Presentation on theme: "Mrs. Cummings Fall 2014. How we got the First Amendment Amendment I Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting."— Presentation transcript:
How we got the First Amendment Amendment I Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances. JPROF.comarchives.gov
Censorship* governmental restriction or other repression of individual journalists* and non-government media. Press freedom is protected in the United States and some other nations So why does censorship exist in journalism if we are protected under the First Amendment?
Associated Press and the Society of Professional Journalists – Ethics Guidelines Accuracy Treatment of Sources Avoiding Bias* Avoiding distortions Gathering information Minimizing Harm Avoiding Conflicts of Interest
The primary questions a news story answers – Who? What? Where? When? Why? And How?
Anne Becker Named 2010 Higher Education Art Educator of the Year By Jane Doe December 15, 2010 Anne Becker, assistant professor in the Education Department, has been named the Higher Education Art Educator of the Year for 2010 by the Illinois Art Education Association (IAEA). The prestigious honor is awarded annually to recognize teachers in Illinois who display an exceptional commitment to both their students and the profession of art education. “This was a tremendous honor for me. It’s very humbling,” Becker said. “One of my former Columbia graduate art students nominated me, and I have been a member of this professional organization for my [entire] art teaching career. What an honor to know that your peers and your students feel you are a quality art educator.” To choose the recipient of the Higher Education Art Educator award, the IAEA looks for art educators who show a record of success as an art educator; who are active in their professional lives outside of art education, such as in studio exhibitions, publications, community service, and service to the IAEA; and who are recognized leaders at their level of education. In its award letter to Becker, the IAEA said that Becker “is an exemplary model for her dedication to providing a well-rounded art education to enrich the lives of the students in her school.” The award letter also cited her work inside the classroom and her coordination with other teachers in the field as providing “a valuable education for the students at Columbia College.” Amanda Kurzawski, vice president of the IAEA, said the organization was particularly impressed by Becker’s “activities outside the classroom, in the field, and for the Illinois Art Education Association, [which] have benefited many people.” The IAEA gives out 13 awards annually to art educators from elementary school through higher education. The organization began in 1935 and promotes quality art education for children and adults in the state of Illinois. For more information, go to ilaea.org. KEY:WHOWHATWHENWHEREWHYHOW
– the structure of a news story which places the important facts at the beginning and less important facts and details at the end, enabling the editor to cut bottom portion of the story if space is required
Quake Hits Seabed Off Greece Island ATHENS, Greece (AP) — A strong earthquake shook the seabed off the southern island of Crete on Thursday, but there were no reports of damage or injuries. The Athens Geodynamic Institute said the undersea quake had a preliminary magnitude of 5 and its epicenter was 220 miles south of Athens. The quake occurred at 8:51 a.m. Earlier, another quake with a preliminary magnitude of 4.4 occurred offshore in the Aegean Sea about 213 miles northeast of Athens. No injuries or damage were reported from the moderate temblor, which struck at 2:03 a.m. near the island Samothrace. A quake of magnitude 2.5 to 3 is the smallest generally felt by people. A quake of magnitude 4 often causes slight damage. Magnitude 5 can produce moderate damage.
Inverted pyramid – as opposed to narrative style The lead* uses a strong descriptive verb. The last two paragraphs offer background, or non-timely information.
Media outlets often feature stories that meet specific standards set forth originally by Gatlung and Ruge (1973), and later (1987) by Shoemaker, that gatekeepers* use to place feature value on potential stories.
Continuity – war, elections, protests, and strikes require continuing coverage Composition – editors have to keep in mind the “big picture” so softer (human interest stories) are used to balance content Elite People – politicians, entertainers, and athletes because of status are considered newsworthy Elite Countries – famine, drought, and national disasters are more likely to draw attention if they are happening in “first world” countries Negativity – editors generally deem bad news as being more newsworthy than good news Gatlung and Ruge, 1973 Relevance - How relevant is a news story to the audience in question? Timeliness – How recently did the event unfold? Simplification – Stories that can easily be summarized are likely to be featured Predictability – as elections, major sporting events, astrological events, and legal decisions approach they gain news value Unexpectedness – natural disasters, accidents, or crimes are usually significant in the news world
Shoemaker, 1987 Timeliness – in agreement with Gatlung and Ruge timeliness is viewed a critical news value Proximity – Similar to “Relevance,” the closer an event takes place to the intended audience, the more important it is (why regional stories might not make the national news) Importance, impact, or consequence – who will be impacted? Ex. Global warming is becoming big news because environmental issues affect the entire planet Interest – any special human interest? Ex. Inspirational stories
To assist journalists, the Associated Press developed a style guide for writers and editors working together in public relations to follow for consistency and accuracy. This style is AP* style- and similarly to MLA that used for the majority of your high school classes, AP is used in the world of print journalism.
THE MOST COMMON AP STYLE GUIDELINES Abbreviations and Acronyms – Dr., Gov., Lt. Gov., Mr., Mrs., Rep., the Rev., and Sen are required before a person’s full name – medical and political titles only need to be used upon first reference, however, as a courtesy, they may be used in later references as well Addresses – abbreviate Ave., Blvd., and St., and directional cue (N., S.) when numbered address is given. Spell out alley, drive, road. Without a numbered address, the directional should be spelled out and capitalized. Numbered streets first – ninth should be written out and high 10 th can be figures. Ex. 100 N. Grant St., South Ninth Street Ages – always use figures – if it used as an adjective or a substitute for a noun then it should be hyphenated ex. The student is 15 years old. A 15-year-old student. Books, periodicals, and reference works – Do not underline or italicize – Use quotation marks around titles of books, songs, shows, games, poems, speeches, and art ex. “The Star-Spangled Banner” – Do not use quotations around magazines, newspapers, the Bible or reference books ex. The Washington Post Dates, months, years, days of the week – for dates and years use figures – Spell out months unless it is used with a date – Use letter “s” but not an apostrophe after decades or centuries1800s – Do not use the word yesterday, but use the date Datelines – datelines are used when a story occurs outside the hometown, or service areas. They appear at the beginning of stories and include the city in all capital letters, followed by the state ex. ST. PAUL, Minn. – The Republican National Convention began Names – always use a person’s first and last name the first time they are mentioned, only use last name for second reference – Do not use titles unless they are part of a direct quotation or are requested
Numerals – never begin sentence with figure unless it is a year – Use roman numerals for wars and sequence of people ex. World War II, Elizabeth II – For order spell out first through ninth and then use 10 th – When referring to money use numerals but spell out cents, million, billion, trillion Punctuation – Use single space after period – do not use a comma before a conjunction in a simple series (before the “and” in a list) – Commas and periods go inside of quotation marks States and cities – spell out the name of states when it stands alone – when city and state are used together, spell out city and abbreviate state Titles – capitalize formal titles before a person’s name – use lowercase if they are informal, there is no name, follow a name Owl.english.purdue.edu
Lead – The first sentence, few sentences, or paragraph in a news story (contains hook and grabs reader’s attention while offering important facts about the story)
DON’Ts -Use “flowery” language – avoid excessive adverbs and adjectives (use strong verbs and nouns) -Unnecessary words or phrases – avoid clutter – cut right to the meat of the story -Formulaic leads – don’t be boring – readers want facts, but they also want to be entertained – don’t sound like a robot, establish a tone -It – editors do not like the word “it” especially in a lead – it is not precise
With a partner, choose one of the following “news” headlines and create a lead for a story using the guidelines previously discussed.