2Canto I Opens on the evening of Good Friday in the year 1300. Traveling through a dark wood, Dante has los this path and now wanders fearfully through the forest; he has “strayed from the True Way into the Dark Wood of Error.”Dark Wood of Error= worldlinessAllegorical journey- reference to a life’s journey, veering from the straight road, being alone, losing hope, etc… all suggest an allegorical, NOT a literal journey
3Canto IThe sun shines down on a mountain above him, and he attempts to climb up it but his way is blocked by three beasts (these three beats all represent different aspects of world sin):Leopard= malice and fraudLion = violence and ambitionShe-Wolf = incontinence (lack of self-restraint)
4Animal symbolismDante's symbols, the leopard, the lion, and the she-wolf, symbolize carnal sins which are divided into three categories of severity: the sins of malice and fraud, the sins of violence and ambition, and the sins of incontinence, respectively.Leopard tricks people with his spots (fraud); lions are sneaking and violent as they hunt (violence); and wolves are mysterious and usually work in packs.
5Canto IJust as Dante faces these three beats, a human figure appears. It is Virgil (great Roman poet).Virgil = Human reasonVirgil has come to guide Dante from error. They must first pass through Hell (the recognition of sin), Purgatory (the renunciation of sin), and only then can he come to the Paradise (the light of God).Another guide, Beatrice will take over laterBeatrice= divine love
6Canto I Look at lines 1-4: what tense is this written in? Why this tense?Lines 15-18: personificationLines 22-25: epic simileLines 31-33: foreshadowingPredictions include ideas of danger, deceit and fraudThe leopard is a real threat but it also represents an abstract idea (there is old story where a leopard changes his spots to fool the other animals)
7Canto I Aries= god of creation He is MOST fearful of the She-Wolf “new creation” (line 39)= Easter (symbolic new awakening)He is MOST fearful of the She-WolfTemptation to sin“many souls she has brought to endless grief”He has an EMOTIONAL response to the She-Wolf (not just physical fear); he is convinced she will destroy his hopes for reaching the “high summit.”“she has struck a mortal tremor in me” (line 87)
8Canto I (pg. 662)- Virgil’s life Story of Anchises’ son, Aeneas: In Greco-Roman mythology, Aeneas was a Trojan hero, the son of the prince Anchises and the goddess Aphrodite.Virgil is his true master and mentor (lines 81-83)She-Wolf“but feeding, she grows hungrier than she was” (line 93)- gluttony; never satisfiedThe She-Wolf kills all who approach her but someday a magnificent hound will come and chase her back to hell
9Canto I“set upon a burning mountain” (referring to the mountain of Purgatory)- line 111Possible purification in this place (between heaven and hell)Suffering is borne in hope because it is a part of purification that will result in the rise to Paradise.Ends with Virgil offering to guide Dante to Paradise where Beatrice will take over (because of the She-Wolf, he cannot pass…)
11In pop culture First Circle: Limbo Second Circle: Lust Second Circle: LustThird Circle: GluttonyFourth Circle: GreedSeventh Circle: ViolenceEighth Circle: FraudNinth Circle: Treachery
12Canto III Gates of Hell (portrayal of Hell as an actual city) “sacred justice moved by architect” (line 4)- God created Hell out of justice; a desire to see sin punished and virtues rewarded. (ultimate JUSTICE)“Abandon all Hope, You Who Enter Here”
13Canto III Law of symbolic retribution Punishment that symbolizes the crime“as they sinned, so are they punished”All about ULTIMATE JUSTICE and DIVINE JUSTICE (justice carried out by God)
14Canto III Opportunists Those souls who were neither good nor bad but only for themselves. They lived their lives without making conscious moral choices; therefore both Heaven and Hell have denied them. (reside in the Ante-Inferno)They must constantly chase after a blank banner. Flies and wasps continually bite them and consume the blood and tears that flow from them.Dante recognizes Pope Celestine V here (renounced his title)
15Canto III Symbolic retribution of the opportunists: Took no sides- so they are given no placeEver-shifting illusion- so they pursue an ever-shifting bannerTheir sin was a darkness- so they move in darknessGuilty conscious pursued them- wasps pursue themActions were a moral filth- they run eternally through the filth of worms and maggots
16Canto III Acheron= the first of the rivers of Hell Newly arrived damned souls wait to be ferried alongCharon= boatman of the riverRefuses to take Dante because is a living soul (lines 85-90)Virgil forces Charon- God ordained it (lines 91-93)Dante faints and does not awaken until they get to the other side“sleep comes over in a swoon” (line 133)
17Canto III“Divine justice transforms and spurs them so their dread turns wish: they yearn for what they fear” (lines ).Hell= sin (allegorically) so….Hell is their CHOICE, for divine grace is denied to none who wish for it in their hearts.
19In pop culture Second Circle: Lust Third Circle: Gluttony Third Circle: GluttonyFourth Circle: Greed
20Canto VVirgil and Dante are now in the SECOND circle of Hell (size does not change, just “size” of crimes)Minos: monster who stands in front of the endless line of sinners, assigning them to their torments.Wraps his tail around them; number of times around = number of hell they are assignedFrom classical Greek mythology; son of Europa and Zeus, descended in the form of a bull
21Canto VSins of Lust: those who betrayed reason to their appetites; their sin was to abandon themselves to the tempest of their passions: so they are swept forever in the tempest of Hell, forever denied the light of reason and of God.List of famous “sinners” of lustFrancesca tells her own story (as Paolo weeps)Dante immediately feels sympathy for these souls and once again faints
22Canto V http://danteworlds.laits.utexas.edu/circle2.html#francesca Semiramis: legendary queen of King Nimus; tricked her husband’s army and had him killed.Dido: Queen of Carthage; falls in love, only to be left by the Trojan hero AeneasCleopatra: last pharaoh of Ancient Egypt; had affair with Caesar and bore a son as co-rulerHelen- of TroyAchilles- Greek hero of Trojan War; died in an ambush after falling in love with the Trojan princess Polyxena; overall, lustful characterParis- story of TroyTristan- a Cornish hero and one of the Knights of the Round Table; he and Iseult accidentally consume a love potion and fall in love, having a secret affair.Francesca and Paolo (tells their story…)AllusionsAll are women who followed their passions
23Canto V The story of Francesca and Paolo Bound in marriage to an old and deformed man, she fell in love with Paolo, her husband’s younger brother. One day, as she and Paolo sat reading an Arthurian Legend about the love of Lancelot and Guenivere, each began to feel that the story spoke to their own secret love,When they came to a particular romantic moment in the story, they could not resist kissing. Francesca’s husband quickly discovered them and had Paolo killed.Francesca and Paolo are doomed to spend eternity in the second level of Hell.
24Canto V Symbolic Retribution “stripped bare of ever light” (in darkness)- where inappropriate sins/acts would have occurredNakedIn a “hellish flight of storm” sweeping their souls and whirling and battering them on- just as their sin is of the flesh, the storm racks their nerves and hurts their skin.Out of control storm- they demonstrated lack of control as well**Central theme- those who abandon reason for passion will be punished**
29Canto 33: Fraud and Treachery The nine circles are groups intothrees, corresponding to the threekinds of vice that Dante learnedfrom Aristotle:incontinence (the Wolf)violence (the Lion)fraud and malice (the Leopard).
30Canto 33: Fraud and Treachery The ninth circle, Cocytus (a river in the Greek underworld which means "river of wailing") is reserved for sins of fraud and treachery.The rounds are dedicated to a specific type of sin (Antenora, treachery towards country, and Ptolomea, treachery towards guests and hosts).
31Canto 33: Antenora (treachery toward country) Named for Antenor who betrayed Troy to the Greeks (in some versions).Count Ugolino and Archbishop Ruggieri are in the Round for treason: they once plotted together, and Ruggieri betrayed his fellow-plotter and caused his death by starvation along with his four “sons.” His sons offer their father themselves as food.In Dante’s world of symbolic retribution, Ruggieri becomes food for Ugolino, who gnaws on his head.
32Canto XXXIII Story of Count Ugolino and Archbishop Ruggieri The sinner raises himself from his gnawing and declares that in life he was Count Ugolino; the man whose head he chews was Archbishop Ruggieri. Both men lived in Pisa (community known for scandal but went unpunished), and the archbishop, a traitor himself, had imprisoned Ugolino and his sons as traitors. He denied them food, and when the sons died, Ugolino, in his hunger, was driven to eat the flesh of their corpses.
33Canto 33: Antenora (treachery toward country) Ugolino’s sons are actually grown men and the younger grandson is fifteen; for effect, Dante makes them much younger.The Canto brings forth the concept of fairness: is Ugolino’s revenge justified?Ugolino has betrayed Pisa by giving up castles during a war, and for this, he is punished. Dante also blames Pisa for allowing his children to die.
34Ptolomea (treachery to guests and hosts) At this point, Dante is numb from witnessing the horrors of Hell.He is also confused as to the source of the wind.Hell is not warm and full of light from fire: it is a “frozen mine” (metaphor).The round is named for Ptolomeus, who invited Simon Maccabaeus, king of Judea, and his two sons to a banquet and then murdered them.
35Ptolomea(treachery to guests and hosts) Those condemned to this round lie with only half their faces above the ice and their tears freeze in their eye sockets, sealing them with little crystal visors. Thus, the comfort of tears is taken away from them.So great is the sin of Friar Alberigo and Branca d’Oria that their souls fall to its torments even before they die, leaving their body still on earth, inhabited by demons.To avenge an insult, Friar Alberigo invited his brother Manfred and his son to dinner. At the signal “bring the fruit,” murderers killed Manfred and son.Dante promises the Friar that he will relieve his punishment if he will tell his story; however, he breaks it, because then he will not suffer to the full extent.
36Ptolomea(treachery to guests and hosts) Branca d’Oria invited his father-in-law to a feast, Michel Zanche, and then murdered him.In this Round, Dante introduces the idea the demons (and Satan) can live on earth through living souls.
37Canto XXXIIIPtolomeaHouses those who betrayed their guests. The souls here lie on their backs in the frozen lake, with only their faces poking out of the ice. Tears cannot offer comfort because the water freezes as crystal visors over their eyes.Friar Alberigo-13th century Italian. His family were banished from Faenza by their rivals. Alberigo had his brother and nephew killed during a banquet at his home. Alberigo's orders to bring fruit was the signal for the murder. Dante portrays him as regretting this crime, stating in Canto XXXIII that he is repaid in Hell in dates for the figs he called for at the banquet (dates being much more expensive than figs).Branca d’Oria- treacherous murder of Michele Zanche, his father-in-law, in 1275.Although these individuals have not yet died on Earth, their crimes were so great that their souls were obliged to enter Hell before their time; devils occupy their living bodies aboveground.
38Canto XXXIIIInfamy: extremely bad reputation, public reproach, or strong condemnation as the result of a shameful, criminal, or outrageous actUgolino will tell his story only because he hopes to bring condemnation to Ruggieri (lines 5-9)Irony in “gnaw his brain” (line 15)Importance of hospitality (Greek “code”)
41Canto XXXIV Ninth Circle (Compound Fraud) : Cocytus Round 4: Judeca, the Treacherous to their MastersThe Center: SatanBetrayal- Dante considered this the worst sinThey betrayed their masters; now they are tortured by their “master” Satan (holds all three in his mouth)Judas, Brutus and Cassius
42Canto XXXIV Story of the three men in Satan’s mouth Judas: Brutus: Cassius:
43Judas IscariotJudas Iscariot was, according to the New Testament, one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ.He is infamously known for his kiss and betrayal of Jesus to the hands of the chief Sanhedrin priests in exchange for a payment of 30 pieces of silver, after which he subsequently hanged himself out of remorse and guilt.Mark states that the chief priests were looking for a sly way to arrest Jesus. They decided not to do so during the feast since they were afraid that people would riot; instead, they chose the night before the feast to arrest him. In the Gospel of Luke, Satan enters Judas at this time.According to the account in the Gospel of John, Judas carried the disciples' money bag. He betrayed Jesus for a bribe of "thirty pieces of silver“ by identifying him with a kiss — "the kiss of Judas — to arresting soldiers of the High Priest Caiaphas, who then turned Jesus over to Pontius Pilate's soldiers.
45BrutusMarcus Junius Brutus (early June, 85 BC – 23 October, 42 BC), often referred to as Brutus, was a politician of the late Roman Republic.He is best known in modern times for taking a leading role in the assassination of Julius Caesar.Many senators began to fear Caesar's growing power following his appointment as dictator for life. Brutus was persuaded into joining the conspiracy against Caesar by the other senators. Eventually, Brutus decided to move against Caesar after Caesar's king-like behavior prompted him to take action.
47CassiusGaius Cassius Longinus (before 85 BC – October, 42 BC) was a Roman senator, a leading instigator of the plot to kill Julius Caesar, and the brother in-law of Marcus Junius Brutus.Although Cassius was "the moving spirit" in the plot against Caesar, Brutus became their leader. On the Ides of March, 44 BC, Cassius urged on his fellow liberators and struck Caesar in the face. Though they succeeded in assassinating Caesar, the celebration was short-lived, as Mark Antony seized power and turned the public against them. According to some accounts, Cassius had wanted to kill Antony at the same time as Caesar, but Brutus dissuaded him
49Canto XXXIVSatan“his great wings beating like a windmill. It is their beating that is the source of the icy wind of Cocytus” (LITERAL meaning of the frozen environment)Titans only come up to his armpits (line 30)“bat like wings” (line 48-50)“Grotesque parody of the Trinity”- 3 faces with 3 sinners in his mouth (page 685)No longer beautiful as he was in heaven