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TransformationalSafety.ComRamadan. TransformationalSafety.Com considers it respectful to have an underasytking of the cultures in which we operate. In.

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Presentation on theme: "TransformationalSafety.ComRamadan. TransformationalSafety.Com considers it respectful to have an underasytking of the cultures in which we operate. In."— Presentation transcript:

1 TransformationalSafety.ComRamadan

2 TransformationalSafety.Com considers it respectful to have an underasytking of the cultures in which we operate. In many cultures, and in Arab cultures particularly, it is important to know something about religion. Ramadan is the most sacred all Islamic religious observances. It may be instructive to think of it as Christmas, Easter and Hanukah rolled together and to recognise that whether one is deeply religious or just likes Santa Claus, the Easter Bunny etc, the season is highly significant and brings with it a sensitivity and cultural pride that transcends the ordinary. This is true for the Islamic faith, just as it is for Christianity, Hinduism, Judaism, Shinto etc Ramadan is celebrated/observed by a month of fasting. Fasting is one of the five pillars (guiding principles) of Islam (order varies). Muslim believers understand fasting as a process of purification, a means to attain the consciousness of Allah and to guard against the schemes of Shaitan (Satan).

3 TransformationalSafety.Com Order of Presentation Background Date of Ramadan Practices During Ramadan –Exceptions to Fasting –Night of Power Eid-al-Fitr Courtesy and Consideration Ramadan & Military History

4 TransformationalSafety.Com Purpose of this Training Pak To provide a religious, cultural and military orientation to Ramadan.

5 TransformationalSafety.Com This presentation is focused on Ramadan, not Islam, … but it is helpful to have some context in understanding the importance and relevance that Ramadan has in Islam. Muslims believe that Muhammad was visited by the Angel Gabriel in Ramadan 610 AD. This was the occasion where tradition reports that the initial verses of the Qur’an (Islam’s sacred scripture) were imparted to Muhammad by the angel Gabriel. Ramadan is considered above all to be the month of the Qur’an. The month is described as a time of reconciliation, “Even the ones who have distanced themselves from the Qur’an throughout the year, find themselves in this light, in this radiating ambience. These days replenish the valleys of the psyches which have almost dried out with the spirit, meaning and mystery that the Qur’an has showered on people distanced from the Qur’an.” Muslims believe that the gates of Heaven (Jannah) are open and the gates of Hell (Jahanam) are locked for the duration of Ramadhan.

6 TransformationalSafety.Com Muhammed was born c. 570 in Mecca and died (8 June 632) in Medina. Muhammed reports visit by Angel Gabriel in Ramadan 610 AD and told to memorize and recite the verses sent by God. Some time after Muhammed’s death, a caliph gathered these verses into the Qur’an. The Qur’an makes observance of Ramadan obligatory. Muhammed was born c. 570 in Mecca and died (8 June 632) in Medina. Muhammed reports visit by Angel Gabriel in Ramadan 610 AD and told to memorize and recite the verses sent by God. Some time after Muhammed’s death, a caliph gathered these verses into the Qur’an. The Qur’an makes observance of Ramadan obligatory. Background

7 TransformationalSafety.Com Background (cont.) Ramadan is the most sacred holiday for all Muslims and is the month of fasting. Fasting is one of the five pillars of Islam. Fasting is a process of purification. Fasting is a means to attain the consciousness of Allah’s presence. The consciousness of Allah (Taqwa) is a protection against the schemes of Shaitan. Ramadan is the most sacred holiday for all Muslims and is the month of fasting. Fasting is one of the five pillars of Islam. Fasting is a process of purification. Fasting is a means to attain the consciousness of Allah’s presence. The consciousness of Allah (Taqwa) is a protection against the schemes of Shaitan. It is similar in purpose to “Lent” in Christianity: which is to reflect on the need for holiness

8 TransformationalSafety.Com Muslim’s ascribe to this time the highest praise, “There is no month but Ramadan that can sail by with relentless joy, everlasting pleasure and never fading love. Presenting the spirit, essence, and true meaning of all the gentle seasons that have passed through the entire year, the days and nights of Ramadan, every single moment, embrace hearts within their exclusive bliss and charm in the most remarkable and pleasant fashion; Ramadan embraces them with compassion and holds them in the warmest love, exciting them with an enthusiasm for life.” “The days of Ramadan are the center of attention, the sum of Muslims spiritual joys, the stage for excitement, the helix of the divine light of progress and the sphere of opportunity and a prize that encourages the growth of all human characteristics all over the world.” During Ramadan, Muslims are encouraged to put more effort into building bridges, making amends, treating others well and acknowledging basic family values such as respecting one's parents and siblings. It is a time when Muslims set themselves new goals about how their life should be and renew themselves and their outlook, a time when they can start afresh. Ramadan is also a time when Muslims pray more, do good deeds and remember those who are less fortunate and in need.

9 TransformationalSafety.Com Date for Ramadan Ramadan’s start is based on a Lunar Calendar. (255 days) It is the ninth month of the Muslim calendar It starts 11 days earlier each year. The start date is determined locally through a combination of astrological and eye witness validation methods. Ramadan’s start is based on a Lunar Calendar. (255 days) It is the ninth month of the Muslim calendar It starts 11 days earlier each year. The start date is determined locally through a combination of astrological and eye witness validation methods.

10 TransformationalSafety.Com The beginning of any month is marked by the first appearance of the crescent moon after the new moon (when the moon cannot be seen). Although the rise of the crescent moon can be determined scientifically, many Muslims still like to watch the horizon and sight the moon visually. Those who rely on a visual sighting of the moon may begin Ramadan a day after the others if the sky is cloudy. This is why Muslims cannot know ahead of time the exact date for their religious holidays.

11 TransformationalSafety.Com Practices During Ramadan Fast From Dawn To Sunset Night of Power (Lailat-ul-Qadr’) The essential practices of Ramadan are framed by observance of the fast from dawn to sunset. The fast includes no food or water or sexual activity. The time is spent in prayer and reading the Qur’an. The believer dedicates this time to Allah and Allah alone.

12 TransformationalSafety.Com Practices During Ramadan (cont.) 1.Fast from dawn to sunset: –No food. –No water or juice. –No sexual activity. 2.Fasting during Ramadan “is for Allah and Him alone.” 3.Spend time in prayer. 4.Read all of the Quran. 5.Eat breakfast prior to sunrise. 6.Eat supper after sunset. 1.Fast from dawn to sunset: –No food. –No water or juice. –No sexual activity. 2.Fasting during Ramadan “is for Allah and Him alone.” 3.Spend time in prayer. 4.Read all of the Quran. 5.Eat breakfast prior to sunrise. 6.Eat supper after sunset.

13 TransformationalSafety.Com All Muslims must fast from the first light of dawn (about one and a half hours before sunrise) until sunset during each day of the month of Ramadan. Fasting means a total abstention from food, drink (including water) and sexual relations. A typical day in Ramadan begins with the family waking before dawn to share a meal and pray the first prayer of the day. Once dawn arrives (signaled by the “call to prayer” from the minaret in Muslim countries) all eating and drinking stops. Some people will go back to sleep after the prayer, others will stay awake and recite the Quran, the holy book of Islam. During the day Muslims work or go to school as they do every day. They, however, are more prone to be cranky or sluggish. Muslims wake before dawn (Fajr) and have a light meal. They then abstain from food, drink and other indulgences during daylight hours until dusk (Maghrib) when they have what could be called the 'break-fast' meal. This mealtime is known as Iftar. Families tend to have these meals together as it brings them together at a very spiritual time.

14 TransformationalSafety.Com Exemptions to Fasting Pregnancy. Nursing. During menstruation. Elderly. Mentally handicapped. Children under the age of puberty. Medical reasons. People working under a hardship. –working under extreme circumstances –people on a journey who can’t fast

15 TransformationalSafety.Com Fasting is a religious obligation for all Muslims who have reached puberty but pre-pubescent children are not required to fast. They are encouraged to try to not eat or drink for part of the day. It is natural for Muslim children, like all children, to want to imitate adult behavior and try to fast the whole day if possible. Ramadan is a blessed time for Muslims. To those outside the community, it may appear to be a time of hardship and deprivation, but that is not the experience of Muslims. Fasting is aimed to increase their awareness of the presence of God, to remind them to be grateful for His blessings and to create empathy for the poor and hungry. Ramadan is a time of generosity. Just as they deny themselves, Muslims should increase their giving to others, by inviting people to share our fast-breaking meals, and by donations to the poor. Just as worshipers control their physical appetites, they also must control their negative emotions and actions. Angry words, gossip and criticism can all invalidate one’s fast. Ramadan therefore teaches patience, kindness and self-restraint. Ramadan as Obligation and Celebration

16 TransformationalSafety.Com Night of Power Lailat-ul-Qadr’ Most significant night of Ramadan. It is the night on which Muslims believe Allah originally revealed the Quran. Muslims spend this night reciting the Quran. Most significant night of Ramadan. It is the night on which Muslims believe Allah originally revealed the Quran. Muslims spend this night reciting the Quran. During the last ten days of Ramadan, reward for prayer and good actions increases and the 'Night of Power' (Laylatul Qadr) occurs on either the 21st, 23rd, 25th, 27th or the 29th of Ramadhan.

17 TransformationalSafety.Com "We have indeed revealed this (message) in the Night of Power. And what will explain to thee what the Night of Power is? The Night of Power is better than a thousand months. Therein come down the angels and the spirit by God's permission, on every errand: Peace! This until the rise of Morn." (97:1-5) "We have indeed revealed this (message) in the Night of Power. And what will explain to thee what the Night of Power is? The Night of Power is better than a thousand months. Therein come down the angels and the spirit by God's permission, on every errand: Peace! This until the rise of Morn." (97:1-5) Passage from the Qur'an

18 TransformationalSafety.ComEid-al-Fitr

19 Eid-al-Fitr This festival celebrates the end of the fast … the end of Ramadan. (Eid = “Feast” and Fitr = “End”) Lasts for three days. Joyful celebration of enhanced piety. Days of forgiveness, moral victory and peace, fellowship, brotherhood and unity. Thankfulness to Allah for help and strength during the month of Ramadan. This festival celebrates the end of the fast … the end of Ramadan. (Eid = “Feast” and Fitr = “End”) Lasts for three days. Joyful celebration of enhanced piety. Days of forgiveness, moral victory and peace, fellowship, brotherhood and unity. Thankfulness to Allah for help and strength during the month of Ramadan.

20 TransformationalSafety.Com This holiday is not technically in Ramadan but follows the month after Ramadan, falling on the first day of Shawwal, the tenth month in the Islamic calendar. As with all months in the Islamic calendar, it begins with the sighting of the new moon. The festival of Eid-ul-Fitr celebrates the end of the fast and the end of Ramadan. This festival last for three days and is exemplified by joyful celebration of enhanced piety, moral victory, peace, fellowship, brotherhood and unity. This celebration is the time for expressions to Allah for his help and strength. In addition, Eid is a time of celebration, good will and unity amongst Muslims. It is also a time to practice what has been learned during Ramadan. Muslims are encouraged to dress in their best clothes, new if possible, and to attend a special Eid prayer that is performed in congregation at mosques or open areas like fields, squares etc. Before the Eid prayer begins every Muslim (man, women or child) must pay Zakat al Fitr, an alms for the month of Ramadan. This equates to about 2 kg of a basic foodstuff (wheat, barley, dates, raisins, etc.), or its cash equivalent, and is (typically) collected at the mosque. This is distributed by the mosque to needy local Muslims prior to the start of the Eid prayer. It can be given anytime during the month of Ramadan and is often given early, so the recipient can utilize it for Eid purchases. Eid-al-Fitr

21 TransformationalSafety.ComEid-al-Fitr No Muslim can celebrate Eid until he or she has paid some charity—at least enough to cover a day’s food for a needy person. Then on the morning after the last day of Ramadan, everyone joins together for a short congregational prayer, preferably in an outdoor location. The next few days are spent visiting friends and family, giving gifts and special treats to children and thanking God for His blessings. How Muslims celebrate and what kinds of foods they eat depends on their cultural practices.

22 TransformationalSafety.ComCourtesy and Consideration

23 TransformationalSafety.Com Courtesy and Considerations When interacting with Muslims during Ramadan, do not eat, drink or smoke in front of them. Lying or profane words during this time are strictly forbidden for Muslims. All should be careful not to offend with profanity or lewd gestures. Many women may be veiled and covered.

24 TransformationalSafety.Com Courtesy and Considerations After sundown, Muslim families celebrate Ramadan with a large meal. It is customary for families and friends to share this meal. There will be an increase of pilgrims visiting shrines and mosques in places like Karbala and Najaf. After sundown, Muslim families celebrate Ramadan with a large meal. It is customary for families and friends to share this meal. There will be an increase of pilgrims visiting shrines and mosques in places like Karbala and Najaf.

25 TransformationalSafety.ComRAMADAN Military History

26 TransformationalSafety.Com Ramadan in Islamic Military History Islamic history observes that Ramadan is a time of heightened religious sensitivities and a time for the special providence of Allah. Not only was Ramadan the time which marked the receiving of the Qur’an, it has been a time of significant military successes. In 622, Muhammed was forced to emigrate from Mecca in a journey known to Muslims as the Hijra (the Migration). He settled in Medina with his followers. War between factions in Mecca and Medina followed. Meccans confiscated all the property that the Muslims had left in Mecca. In Medina, Muhammad signed treaties of alliance and mutual help with neighboring tribes. Muhammad turned to an old Arabian tradition … raiding caravans. A state of war was deemed to exist between the Meccans and the Muslims. In March of 624, Muhammad led some 300 warriors in a raid on a Meccan merchant caravan. The Meccans successfully defended the caravan and then decided to retaliate. They sent a small army against Medina. On March 17, 624 near a place called Badr, the Meccans and the Muslims clashed.

27 TransformationalSafety.Com Ramadan in Islamic Military History The Battle of Badr, fought Ramadan March 17, 624 in present-day western Saudi Arabia was a key battle in the early days of Islam and a turning point in Muhammad's war against his Quraish opponents in Mecca. The battle has been passed down in Islamic history as a decisive victory attributable to divine intervention or the genius of Muhammad. It is one of the few battles specifically mentioned in the Muslim holy book, the Qur'an. Muhammad managed to shatter the Meccan lines, killing several important leaders including Muhammad's chief opponent, Amr ibn Hishām. The battle was extremely significant because it was the first sign that they might eventually overcome their enemies in Mecca, one of the richest and most powerful pagan cities in Arabia, which fielded an army three times larger than that of the Muslims. Before the battle started, Muhammad had given orders for the Muslims to attack with their ranged weapons, and only engage with melee weapons when they advanced. When the Muslim army rushed the enemy lines, the sheer force of their attack is described in several Qur'anic verses, which refer to thousands of angels descending from Heaven at Badr to slaughter the enemy. Early Muslim sources take this account literally. The battle is frequently referred to as the first Jihad.

28 TransformationalSafety.Com Ramadan in Islamic Military History The conquest of Mecca by Muhammad occurred during Ramadan 629/630 A.D. In 628 the Meccan tribe of Quraish and the Muslim community in Medina signed a truce called the Treaty of Hudaybiyya. Despite improved relations between Mecca and Medina after the signing of the Treaty of Hudaybiyya, peace was broken by the Quraish, when they attacked the tribe of Khuza'ah who were allies of the Muslims. Shortly thereafter, a Muslim army, approximately 10,000 strong, marched towards Mecca. Victory was secured without a battle resulting in the establishment of Mecca as Islam’s most sacred city. The Kaaba was purged of the offensive Idols and dedicated as Islam’s most holy site. The Meccan leader, Abu Sufyan, converted to Islam.

29 TransformationalSafety.ComAFRICA EUROPE ASIA AUSTRALIA Islam 661

30 TransformationalSafety.ComAFRICA EUROPE ASIA AUSTRALIA Islam 750 On April 30, 711, the armies of Tariq landed at Gibraltar (the name Gibraltar is derived from the Arabic name Jabal Al Tariq, which means mountain of Tariq. Upon landing, Tariq is said to have made the following speech, well-known in the Muslim world, to his soldiers: أيّها الناس، أين المفر؟ البحر من ورائكم، والعدوّ أمامكم، وليس لكم والله إلا الصدق والصبر... Hey People ! There is nowhere to run away! The sea is behind you, and the enemy in front of you: I swear to God, you have only sincerity and patience. The Moorish armies swept through Iberia and, on 19 July 711, won a decisive victory when the Visigoth king, Roderic, was defeated and killed at the Battle of Guadalete. Roderic's army of around 25,000 men was defeated by Tariq's force of approximately 7,000 … and a dominant Muslim presence remained for 800 years.

31 TransformationalSafety.ComAFRICA EUROPE ASIA AUSTRALIA Islam 1100 During Ramadan 1178 Saladin drove the crusaders out of Syria. (Saladin was born into a Kurdish family in Tikrit.)

32 TransformationalSafety.Com Saladin The fall of Jerusalem prompted the Third Crusade, financed by a special “Saladin tithe”. Saladin’s army met King Richard 1 (The Lionheart) at the Battle of Arsuf on September 7, 1191. Saladin's relationship with Richard was celebrated in the courtly romances that developed in Northern Europe. When Richard was wounded, Saladin offered the services of his personal physician as a special favor. (Muslim medical practice was the most advances in the Western world.) At Arsuf, when Richard lost his horse, Saladin sent him two replacements. They even considered making peace by marrying Richard’s sister Joan to Saladin’s brother Al-Adil, with Jerusalem to be their dowry. These negotiations fell through due to religious concerns on both sides. Saladin was renown in both Christian and Muslim worlds for his leadership and military prowess tempered by his chivalry and merciful nature, during his struggle against the Crusaders, so much so that there existed by the 14th century an epic poem about his exploits, and Dante included him among the virtuous pagan souls in Limbo.

33 TransformationalSafety.Com Islam 1300 UNCLASSIFIED//FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY AFRICA EUROPE ASIA AUSTRALIA The battle at Ain Jalut is considered by many historians to be of great macrohistorical importance, as it marked the highwater of Mongol conquests, and the first time they had been decisively defeated. Previously where they had been defeated, they had always returned and avenged the loss - this marked the first occasion they were unable to do so. The armies met at Ain Jalut on September 3, 1260, during the holy month of Ramadan. Each army numbered about 20,000 men. The Mongol force was originally much larger, but Hulagu took most of it when he returned home. The Mamluks drew out the Mongol cavalry with a feigned retreat, and were almost unable to withstand the assault. Qutuz, the muslim leader, rallied his troops for a successful counterattack, along with cavalry reserves hidden in the nearby valleys. Mamluke heavy cavalrymen were able to clearly beat the Mongols in close combat, something which no one had previously done. (Mamluks were slave soldiers who had converted to Islam and served the Caliphs. They became a powerful military caste.)

34 TransformationalSafety.ComAFRICA EUROPE ASIA AUSTRALIA Islam 1500 Islamic armies began to withdraw from Europe. The above map is a generally representative of Islam even today … with the exception of slight expansion in Indonesia (now the most populous Islamic nation). Arabs wear a black band to hold their head scarf in place as a sign of grief over the loss of Spain and as a prayer to regain it January 2, 1492 marked the end of ‘Moorish’ rule when Ferdinand and Isabella (of Columbus fame) displayed the cross from the Torre de la Vela (the watchtower atop Alcazaba, the citadel of Alhambra in Granada Spain.)

35 TransformationalSafety.Com It is the view of TransformationalSafety.Com that whilst there are many faiths in the World, we should all respect each other’s beliefs. That means sharing an appreciation for tolerance at all levels. Whilst you may not share the Muslim faith, please respect it.


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