Presentation on theme: "Changes in the Spatial distribution of Saudi Arabia's Population:Trends and Problems."— Presentation transcript:
Changes in the Spatial distribution of Saudi Arabia's Population:Trends and Problems
Introduction Saudi Arabia witnessed considerable changes in its population geography since mid 1970’s. A major change is the rapid spatial shift as mobility became a characteristics of Saudi population. Since then Saudi Arabia population distribution is continually changing.
Study Objectives This work examines changes in Saudi Arabia’s population distribution 1974-2010 and tries to look into the trends and problems associated with these changes.
Justification of the Study The study was undertaken because changes in the spatial distribution of Saudi Arabia’s population is: 1. Occurring at fast pace. 2. Spatially very localized, as most of the population live in few cities, leading to concentrated urbanization. 3. International migrations is a major contributor to these changes. 4. The many challenges and problems concentration have created
Data The data used in the study is from the 1974, 1992 and 2010 population and housing censuses. The geographic subdivisions used in analysis are the 13 regions and 10 largest cities those ( with more than 200000 residents). Tables, maps, graphs, Lorenz curve and Hoover index of concentration is employed to describe and measure changes in population distribution.
Analysis and Findings We may generalize and say that Saudi Arabia has experienced four major population movements during the last four decades: The first movement is from desert ( animal herders) and villages (farm and non farm population) and small towns to cities where they find a range of amenities and a wider choices of occupations than rural or smaller towns, after changes in the structure of the economy.
Analysis and Findings The economic changes significantly affected population distribution. More important government policies and actions influenced population distribution mainly through concentration of development programs and projects.
Analysis and Findings The second is inter-regional population movement. In 1999 the size of the internal migration was 1,699,310 constituting 11.55% of the Saudi population, (Al Humaidi, 2004). More than 70% of migrants went to three regions,Riyadh, Makkah and the Eastern regions.
Inter Regional Migration 1999 Region No of In Migrants% No of Out Migrants% Net Migration 539.43931.75204.00212.00 Riyadh 300.26317.67109.6336.45 + 335.437 ا Eastern356.76521.00280.19516.49+ 190.630 Makkah89.7055.2851.7843.05+ 76.570 Tabouk51.5683.0325.5312.09+ 37.921 Najran22.3691.3229.3931.73+ 16.037 ا Jawf37.1792.1953.3413.14-7.034 Northern67.5483.98125.4137.38-16.162 Medinah24.9041.4788.4405.20-57.865 Hail55.5743.27155.1729.13-63.536 Qasem106.5786.27225.23913.25-99.598 Asir23.4241.38153.2949.02-118.661 Baha23.9941.41187.87311.06-129.870 Jazan1.699.3101001.699.310100-163.879 Total Source: Al Humaidi, Ibrahim A. (2004)
Regional Population Distribution 1974 Pop.% 74Total Pop.74 Region 18.721259145 Riyadh 26.171760216 Makkah 11.33762037 Eastern 6.07408334 Jazan 10.09678679 Aseer 4.82324543 Qaseem 3.94265216 Hail 7.68516636 Madinah 2.76185851 Baha 1.89127582 Northern 2.89194539 Tabouk 2.14144097 Najran 1.4899591 Jouf 1006726466 Total
Regional Distribution of Population 2010 Pop.2010 %Total Pop.2010 Region 24.976777146 Riyadh 25.486915006 Makkah 15.134105780 Eastern 5.031365110 Jazan 7.051913392 Aseer 4.481215858 Qaseem 2.20597144 Hail 6.551777933 Madinah 1.52411888 Baha 1.18320524 Northern 2.92791535 Tabouk 1.86505652 Najran 1.62440009 Jouf 10027136977 Total
Analysis and Findings The third is movement of nationals from old central residential cities to modern spacious detached housing in outer areas after rise in income and standard of living.
Analysis and Findings The fourth is huge and rapid increase in the number of foreign population since mid 1980’s. This is considered one of the important changes occurred in population distribution and structure,(Tables). Most work in main cities and reside in inner old residential areas vacated by nationals (cheap rent).
Analysis and Findings Foreign Population Contribution The foreign population contribution is impressive as their share rose from 11.6% in 1974 or 800 thousands to 27.7% or 4.5 millions in 1992 and 31% or 8.4 millions in 2010 estimate put their number over 9 millions.. Today one of every 3 persons in Saudi Arabia is foreign.
Analysis and Findings Foreign Population Contribution The distribution of foreign population follow the same pattern as that of Saudi citizens. In general, urban areas have a higher concentration of foreign population. In some cities their numbers exceed nationals. Central residential areas of cities experienced fast and impressive growth because of foreign population. Thus foreign national’s role in shaping the distribution pattern is very considerable at the regional and city level, Tables.
Foreign Population As % of Total Population Of Main Cities 2010 %.2010No. of Foreign Pop. 2010%.92 No. of Foreign Pop.92 City 402.07303035976064Riyadh 50171412351.21047127Jeddah 4771400743415501Makkh 44.738453528.9175614Medena 39.335477037178786Dammm 57.212572560.686845Khobar 18.812403414.665038Hofof 23.61369862395657Taif 15.68020017.651444Tabook 25.812078720.170866Buraia 23.09921320.745023Khamis 44.41670084360622Jubail 21.86998120.536260Hayel 24.27203832.228517Najran 14.25226525.635254Hafor 41.29941534.943848Thugba 24.75825225,228273Abha 22.15195424,530601Kharj 32.57574227.132461Yanbu 16.42744915.216471Arar Foreign Population Contribution To main cities Population1992,2010 Changes in Main Cities’ Foreign Population Distribution 1992-2010
Distribution of Foreign Population Among The City of Riyadh Residential Areas Forging's Share of Riyadh Residential Areas Total Population Number of Residential Areas Les than 2050 20-4044 40-6018 60-8020 80+26
Foreign Population Proportion of Riyadh Residential Areas Total population
Analysis and Findings Regional Concentration There has been a considerable movement between the 13 regions mainly towards the three regions of Makkah, Riyadh and Eastern (Table) or actually to sub regions within these regions.
Analysis and Findings The three regions have about 66% of the country total population compared with 55.2% in 1974, (Tables ). But most important is the change in population size, 17.8 millions person in 2010 compared with 3.9 million inhabitants in 1974.
Change in Regional Distribution of Population 1974,2010 RegionPop. 1974 %Pop. 1992%Pop. 2010 % Riyadh 18.7222.6324.97 Makkah 26.1726.3625.48 Eastern 11.3315.2015.13 Jazan 6.075.115.03 Aseer 10.097.917.05 Qaseem 4.824.434.48 Hail 3.942.432.20 Madinah 7.686.406.55 Baha 2.761.961.52 Northern 1.891.351.18 Tabouk 2.892.872.92 Najran 2.141.781.86 Jouf 1.481.581.62 Total 100
Analysis and Findings YearThe Three Region’s* Total Pop. ( Millions ) % of Country ’s Total 19743.955.7 199210.964.5 201017.865.7 Regional Population Concentration *Riyadh,Makkah and Eastern Regions
Population Concentration Within Regions, 2010 RegionCity% of Region Total Population Riyadh 76 MakkahJeddah 50 Madinah 66 Tabuk 71 Hail 68 Najran 63 QaseemBuraidh 50 JawafSkaka 54 NorthernArar 60 Source: Central Department of Statistics and Information.
Analysis and Findings Regional Distribution of Economic Activities: Most of economic and social activities are located in Makkah, Riyadh and Eastern regions About 73% of business establishments, 86% of factories and 50% of construction activities were in the three regions (Tables). They accounted for most of loans provided by government lending institutions (Table).
Distribution of Business Establishments 2009 By Region Region No% Riyadh24648930.8 Makkah19854624.8 Eastern13731817.1 Madinah441495.5 Qaseem419555.2 Assir308703.9 Tabouk207242.6 Hail230212.9 Northern 114451.4 Jazan114701.4 Najran131321.6 Baha7663.96 Jouf141751.8 Total 800957100 Source: Central Department of Statistics and Information, Statistical Year Book 2009.
Number of Factories, Employment and Finance by Region (2008 ) Region Factories (%) Workers (%) Capital (%) Riyadh 1581 37.9 57855 16.1 175612 37.7 Makkah 1097 26.3 49829 13.9 129227 27.7 Madinah 155 3.7 59608 16.6 19695 4.2 Qassim 152 3.6 5856 1.6 12123 2.6 Eastern 910 21.8 178249 49.6 114503 24.6 Asir 99 2.4 2690 0.7 5549 1.2 Tabuk 36 0.9 1709 0.5 3211 0.7 Hail 32 0.8 340 0.1 1311 0.3 Northern 10 0.2 1243 0.3 703 0.2 Jazan 37 0.9 1634 0.5 1865 0.4 Najran 20 0.5 185 0.1 1147 0.3 Baha 15 0.4 85 0 439 0.1 Jawf 23 0.6 234 0.1 912 0.2 Total 4167 100.0 359517 100.0 466297 100.0 Source: Ministry of Economy and Planning, Ninth Development Plan
Building Permits by Region 2008 Region No of permits % Riyadh 16741 29.6 Makkah 8554 15.1 Madinah 5001 8.8 Qasim 5092 9.0 Eastern8577 15.1 Asir 3073 5.4 Tabuk 1555 2.7 Hail 2238 4.0 Northern 935 1.7 Jazan 1015 1.8 Najran 328 2.3 Baha 490 0.9 Jawf 2038 3.6 Total 56637 100.0 Source: Central Department of Statistics and Information.
Regional Distribution Of Government Credits 2008 (Million SR ) Source: Ministry of Economy and Planning, Ninth Development Plan
Trends Urbanization: Saudi Arabia witnessed a strong urbanization trend starting in mid 1980’s and continuing during 1990-2010.
Change In No of Urban Places By Size 1974-2010 No. of Cities 2010No. of Cities 1992 No. of Cities 1974 City Size(.000 ) 10673205-9 47 1710-19 46291020-49 1910450-99 894100-200 951200-400 642400-less than 1000 2201000-20000 1002000-4000 100More than 4000 24517758Total
Trends In 2010 about 90 percent of the population is classified as urban compared with less than 15% in 1950, most live in big cities. Rapid urbanization affected regional distribution and led to population concentration.
Trends Few cities grew at a faster pace leading to population concentration. 70% of the country’s population live in less than 1% of the total area. In general the growth of big cities has been much most marked in Riyadh, Makkah and Eastern regions where 80% of the urban population live these regions
Major Cities Share Of Total Population 1974-2010 Year First City % Largest 3 Cities% Largest 5 Cities% Largest 10 cities% 1974%0009.8.723.61.629.5243.12.9 1992%00016.62.834.25.840.66.948.98.3 2010%00018.85.137.410.244.812.254.614.8
Saudi Arabia’s Largest Ten Cities Share of Urban Population 2010
Problems The concentration of population and human activities in few locations(regions, sub regions or cities) is bound to be accompanied by many problems Water supply is brought from hundred of kilometers away. Pressure on public services and infrastructural facilities, congested traffic, environmental degradation and housing shortage became major issues faced by cities.
Problems Environmental : The steady rise in the number of cars( 6 million car / one car for every 4 persons) and industry increased pressure on air quality.
Environmental: The volume of solid waste has been increasing (average is 1.5 kg per person) while recycled waste is still limited. Landfills are expanding rapidly due to the increasing quantities of solid waste. Problems
Environmental: The sewage networks cover less than 40% of the areas of major cities and sewage treatment stations treat a very small amount of disposed sewage water. (average daily water consumption is 350 liter per person).
Problems Environmental: The large amount of the untreated wastewater contaminated limited underground water resources.
Problems Economic : Rising living costs and unemployment became a characteristics of big cities.
Problems The rapid and huge horizontal expansion resulted in lack of services and facilities and rise in the cost of providing needed services to the dispersed and low density urban population.
Problems Social : Crime and violence rates became a characteristics and familiar in big cities.
Problems Social Another social problem, is diminishing social ties because of increase in distance separating relatives and friends and people began to lose sense of association with their neighborhood.
Problems Social : Nationals became minorities and insecure in central residential areas occupied by foreign migrants as they tend to live or stay together(most of them young single males) for help and security forming a series of ethnic neighborhood groups. We have today a very varied and fragmented urban population.
Problems Psychological There has been a noticeable increase in psychological problems such as suicide and depression.
Conclusion and Recommendations This study provided descriptive statistics, which allowed to identify the size of change in Saudi Arabia population distribution in the last four decades at the regional and city level and where concentration is occurring. Analysis shows that: 1. Saudi Arabia experienced changes in its population spatial distribution since 1980’s. 2. Both internal and external migration contributed to these changes. 3. The significant changes occurred in few cities with the rapid growth of their population as a result of concentration of social and economic activities there. 4. Several physical, economic and social problems accompanied these changes.
Conclusion Recommendations Based on findings, Saudi Arabia needs a dispersal and deconcentration policies that influence population distribution away from main regions and cities. Deceleration of main cities growth became necessary to make cities livable. There should be policies dealing with internal and external push and pull factors that influence population distribution pattern. There should also be an effective policies and actions to reduce dependence on foreign laborers.
Conclusion Recommendations These can be achieved through such means as: 1. Decentralization of planning and policies by granting regions some of central government regional responsibilities. 2. Development of transportation and communication facilities in order to encourage business to locate outside of major cities (public transportation, train lines in particular), induce commuting and make living in distant communities more desirable.
Conclusion and Recommendations 3. Investment in the resources of other regions taking account of differences between and within regions in order to redirect migration from villages and small towns to new developing growth centers. 4. Offering incentives to businesses to encourage movement outside major cities. 5. Enforcement of minimum wage and establishment of training programs (on job) for nationals to speed up the process of reduction of foreign laborers size.
References Al Humaidi, Ibrahim A. (2004) Internal Migration in Saudi Arabia: Its Magnitude and Trends, Journal of King Saud University. Arts. Volume 16, No 1 Ar-Riyadh City website. Central Department of Statistics, Population and Housing Censuses,1974, 1992,2004, 2010. Central Department of Statistics and Information, Statistical Yearbook 2009. Ministry of Economy and Planning, Ninth Development Plan 2010-2015 www.alriyadh.gov.sa/ http://ces.iisc.ernet.in/hpg/envis/Remote/section444.htm