar Beets, Citrus; Beef, Pork, Poultry, Dairy Products; Fish

304 304Exports Exports $111 Billion Major Exports Products cars and trucks, other machinery and manufactured goods, foodstuffs, and other consumer goods Exports Partners EU70% France20% Germany18% Italy10% Portugal9% UK8% US5% Others25%

305 305Imports Imports $132 Billion Major Imports Products Machinery, Transport Equipment, Fuels, Semi-finished Goods, Foodstuffs, Consumer Goods, Chemicals Imports Partners EU65% France17% Germany15% Italy9% UK8% Benelux7% US6% Japan3% Others26%

306 306 Energy Sector Primary Energy Reserves SpainWorld% Share Oil (Billion Barrels) 0.011, Natural Gas (Trillion cf) 0.005, Coal (Billion Short Tons) 1.601,

307 307 Energy Consumption Total Energy Consumption5 Quadrillion Btu 1.3% of World Total Energy Consumption Per Capita Energy Consumption128 Million Btu (vs US value of 351 Million Btu) Energy Intensity (1997E) 8,700 Btu/$1990 (vs US value of 13,400 Btu/$1990)

308 308 Energy Consumption Energy Consumption by Sector  Industrial44 %  Residential15 %  Transportation31 %  Commercial15 % Fuel Share of Energy Consumption  Oil57 %  Natural Gas10 %  Coal13 %  Others10 %

309 309 Oil Demand (MMBD) SpainWorld% Share

310 310 Oil Supply (MMBD) SpainWorld% Share

311 311 Net oil Imports (MMBD) SpainWorld% Share

312 312 Major Oil Refineries l Spain's Total Refining Capacity Stands at 1.32 Million Bbl/d l Spain Has Eight Major Refineries l Four Are Owned by Repsol, and Another Is Owned by a Repsol Subsidiary, Petronor, in Which Repsol Has an 88% Stake l Cepsa Owns the Remaining Three

313 313 Natural Gas & Coal Natural Gas l Natural Gas Production4 Bcf l Natural Gas Consumption438 Bcf Coal l Coal Production29 Million Short Tons l Coal Consumption47 Million Short Tons

314 314Electricity Generation Capacity:43 Giga Watts (GW) Generation:179 Billion Kilowatt/hours Production by Source:  Thermal48%  Hydro19%  Nuclear31% Consumption: 163 Billion Kilowatt/hours Exports:6 Million Kilowatt/hours Imports:7 Million Kilowatt/hours

315 315Environment Energy-related Carbon Emissions: 75 Million Metric Tons of Carbon 1.2% of World Carbon Emissions Per Capita Carbon Emissions: 1.9 Metric Tons of Carbon (Vs U.S. Value of 5.5 Metric Tons of Carbon) Carbon Intensity: 0.13 Metric Tons of Carbon/thousand $1990 (Vs U.S. Value of 0.22 Metric Tons/thousand $1990)

316 316 Emissions Emissions Sectoral Share of Carbon Emissions:  Industrial41%  Transportation36%  Residential 14%  Commercial9% Fuel Share of Carbon Emissions:  Coal 23%  Oil 67%  Natural Gas 10%

317 317 Commonwealth of Australia Canberra Commonwealth of Australia Capital - Canberra

318 318Australia l Chief of StateQueen Elizabeth, Represented by a Governor General l Head of Government Prime Minister John Winston Howard l LocationOceania, continent between the Indian Ocean and the South Pacific Ocean l Currency Australian Dollar(= 100 Cents) $1 = 1.56 Australian Dollar

319 319 Population Population l Number19 Million l Rate of Growth1% Per Year l Age Structure0-14 Years: 21% of the Population (Male 2 Million; Female 1.9 Million) Years: 66% of the Population (Male 6.3 Million; Female 6.2 Million) 65 Years & Over: 13% of the Population (Male 1 Million; Female 1.3 Million )

320 320 Natural Resources l Bauxite l Coal l Iron Ore l Copper l Tin l Silver l Uranium l Nickel l Tungsten l Mineral Sands l Lead l Zinc l Diamonds l Natural Gas l Petroleum

321 321 Territorial Disputes l Territorial Claim in Antarctica (Australian Antarctic Territory)

322 322Government Type: Democratic, Federal-state System Recognizing the British Monarch As Sovereign Political Parties: Multiparty System Bicameral Federal Parliament: Senate House of Representatives

323 323 Government (Continued) Administrative Divisions: 6 States 2 Territories Cabinet: Selected From Among the Members of Federal Parliament

324 324 Land Transportation Pipelines l Crude Oil2,500 KM l Petroleum Products500 KM l Natural Gas5,600 KM Highways l Total:913,000 KM l Paved:353,331 KM l Unpaved:559,669 KM Railways l Total:38,563 KM

325 325 Sea Transportation Waterways: l 8,368 KM Navigable Ports and Harbors: l Adelaide, Brisbane, Cairns, Darwin, Devonport (Tasmania), Fremantle, Geelong, Hobart (Tasmania), Launceston (Tasmania), Mackay, Melbourne, Sydney, Townsville Merchant Marine: l Total: 57 Ships (1,000 GRT or Over) Totaling 1,767,387 GRT/2,426,710 DWT

326 326 Ships by Type l Bulk29 l Cargo 3 l Chemical Tankers4 l Container4 l Oil Tanker8 l Liquefied Gas Tanker4 l Passenger 1 l Roll-on/roll-off Cargo 4

327 327 Number of Airports l With Paved Runways262 l With Unpaved Runways146 l Total408

328 328 Risk and Uncertainty Australia Is a Member, Among the 151 Member Countries, in the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) Which Is an Affiliate of the World Bank

329 329 Trade with Saudi Arabia l Saudi Arabia Mainly Imports From Australia Food Products, Textiles, Heavy and Light Equipment, Electronics, and Construction Materials. l The Average Share of Saudi Imports From Australia Is 1.5% of Saudi Total Imports From 1996 to l The Average Share of Saudi Exports to Australia Is 0.32% of the Saudi Total Exports From 1995 to 1999.

330 330 Values of Saudi Imports from Australia (SR Million) AustraliaSaudi Arabia% of Total 19961,263103, ,752107, ,978112,3971.8

331 331 Saudi Crude oil Exports to Australia (MM Barrels) Exports to AustraliaSaudi Total Exports% Share , , , , ,

332 332 The Economy l The Composition of GDP by Sector Is Roughly:  Agriculture4%  Industry31%  Services 65% l Some Economic Indicators ( Billion of 1990 US$) Australia: %CH %CH. GDP Per Capita GDP Total Fixed Investment Current Account External Debt ( $US B)

333 333 Unemployment and Inflation l Unemployment Rate Is 9% l Labor Force Amounts About 10 Million People — by Occupation  Agriculture 5%  Industry 22%  Services 73% l Inflation Rate (Consumer Prices) 1%

334 334Industry l Industries Mining, Industrial and Transportation Equipment, Food Processing, Chemicals, Steel l Industrial Production Growth Rate1.2% l Major Agriculture Products Wheat, Barley, Sugarcane, Fruits, Cattle, Sheep, Poultry

335 335Exports Exports $57 Billion Major Exports Products: Coal, Gold, Meat, Wool, Aluminum, Iron Ore, Wheat, Machinery and Transport Equipment Exports Partners: Japan20% ASEAN16% EU10% South Korea9% US9% NZ8% Taiwan, Hong Kong, China28%

336 336Imports Imports $61 Billion Major Imports Products Machinery and Transport Equipment, Computers and Office Machines, Telecommunication Equipment and Parts; Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Imports Partners EU25% US23% Japan13% China, NZ, and others39%

337 337 Energy Sector Primary Energy Reserves AustraliaWorld% Share Oil (Billion Barrels) 2.91, Natural Gas (Trillion cf) 45.05, Coal (Billion Short Tons) ,

338 338 Energy Consumption Total Energy Consumption4.5 Quadrillion Btu 1.2 % of World Total Energy Consumption Per Capita Energy Consumption241 Million Btu (vs US value of 352 Million Btu) Energy Intensity (1997E): 11,000 Btu/$1997 (vs US value of 11,600 Btu/$1977)

339 339 Energy Consumption Energy Consumption by Sector  Industrial48 %  Residential15 %  Transportation27 %  Commercial10 % Fuel Share of Energy Consumption  Oil37 %  Natural Gas17 %  Coal43 %  Others3 %

340 340 Natural Gas & Coal Natural Gas: l Natural Gas Production1,080 Bcf l Natural Gas Consumption702 Bcf l Net Natural Gas Exports376 Bcf Coal: l Coal Production293 Million Short Tons l Coal Consumption135 Million Short Tons l Net Coal Exports162 Million Short Tons

341 341Electricity Generation Capacity:41 Giga Watts (GW) Generation:174 Billion Kilowatt/hours Production by Source:  Fossil Fuel91%  Hydro9%  Nuclear0% Consumption: 166 Billion Kilowatt/hours Exports:0 Million Kilowatt/hours Imports:0 Million Kilowatt/hours

342 342Environment Energy-related Carbon Emissions: 89 Million Metric Tons of Carbon 1.4% of World Carbon Emissions Per Capita Carbon Emissions: 4.8 Metric Tons of Carbon (Vs U.S. Value of 5.5 Metric Tons of Carbon) Carbon Intensity: 0.22 Metric Tons of Carbon/Thousand $1997 (Vs U.S. Value of 0.22 Metric Tons/Thousand $1990)

343 343 Emissions Emissions Sectoral Share of Carbon Emissions:  Industrial45%  Transportation29%  Residential 15%  Commercial11% Fuel Share of Carbon Emissions:  Coal 53%  Oil 34%  Natural Gas 13%

344 344 Oil Demand (MMBD) AustraliaWorld% Share

345 345 Oil Supply (MMBD) AustraliaWorld% Share

346 346 Net oil Imports (MMBD) AustraliaWorld% Share

347 347 Major Oil Refineries Major Oil Refineries (Crude Oil Capacity) 807,125 Bbl/d Kwinana 131,575 Bbl/d Altona120,000 Bbl/d Gee long110,000 Bbl/d Kurnell 116,700 Bbl/d

348 348 Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Riyadh Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Capital - Riyadh

349 Back-up Slides

350 350 % SAUDI ECONOMY

351 351 SAUDI ECONOMY - II

352 352 Elementary Students

353 353 SR GDP Versus GDP Oil

354 354 % GDP Oil Percentage


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