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Domain Adaptation for Statistical Machine Translation Master Defense By Longyue WANG, Vincent Longyue WANG, Vincent MT Group, NLP 2 CT Lab, FST, UM Supervised.

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Presentation on theme: "Domain Adaptation for Statistical Machine Translation Master Defense By Longyue WANG, Vincent Longyue WANG, Vincent MT Group, NLP 2 CT Lab, FST, UM Supervised."— Presentation transcript:

1 Domain Adaptation for Statistical Machine Translation Master Defense By Longyue WANG, Vincent Longyue WANG, Vincent MT Group, NLP 2 CT Lab, FST, UM Supervised by Prof. Lidia S. Chao, Prof. Derek F. Wong 20/08/2014

2 Computational Linguistics Machine Translation Text Translation Domain-Specific Statistical MT Hybrid MTRule-based MT Speech Translation Research Scope Figure 1: Our Research Scope [1] [2] [1] Daniel Jurafsky and James Martin (2008) An Introduction to Natural Language Processing, Computational Linguistics, and Speech Recognition, Second Edition. Prentice Hall. [2] Wikipedia, (2/84) Domain-Specific Statistical MT

3 Agenda Introduction Proposed Method I: New Criterion Proposed Method II: Combination Proposed Method III: Linguistics Domain-Specific Online Translator (3/84) Conclusion

4 Part I: Introduction (4/84)

5 WHAT IS STATISTICAL MACHINE TRANSLATION? The First Question 5

6 Statistical Machine Translation  SMT translations are generated on the basis of statistical models whose parameters are derived from the analysis of text corpora [3].  Currently, the most successful approach of SMT is phrase-based SMT, where the smallest translation unit is n-gram consecutive words. [3] Peter F. Brown, Vincent J. Della Pietra, Stephen A. Della Pietra, and Robert L. Mercer The mathematics of statistical machine translation: Parameter estimation. Computational Linguistics. 19:263–311. Figure 2: Phrase-based SMT Framework (6/84)

7 Statistical Machine Translation  Corpus is a collection of texts. e.g., IWSLT2012 official corpus.  Bilingual corpus is a collection of text paired with translation into another language. Monolingual corpus, in one (mostly are the target side) language.  Corpus may come from different genres, topics etc. Figure 2: Phrase-based SMT Framework Parallel Corpus Monolingual Corpus Monolingual Corpus (7/84)

8 Statistical Machine Translation  Word alignment can be mined by the help of EM algorithm.  Then extract phrase pairs from word alignment to generate translation table.  Distance-based reordering model is a penalty of changing position of translated phrases. Figure 2: Phrase-based SMT Framework Translation Table Translation Table Word Alignment Word Alignment Reordering Model Reordering Model (8/84)

9 Statistical Machine Translation  Language model assigns a probability to a sequence of words. (n-gram) [4] Figure 2: Phrase-based SMT Framework Language Model Language Model [4] F Song and W B Croft (1999). "A General Language Model for Information Retrieval". Research and Development in Information Retrieval. pp. 279–280.. (9/84) (1)

10 Statistical Machine Translation Decoding function consists of three components: the phrase translation table, which ensure the foreign phrase to match target ones; reordering model, which reorder the phrases appropriately; and language model, which ensure the output to be fluent. Figure 2: Phrase-based SMT Framework Source Text Source Text Decoding Target Text Target Text Searching Translation Candidates Translation Candidates (10/84) (2)

11 WHAT IS DOMAIN-SPECIFIC SMT SYSTEM? The Second Question 11

12 Typical SMT vs. Domain-Specific SMT  Typical SMT systems are trained on a large and broad corpus (i.e., general-domain) and deal with texts with ignoring domain.  Performance depends heavily upon the quality and quantity of training data.  Outputs preserve semantics of the source side but lack morphological and syntactic correctness.  Understandable translation quality. BBC News Example [5]. [5] Available at (BBC News 20 August 2014.) Input: Hollywood actor Jackie Chan has apologised over his son's arrest on drug-related charges, saying he feels "ashamed" and "sad". Google Output: 好萊塢影星成龍已經道歉了他兒子的被捕與毒品有關的指控,說他 感覺 “ 羞恥 ” 和 “ 悲傷 ” 。 Input: Hollywood actor Jackie Chan has apologised over his son's arrest on drug-related charges, saying he feels "ashamed" and "sad". Google Output: 好萊塢影星成龍已經道歉了他兒子的被捕與毒品有關的指控,說他 感覺 “ 羞恥 ” 和 “ 悲傷 ” 。 (12/84)

13 13

14 Typical SMT vs. Domain-Specific SMT  Domain-Specific SMT systems are trained on a small but relative corpus (i.e., in-domain) and deal with texts from one specific domain.  Consider relevance between training data and what we want to translate (test data).  Outputs preserve semantics of the source side, morphological and syntactic correctness.  Publishable quality. Patent Document Example [6] [6] Chinese Patent WO01/74772 《受体拮抗剂趋化因子》. Input: 本发明涉及新的 tetramic 酸型化合物,它从 CCR - 5 活性复合物中分离出来,在控制 条件下通过将生物纯的微生物培养液 ( 球毛壳霉 Kunze SCH 1705 ATCC 74489) 发酵来 制备复合物。 [5] ICONIC Translator Output: Novel tetramic acid-type compounds isolated from a CCR-5 active complex produced by fermentation under controlled conditions of a biologically pure culture of the microorganism, Chaetomium globosum Kunze SCH 1705, ATCC , pharmaceutical compositions containing the compounds. Input: 本发明涉及新的 tetramic 酸型化合物,它从 CCR - 5 活性复合物中分离出来,在控制 条件下通过将生物纯的微生物培养液 ( 球毛壳霉 Kunze SCH 1705 ATCC 74489) 发酵来 制备复合物。 [5] ICONIC Translator Output: Novel tetramic acid-type compounds isolated from a CCR-5 active complex produced by fermentation under controlled conditions of a biologically pure culture of the microorganism, Chaetomium globosum Kunze SCH 1705, ATCC , pharmaceutical compositions containing the compounds. (14/84)

15 WHAT IS DOMAIN-SPECIFIC TRANSLATION CHALLENGE? The Third Question 15

16 Challenge 1 – Ambiguity  Multi-meaning may not coincide in bilingual environment. The English word Mouse refers to both animal and electronic device. While in the Chinese side, they are two words. Choosing wrong translation variants is a potential cause for miscomprehension. 12 (16/84) Figure 3: Translation ambiguity example

17 Challenge 2 – Language Style News Domain  Try to deliver rich information with very economical language.  Short and simple-structure sentence make it easy to understand.  A lot of abbreviation, date, named entitles. China's Li Duihong won the women's 25-meter sport pistol Olympic gold with a total of points early this morning Beijing time. (Guangming Daily, 1996/07/02) 我国女子运动员李对红今天在女子运动手枪决赛中,以 环战胜所有对手,并创造新的奥运记录。(《光明 日报》 1996 年 7 月 2 日) China's Li Duihong won the women's 25-meter sport pistol Olympic gold with a total of points early this morning Beijing time. (Guangming Daily, 1996/07/02) 我国女子运动员李对红今天在女子运动手枪决赛中,以 环战胜所有对手,并创造新的奥运记录。(《光明 日报》 1996 年 7 月 2 日) (17/84)

18 Challenge 2 – Language Style When an international treaty that relates to a contract and which the People’s Republic of China has concluded on participated into has provisions of the said treaty shall be applied, but with the exception of clauses to which the People’s Republic of China has declared reservation. 中华人民共和国缔结或者参加的与合同有关的国际条约同中华人民共 和国法律有不同规定的, 适用该国际条约的规定。但是, 中华人民共和 国声明保留的条款除外。 When an international treaty that relates to a contract and which the People’s Republic of China has concluded on participated into has provisions of the said treaty shall be applied, but with the exception of clauses to which the People’s Republic of China has declared reservation. 中华人民共和国缔结或者参加的与合同有关的国际条约同中华人民共 和国法律有不同规定的, 适用该国际条约的规定。但是, 中华人民共和 国声明保留的条款除外。 Law Domain  Very rigorous even with duplicated terms.  Use fewer pronouns, abbreviations etc. to avoid any ambiguity.  High frequency words of shall, may, must, be to.  Long sentence with long subordinate clauses. (18/84)

19 Challenge 3 – Out-Of-Vocabulary  Terminology: words or phrases that mainly occur in specific contexts with specific meanings.  Variants, increasing, combination etc % 8.36% (19/84) BHT 2,6- 二叔丁基 -4- 甲基苯酚 Figure 4: Out-of-Vocabulary Example

20 Domain Adaptation  As SMT is corpus-driven, domain-specificity of training data with respect to the test data is a significant factor that we cannot ignore.  There is a mismatch between the domain of available training data and the target domain.  Unfortunately, the training resources in specific domains are usually relatively scarce. In such scenarios, various domain adaptation techniques are employed to improve domain-specific translation quality by leveraging general-domain data. (20/84)

21 Domain Adaptation for SMT Domain adaptation can be employed in different SMT components: word-alignment model, language model, translation model and reordering model. [6] [7] Model [6] Hua, Wu, Wang Haifeng, and Liu Zhanyi. "Alignment model adaptation for domain-specific word alignment." Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Meeting on Association for Computational Linguistics. Association for Computational Linguistics, [7] Koehn, Philipp, and Josh Schroeder. "Experiments in domain adaptation for statistical machine translation." Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation. Association for Computational Linguistics, Figure 5: Domain Adaptation Approaches (21/84)

22 Domain Adaptation for SMT Various resources can be used for domain adaptation: monolingual corpora, parallel corpora, comparable corpora, dictionaries and dictionary. [8] Resources [8] Wu, Hua, Haifeng Wang, and Chengqing Zong. "Domain adaptation for statistical machine translation with domain dictionary and monolingual corpora." Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Computational Linguistics-Volume 1. Association for Computational Linguistics, Figure 5: Domain Adaptation Approaches (22/84)

23 Domain Adaptation for SMT Considering supervision, domain adaptation approaches can be decided into supervised, semi-supervised and unsupervised. [9] Supervision [9] Snover, Matthew, Bonnie Dorr, and Richard Schwartz. "Language and translation model adaptation using comparable corpora." Proceedings of the Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing. Association for Computational Linguistics, Figure 5: Domain Adaptation Approaches (23/84)

24 My Thesis  Data Selection: solve the ambiguity and language style problems by moving the data distribution of training corpora to target domain.  Domain Focused Web-Crawling: reduce the OOVs by mining in-domain dictionary, parallel and monolingual sentences from comparable corpus (web). Figure 6: My Domain Adaptation Approaches (24/84)

25 Part II: Data Selection (25/84)

26 Definition Selecting data suitable for the domain at hand from large general-domain corpora, under the assumption that a general corpus is broad enough to contain sentences that are similar to those that occur in the domain. SMT System … Spoken Domain Figure 7: Data Selection Definition (26/84)

27 Framework – TM Adaptation Source Language Target Language Source Language Target Language Domain Estimation We define the set {,, } as V i. M R is an abstract model representing the target domain. Figure 8: My Data Selection Framework (27/84)

28 Framework – TM Adaptation Source Language Target Language Source Language Target Language Source Language Target Language Domain Estimation Rank sentence pairs according to score. Select top K% of general-domain data. K is a tunable threshold. Figure 8: My Data Selection Framework (28/84)

29 Framework – TM Adaptation Source Language Target Language Source Language Target Language Source Language Target Language Translation Model (IN) Translation Model (Pseudo) Log-linear /linear Interpolation Log-linear /linear Interpolation Translation Model (Final) Translation Model (Final) Domain Estimation Figure 8: My Data Selection Framework (29/84)

30 Framework – LM Adaptation Target Language Domain Estimation Language Model (IN) Language Model (Pseudo) Figure 8: My Data Selection Framework (30/84) Language Model (Final) Log-linear/Linear Interpolation Log-linear/Linear Interpolation

31 Framework – LM Adaptation Figure 8: My Data Selection Framework (31/84)

32 Related Work Vector space model (VSM), which converts sentences into a term-weighted vector and then applies a vector similarity function to measure the domain relevance. The sentence S i is represented as a vector: Standard tf-idf weight: Each sentence S i is represented as a vector (w i1, w i2,…, w in ), and n is the size of the vocabulary. So w ij is calculated as follows: Cosine measure: The similarity between two sentences is then defined as the cosine of the angle between two vectors. (32/84) (3) (4) (5)

33 Related Work Perplexity-based model, which employs n-gram in-domain language models to score the perplexity of each sentence in general-domain corpus.  Cross-entropy is the average of the negative logarithm of the word probabilities.  Perplexity pp can be simply transformed with a base b with respect to which the cross-entropy is measured (e.g., bits or nats).  Perplexity and cross-entropy are monotonically related. (33/84) (6) (7)

34 Related Work Until now, there are three perplexity-based variants:  The first basic one [13]:  The second is called Moore-Lewis [14]: which tries to select the sentences that are more similar to in- domain but different to out-of-domain.  The third is modified Moore-Lewis [15]: which considers both source and target language. (34/84) [13] Jianfeng Gao, Joshua Goodman, Mingjing Li, and Kai-Fu Lee Toward a unified approach to statistical language modeling for Chinese. ACM Transactions on Asian Language Information Processing (TALIP). 1:3–33. [14] Robert C. Moore and William Lewis Intelligent selection of language model training data. Proceedings of ACL: Short Papers. pp. 220–224. [15] Amittai Axelrod, Xiaodong He, and Jianfeng Gao Domain adaptation via pseudo in-domain data selection. In: Proceedings of EMNLP. pp. 355–362. (8) (9) (10)

35 Discussion: Grain Level By reviewing their work, I found  VSM-based methods can obtain about 1 BLEU point improvement using 60% of general-domain data [10, 11 and 12].  Perplexity-based approaches allow to discard 50% - 99% of the general corpus resulted in an increase of BLEU points [13, 14, 15, 16 and 17]. (35/84) [10] Bing Zhao, Matthias Eck, and Stephan Vogel Language model adaptation for statistical machine translation with structured query models. In Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Computational Linguistics. Association for Computational Linguistics, Geneva, Switzerland. [11] Almut Silja Hildebrand, Matthias Eck, Stephan Vogel, and Alex Waibel Adaptation of the translation model for statistical machine translation information retrieval. In 10th Annual Conference of the European Association for Machine Translation (EAMT 2005). Budapest, Hungary. [12] Yajuan Lü, Jin Huang, and Qun Liu Improving statistical machine translation performance by training data selection and optimization. Proceedings of EMNLP-CoNLL. pp. 343–350.. [15] Keiji Yasuda and Eiichiro Sumita Method for building sentence-aligned corpus from wikipedia. In 2008 AAAI Workshop on Wikipedia and Artificial Intelligence (WikiAI08). [16] George Foster, Cyril Goutte, and Roland Kuhn Discriminative instance weighting for domain adaptation in statistical machine translation. In Proceedings of the 2010 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, pages 451–459. Association for Computational Linguistics, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

36 Discussion: Grain Level  VSM-based similarity is a simple co-occurrence based matching, which only weights single overlapping words.  Perplexity-based similarity considers not only the distribution of terms but also the n-gram word collocation.  String-difference can comprehensively consider word overlap, n-gram collocation and word position. Figure 9: Data Selection Pyramid (36/84)

37 EDIT DISTANCE: A NEW DATA SELECTION CRITERION FOR SMT DOMAIN ADAPTATION The First Proposed Method 37

38 New Criterion String-difference metric is a better similarity function [21], with higher grain level. Edit-distance is proposed as a new selection criterion. Given a sentence s G from general-domain corpus and a sentence s I from in-domain corpus, the edit distance for these two sequences is defined as the minimum number of edits, i.e. symbol insertions, deletions and substitutions, needed to transform s G into s I. The normalized similarity score (fuzzy matching score, FMS) is given by Koehn and Senellart [22] in translation memory work. [21] Wang, Longyue, et al. "Edit Distance: A New Data Selection Criterion for Domain Adaptation in SMT." RANLP [22] Philipp Koehn, Hieu Hoang, Alexandra Birch, Chris Callison-Burch, Marcello Federico, Nicola Bertoldi, Brooke Cowan, Wade Shen, Christine Moran et al Moses: Open source toolkit for statistical ma-chine translation. Proceedings of ACL. pp. 177–180. (38/84) (11)

39 New Criterion For each sentence in general-domain corpus, we traverse all in-domain sentences to calculate FMS score and then average them. (39/84) In-domain Corpus General-domain Corpus (12) Figure 10: Edit-distance based data selection

40 Experiment: Corpora (Chinese-English)  General-domain parallel corpus (in-house) includes sentences comparing a various genres such as movie subtitles, law literature, news and novels.  In-domain parallel corpus, dev set, test set are randomly selected from the IWSLT2010 Dialog [37], consisting of transcriptions of conversational speech in travel.  We use parallel corpora for TM training and the target side for LM training. [37] Available at Data SetSentencesAve. Len. Test Set3, Dev Set3, In-domain17, General-domain5,211, (40/84) Table 1: Corpora Statistics (English-Chinese)

41 Experiment: System Setting  Baseline: SMT trained on all general-domain corpus;  VSM-based system (VSM): SMT trained on top K% of general-domain corpus ranked by Cosine tf-idf metric;  Perplexity-based system (PL): SMT trained on top K% of general-domain corpus ranked by basic cross-entropy metric;  String-difference system (SD): SMT trained on top K% of general-domain corpus ranked by Edit-distance metric; We investigate K={20, 40, 60, 80}% of ranked general- domain data as pseudo in-domain corpus for SMT training, where K% means K percentage of general corpus are selected as a subset. (41/84)

42 Experiment: Results  Three adaptation methods do better than baseline.  VSM can improve nearly 1 BLEU using 80% (more) entire data.  PL is a simple but effective method, which increases by 1.1 BLEU using 60% (less) data.  SD performs best, which achieve higher BLEU than other two methods with less data. System 20%40%60%80% Baseline29.34 VSM29.00 (-0.34)29.50 (+0.16)30.02 (+0.68)30.31 (+0.97) PL29.45 (+0.11)29.65 (+0.31)30.44 (+1.10)29.78 (+0.44) SD29.25 (-0.09)30.22 (+0.88)30.97 (+1.63)30.21 (+0.87) (42/84) Table 2: Translation Quality of Adapted Models

43 Discussion  SD > PL > VSM > Baseline.  Higher grained similarity metrics perform better than lower grained ones.  However, different grained level methods have their own advanced nature.  How about combining the individual models. (43/84) Figure 9: Data Selection Pyramid

44 A HYBRID DATA SELECTION MODEL FOR SMT DOMAIN ADAPTATION The Second Proposed Method 44

45 Combination We investigate the combination of the above three individual models at two levels [23].  Corpus level: weight the pseudo in-domain sub-corpora selected by different methods and then join them together. [23] Wang, Longyue, et al. "iCPE: A Hybrid Data Selection Model for SMT Domain Adaptation." Chinese Computational Linguistics and Natural Language Processing Based on Naturally Annotated Big Data. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, (45/84) General-domain Corpus Combined Corpus VSM ED Figure 11: Combination Approach

46 Combination  Model level: perform linear interpolation on the translation models trained on difference sub-corpora. where i = 1, 2, and 3 denoting the phrase translation probability and lexical weights trained on the VSM, perplexity and edit-distance’s subsets. α i and β i are the tunable interpolation parameters, subject to (46/84) (13) (14)

47 Experiment: Corpora (Chinese-English)  General-domain parallel corpus includes sentences comparing a various genres such as movie subtitles, law literature, news and novels etc.  In-domain parallel corpus, dev set, test set are disjoinedly and randomly selected from LDC corpus [38] (Hong Kong law domain). [38] LDC2004T08, https://catalog.ldc.upenn.edu/LDC2004T08. DomainSent. No.% News279, % Novel304, % Law48, % Others504, % Total1,138, % (47/84) Table 3: Translation Quality of Adapted Models

48 Experiment: Corpora (Chinese-English) Data SetLang.SentencesTokensAv. Len. Test Set EN 2,050 60, ZH59, Dev Set EN 2,000 59, ZH59, In-domain EN 45,621 1,330, ZH1,321, Training Set EN 1,138,044 28,626, ZH28,239,  Corpus size, data-type distribution, in/gen domain ratio are different.  Data selection performance may be different.  We use parallel corpora for TM training and the target side for LM training. (48/84) Table 4: Corpora Statistics

49 Experiment: System Setting  Baseline: the general-domain baseline (GC-Baseline) are respectively trained on entire general corpus.  Individual Model: Cosine tf-idf (Cos), proposed edit- distance based (ED) and three perplexity-based variants: cross-entropy (CE), Moore-Lewis (ML) and modified Moore- Lewis (MML).  Combined Model: combined Cos, ED and the best perplexity-based model at corpus level (iCPE-C) and model level (named iCPE-M). We report selected corpora in a step of 2x starting from using 3.75% of general corpus K={3.75, 7.5, 15, 30, 60}%. (49/84)

50 Experiment: Individual Model Results  Perplexity-based variants are all effective methods.  MML performs best: improve highest (nearly 2 BLEU) with least data (15%).  MML> ED > CE > ML > Cos > Baseline System 3.75%7.5%15%30%60% GC-Baseline39.15 CE37.10 (-)39.82 (+0.67)40.39 (+1.24)40.79 (+1.64)39.43(+0.28) ML38.07 (-)40.33 (+1.18)40.08 (+0.93)40.46 (+1.31)40.27 (+1.12) MML38.26(-)40.91 (+1.76)41.12 (+1.97)40.02 (+0.87)39.82 (+0.67) Cos37.87 (-)38.44 (-)39.45 (+0.30)40.17 (+1.02)39.88 (+0.73) ED37.70 (-)39.00 (-)40.88 (+1.73)40.24 (+1.09)40.00 (+0.85) (50/84) Table 5: Translation Quality of Adapted Models

51 Experiment: Results  Good performances are at K={7.5, 15, 30}%, thus we conduct combination methods in this section.  Considering different nature of them, we will further combine MML (best perplexity-based), Cos and ED. (51/84) Figure 12: Combination Approach

52 Experiment: Combination Model Results  Two combination methods perform better than the best individual model. (slightly)  Model-level combination is better than corpus-level one. (+0.23 BLEU)  Combination models > individual models > Baseline System 7.5%15%30% GC-Baseline39.15 MML40.91 (+1.76)41.12 (+1.97)40.02 (+0.87) iCPE-C41.01 (+1.86)41.95 (+2.80)41.98 (+2.83) iCPE-M41.13 (+1.98)42.21 (+3.06)41.84 (+2.69) (52/84) Table 6: Translation Quality of Adapted Models

53 Discussion We compare many data selection methods:  VSM-based: cosine tf-idf.  Perplexity-based: basic cross-entropy, Moore-Lewis and modified Moore-Lewis.  String-difference: edit-distance.  Combination: Corpus-level and Model-level Above methods only consider word itself (surface information).  Languages have a larger set of different words leads to sparsity problems.  Weak at capturing language style, sentence structure, sematic information. (53/84)

54 LINGUISTICALLY-AUGMENTED DATA SELECTION FOR SMT DOMAIN ADAPTATION The Third Proposed Method 54

55 Linguistic DS We explore two more linguistic information for data selection approach [25]:  Surface form (f), word itself, have rich lexicon information.  Named Entity categories (n) group together proper nouns that belong to the same semantic class (person, location, organization) [26].  Part-Of-Speech tags (t) group together words that share the same grammatical function (e.g. adjectives, nouns, verbs) [27]. [25] Antonio Toral, Pavel Pecina, Longyue Wang, Josef van Genabith. (2014). “Linguistically-augmented Perplexity-based Data Selection for Language Models.” Computer Speech and Language, (accepted and in minor revisions).. [26] E. W. D. Whittaker, P. C. Woodland, Comparison of language modelling techniques for russian and english, in: ICSLP, ISCA, [27] P. A. Heeman, Pos tags and decision trees for language modeling, in: 1999 Joint SIGDAT Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and Very Large Corpora, 1999, pp. 129{137. (55/84)

56 Linguistic DS  Change the original corpus (f) into linguistic format (fn, ft and t) and use them for LM training and sentence scoring.  The core metric is the modified Moore-Lewis.  According to the scores, select data from original corpus (surface) to train adapted SMT models. Need 4 LM models: 1, in-domain corpus in source language 2, in-domain corpus in target language 3, out-of-domain corpus in source language 4, out-of-domain corpus in target language (56/84) Figure 13: Linguistically-based Data Selection Method

57 Linguistic-based DS Based on individual models, we further combine different types of linguistic knowledge:  Corpus level: given the sentences selected by all the individual models considered for a given threshold, we traverse the first ranked sentence by each of the methods, then we proceed to the set of second best ranked sentences, and so forth.  Model level: Similar. The traversed sentences are kept in different sets. Build LMs on each set and then interpolate them. They are same as the second experiment. (57/84)

58 Experiment: Corpora (Chinese-English)  General-domain parallel corpus combined with general- domain corpora: CWMT2013 [39], UMCorpus [40], News Magazine [41] etc.  In-domain parallel corpus, dev set, test set are the IWSLT2014 TED Talk (talk domain) [42]. [39] [40] [41] LDC2005T10. https://catalog.ldc.upenn.edu/LDC2005T10. [42] Data Set (EN/ZH)SentencesAve. Len. Test Set1, /23.41 Dev Set /23.24 In-domain 177, /23.58 General-domain 10,021, /21.36 (58/84) Table 7: Corpora Statistics

59 Experiment: System Setting All adapted systems are log-linearly interpolated with the in- domain model to further improve performance.  Baseline: GI-Baseline is trained on all in-domain corpus and general corpus.  Individual Model: surface form based (f), POS based (t), surface+named entity based (fn), surface+POS (ft).  Combined Model: corpus level (Comb-C) and model level (Comb-M). We investigate K={25, 50, 75}% of ranked general-domain data as pseudo in-domain corpus for SMT training. (59/84)

60 Experiment: Individual Model Results  After adding more linguistic information, fn and ft can improve baseline by about 1 BLEU.  t (only POS) perform poorly due to lack of lexicon information.  Considering their performance, we will combine f, fn and ft. System 25%50%75% GI-Baseline40.20 f (-8.29)38.83 (-1.37)41.37 (+1.17) t (-19.00)27.90 (-12.30) fn (-8.27)37.86 (-2.34)40.93 (+0.73) ft (-10.20)38.74 (-1.46)41.81 (+1.61) (60/84) Table 8: Translation Quality of Adapted Models

61 Experiment: Combination Model Results  Both combination methods are better than best individual model (from to BLEU).  Combination may success the advantages of each linguistic- based methods. (lexicon, spacity, language style)  High-inflected languages such as English-German may have better performance with more linguistic information. System 25%50%75% GI-Baseline40.20 f (-8.29)38.83 (-1.37)41.37 (+1.17) ft (-10.20)38.74 (-1.46)41.81 (+1.61) Comb-C (-7.19)39.07 (-1.13)41.92 (+1.72) Comb-M (-7.46)38.95 (-1.25)42.01 (+1.81) (61/84) Table 9: Translation Quality of Adapted Models

62 Part III: Real-Life System (62/84)

63 Real-life Environment To prove the robustness and language-independence of some domain adaptation approaches, we evaluation it in real- life system. WMT (since 2005) is most famous workshop with high-quality shared task on machine translation. We attended WMT2014 medical translation task [43]:  Czech-English, French-English, German-English. (6 pairs)  Very large resources: up to 36 million general-domain parallel sentences and 4 million in-domain parallel sentences.  Medical texts are more complex. Chemical formulae, e.g “- CH2-(OCH2CH2)n-”. [43] (63/84)

64 WMT2014 Medical Translation Task By observing the text of medical text, we present a number of detailed domain adaptation techniques and approaches:  Task Oriented Pre-processing.  Language Model Adaptation.  Translation Model Adaptation.  Numeric Adaptation.  Hyphenated Word Adaptation.  Combination above all methods. Finally, 1st rank on three language pairs, and 2nd rank on others. (64/84) Figure 14: Results and Rankings of Our System

65 BenTu System Based these models (medical domain), we develop my first online translator, BenTu, which is a domain-specific multi-tire SMT system [44].  Three layers: pre-processing, decoder and post-processing  Easy to add new language pairs and domains [44] The architecture is designed referring to PluTO project: Tinsley, John, Andy Way, and Paraic Sheridan. "PLuTO: MT for online patent translation." Association for Machine Translation in the Americas, (65/84) Figure 15: Framework of BenTu System

66 BenTu System (66/84) Figure 16: User Interface of BenTu System

67 Part V: Conclusion (67/84)

68 Thesis Contribution To solve the problems in domain-specific SMT, we proposed  Data Selection methods as described. o New data selection criterion o Combination model o Linguistically-augmented data selection  Domain Focused Web-Crawling o Integrated models for cross-language document alignment o Combining topic classifier and perplexity for filtering  Real-life domain-specific SMT based on a number of adapted models are developed. (68/84)

69 Total Contribution (69/84) Figure 17: My work in the past three years

70 Future Work  Data Selection o Graphical model and label propagation o Neural language model  Domain Focused Web-Crawling o Improve the performance by mining the in-domain dictionary.  Real-life domain-specific SMT o Extend to more language pairs: Chinese, Japanese etc. o Extend to more domains: science technology, laws and news (70/84)

71 My Publications Journal Papers 1, Antonio Toral, Pavel Pecina, Longyue Wang, Josef van Genabith Linguistically-augmented Perplexity-based Data Selection for Language Models. Computer Speech and Language (accepted). (IF=1.463) 2, Longyue Wang, Derek F. Wong, Lidia S. Chao, Yi Lu, and Junwen Xing A Systematic Comparison of Data Selection Criteria for SMT Domain Adaptation. The Scientific World Journal, vol. 2014, Article ID , 10 pages. (IF=1.730) 3, Long-Yue WANG, Derek F. WONG, Lidia S. CHAO TQDL: Integrated Models for Cross-Language Document Retrieval. International Journal of Computational Linguistics and Chinese Language Processing (IJCLCLP), pages (THCI Core) Conference Papers 4, Longyue Wang, Yi Lu, Derek F. Wong, Lidia S. Chao, Yiming Wang, Francisco Oliveira Combining Domain Adaptation Approaches for Medical Text Translation. In Proceedings of the Ninth Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation. (ACL Anthology and EI) (71/84)

72 My Publications 5, Yi Lu, Longyue Wang, Derek F. Wong, Lidia S. Chao, Yiming Wang, Francisco Oliveira. (2014) "Domain Adaptation for Medical Text Translation using Web Resources". In Proceedings of the Ninth Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation. (ACL Anthology and EI) 6, Yiming Wang, Longyue Wang, Xiaodong Zeng, Derek F. Wong, Lidia S.Chao, Yi Lu Factored Statistical Machine Translation for Grammatical Error Correction”, In Proceedings of the Eighth Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning (CoNLL 2014), pages (ACL Anthology and EI) 7, Longyue Wang, Derek F. Wong, Lidia S. Chao, Junwen Xing, Yi Lu, Isabel Trancoso Edit Distance: A New Data Selection Criterion for SMT Domain Adaptation. In Proceedings of Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing, pages (ACL Anthology and EI) 8, Longyue Wang, Derek F. Wong, Lidia S. Chao, Yi Lu, Junwen Xing iCPE: A Hybrid Data Selection Model for SMT Domain Adaptation. In Proceedings of the 12th China National Conference on Computational Linguistics (12th CCL), Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence (LNAI) Springer series, pages (EI) (72/84)

73 My Publications 9, Junwen Xing, Longyue Wang, Derek F. Wong, Lidia S. Chao, Xiaodong Zeng UMChecker: A Hybrid System for English Grammatical Error Correction. In Proceedings of the Seventeenth Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning (CoNLL 2013), pages (ACL Anthology and EI) 10, Longyue WANG, Shuo Li, Derek F. WONG, Lidia S. CHAO A Joint Chinese Named Entity Recognition and Disambiguation System. In Proceeding of the 2th CIPS-SIGHAN Joint Conference on Chinese Language Processing (CLP2012), pages (ACL Anthology) 11, Longyue WANG, Derek F. WONG, Lidia S. CHAO, Junwen Xing CRFs-Based Chinese Word Segmentation for Micro-Blog with Small-Scale Data. In Proceedings of the Second CIPSSIGHAN Joint Conference on Chinese Language Processing (CLP2012), pages (ACL Anthology) 12, Long-Yue Wang, Derek F. WONG, Lidia S. CHAO An Experimental Platform for Cross-Language Document Retrieval. The 2012 International Conference on Applied Science and Engineering (ICASE2012), pages (EI) (73/84)

74 My Publications 13, Longyue Wang, Derek F. WONG, Lidia S. CHAO An Improvement in Cross-Language Document Retrieval Based on Statistical Models. The Twenty- Fourth Conference on Computational Linguistics and Speech Processing (ROCLING 2012), pages (ACL Anthology and EI) 14, Liang Tian, Derek F. Wong, Lidia S. Chao, Paulo Quaresma, Francisco Oliveira, Yi Lu, Shuo Li, Yiming Wang, Longyue Wang UM-Corpus: A Large English-Chinese Parallel Corpus for Statistical Machine Translation. In Proceedings of the 9th Edition of its Language Resources and Evaluation Conference (LREC2014), pages (EI) (74/84)

75 Thank You! Obrigado! 謝謝! (75/84)

76 (76/84)

77 Appendix (77/84)

78 Related Work  Zhao et al. [10] firstly use this information retrieval techniques to retrieve sentences from monolingual corpus to build a LM, and then interpolate it with general- background LM.  Hildebrand et al. [11] extend it to sentence pairs, which are used to train a domain-specific TM.  Lü et al. [12] further proposed re-sampling and re- weighting methods for online and offline TM optimization. [10] Bing Zhao, Matthias Eck, and Stephan Vogel Language model adaptation for statistical machine translation with structured query models. In Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Computational Linguistics. Association for Computational Linguistics, Geneva, Switzerland. [11] Almut Silja Hildebrand, Matthias Eck, Stephan Vogel, and Alex Waibel Adaptation of the translation model for statistical machine translation information retrieval. In 10th Annual Conference of the European Association for Machine Translation (EAMT 2005). Budapest, Hungary. [12] Yajuan Lü, Jin Huang, and Qun Liu Improving statistical machine translation performance by training data selection and optimization. Proceedings of EMNLP-CoNLL. pp. 343–350.. (78/84)

79 Related Work  In language modeling, Gao et al. [13], Moore and Lewis [14] have used perplexity-based scores adapt LMs.  Then it was firstly applied for SMT adaptation by Yasuda et al. [15] and Foster et al. [16].  Axelrod et al. [17] further improve the performance of TM adaptation by considering bilingual information. [13] Jianfeng Gao, Joshua Goodman, Mingjing Li, and Kai-Fu Lee Toward a unified approach to statistical language modeling for Chinese. ACM Transactions on Asian Language Information Processing (TALIP). 1:3–33. [14] Robert C. Moore and William Lewis Intelligent selection of language model training data. Proceedings of ACL: Short Papers. pp. 220–224. [15] Keiji Yasuda and Eiichiro Sumita Method for building sentence-aligned corpus from wikipedia. In 2008 AAAI Workshop on Wikipedia and Artificial Intelligence (WikiAI08). [16] George Foster, Cyril Goutte, and Roland Kuhn Discriminative instance weighting for domain adaptation in statistical machine translation. In Proceedings of the 2010 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, pages 451–459. Association for Computational Linguistics, Cambridge, Massachusetts. [17] Amittai Axelrod, Xiaodong He, and Jianfeng Gao Domain adaptation via pseudo in-domain data selection. In: Proceedings of EMNLP. pp. 355–362. (79/84)

80 Related Work After selection, we obtain pseudo in-domain sub-corpus and in-domain one is available, mixture-modeling is to integrate different language models or translation models.  Foster and Kuhn [18] investigate linear and log-linear interpolation for individual language models trained by different corpora.  Linear interpolation for SMT has been used a lot [19].  Alternatively, the translation models can be added to the global log-linear SMT model as features, with weights optimized through minimum-error-rate training (MERT) [20]. [18] George Foster and Roland Kuhn Mixture-model adaptation for SMT. In Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation, StatMT ’07, pages 128–135. Association for Computational Linguistics, Prague, Czech Republic. [19] Graeme Blackwood, Adrià de Gispert, Jamie Brunning, and William Byrne European language translation with weighted finite state transducers: The CUED MT system for the 2008 ACL workshop on SMT. In Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation, pages 131–134. Association for Computational Linguistics, Columbus, Ohio. [20]Philipp Koehn, Hieu Hoang, Alexandra Birch, Chris Callison-Burch, Marcello Federico, Nicola Bertoldi, Brooke Cowan, Wade Shen, Christine Moran et al Moses: Open source toolkit for statistical ma-chine translation. Proceedings of ACL. pp. 177–180. (80/84)

81 Experimental Setup Overall Running Time: The environment is HPC Cluster Pearl. Computing Node CPU Intel Xeon X5675, 24 cores, 180 GB.  Data Selection:  SMT: Task2.5 million5 million7.5 million10 million Training 4 hr13 hr23 hr32 hr Tuning 1 hr2 hr4 hr6 hr Method2.5 million5 million7.5 million10 million VSM (GPU) 8 hr15 hr29 hr41 hr Perplexity20 min25 min30 min40 min String-Diff. (GPU) 22 hr40 hr62 hr70 hr (81/84)

82 Experimental Setup Corpus Processing:  Propose better data processing steps [29] for domain adaptation task.  For Chinese segmentation, we use in-house system [30]. For other languages, we use European tokenizer [31].  Linguistic information are extracted by Stanford CoreNLP toolkits [32].  Others such as case-processing (truecase), length-cleaning (1-80) ect., we use Moses scripts. [29] Longyue Wang, Yi Lu, Derek F. Wong, Lidia S. Chao, Yiming Wang, Francisco Oliveira. (2014) "Combining Domain Adaptation Approaches for Medical Text Translation". In Proceedings of the Ninth Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation. [30] Longyue WANG, Derek F. WONG, Lidia S. CHAO, Junwen Xing. (2012). "CRFs-Based Chinese Word Segmentation for Micro-Blog with Small-Scale Data." Proceedings of the Second CIPS-SIGHAN Joint Conference on Chinese Language Processing (CLP2012), pages 51–57. [31] Philipp Koehn Europarl: A parallel corpus for statistical machine translation. MT Summit. Vol. 5. pp. 79–86. [32] Manning, Christopher D., Surdeanu, Mihai, Bauer, John, Finkel, Jenny, Bethard, Steven J., and McClosky, David The Stanford CoreNLP Natural Language Processing Toolkit. In Proceedings of 52nd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: System Demonstrations, pp (82/84)

83 Experimental Setup SMT:  Moses decoder [33], a state-of-the-art open-source phrase-based SMT system.  The translation and the re-ordering model relied on “grow- diag-final” symmetrized word-to-word alignments built using GIZA++ [34].  A 5-gram language model was trained using the IRSTLM toolkit [35], exploiting improved modified Kneser-Ney smoothing, and quantizing both probabilities and back-off weights. [33] Philipp Koehn, Hieu Hoang, Alexandra Birch, Chris Callison-Burch, Marcello Federico, Nicola Bertoldi, Brooke Cowan, Wade Shen, Christine Moran et al Moses: Open source toolkit for statistical ma-chine translation. Proceedings of ACL. pp. 177–180. [34] Franz Josef Och and Hermann Ney A systematic comparison of various statistical alignment models. Computational Linguistics. 29:19–51. [35] Marcello Federico, Nicola Bertoldi, and Mauro Cettolo IRSTLM: an open source toolkit for handling large scale language models. Proceedings of Inter-speech. pp. 1618–1621. (83/84)

84 Experimental Setup Data Selection:  For Cosine tf-idf and Edit-distance, we develop them on GPU.  For Perplexity-based methods, we perform SRILM toolkit [36] to conduct 5-gram LMs with interpolated modified Kneser-Ney discounting.  We use end-to-end evaluation method: using BLEU [37] as an evaluation metric to reflect the domain-specific translation quality. [36] Andreas Stolcke and others SRILM-an extensible language modeling toolkit. Proceedings of the International Conference on Spoken Language Processing. pp. 901–904. [37] Kishore Papineni, Salim Roukos, Todd Ward, and Wei-Jing Zhu BLEU: a method for automatic eval-uation of machine translation. Proceedings of ACL. pp. 311–318. (84/84)


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