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By Sara Johnson and Cat Morgan

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1 By Sara Johnson and Cat Morgan
The Crusades By Sara Johnson and Cat Morgan

2 Introduction to the Crusades
The Muslims had control of Jerusalem, Nazareth, and Bethlehem before the First Crusade in The Crusades were battles between Christians and Muslims for the control of the Holy Land. They attempted to restore Christian access to the Holy Land (currently Israel & Palestine). Pope Urban II thought the Christians should have control of this area, so he called for the First Crusade on November 27, 1095. The Crusades were a 200 year struggle for the Holy Land. It is difficult to distinguish the Crusades because they were basically a steady flow of soldiers from Europe to the Holy Land. Multiple Crusades followed after that against Muslim territories. Crusades began in 1096, and ended in 1272

3 Map of the Crusades

4 The First Crusade The Holy Land had been captured by the Muslims during their conquests between 632 and 661. On November 27, 1095, Pope Urban II gave a speech to the people of Rome, encouraging them to take back the Holy land.

5 First Crusade continued
The original goal was to assist the Byzantine Empire in fighting off the invading Turks from Anatolia. Midway through, the Romans decided they would take back Jerusalem, the Holy Land, and free the Eastern Christians from Muslim rule.

6 Result of the First Crusade
Decisive Crusader victory. In July of 1099, Jerusalem was reclaimed for the Pope.

7 Map of the First Crusade

8 The Second Crusade Announced by Pope Eugene III, this was the first crusade to be led by European Kings, Louis VII of France and Conrad III of Germany. It was started in response to the Country of Edessa, the first Crusader State, fell to the forces of Zengi, a Turkish noble. (A Crusader State was a state created by Western Europeans crusaders in Asia Minor, Greece, and the Holy Land).

9 The Second Crusade continued
The Crusade in the East was a failure, and ultimately led to their defeat by the Muslims in the 2nd Crusade. This Crusade was not a big success for the Christians.

10 Map of the Second Crusade

11 Results of the Second Crusade
Muslim victory in the Holy Land. Peace treaty between Byzantine empire and Seljuq Turks. Crusaders began advances into Egypt.

12 The Third Crusade 1189-1192 Nicknamed the “Kings’ Crusade”.
Led by Richard I of England, Philip II of France, and Frederick Barbarossa of Germany. European leaders attempted to take back the Holy Land from Saladin, the first sultan of Egypt and Syria.

13 Results of the Third Crusade
Luckily, this one was considered a success. Crusader military victory. Jerusalem was still controlled by Muslims Muslims agreed to allow an unarmed Christian pilgrimage into Jerusalem.

14 Map of the Third Crusade

15 The Fourth Crusade Original goal was to conquer the Muslim-controlled parts of Jerusalem by invading through Egypt. But, in April of 1204, the Crusaders of Western Europe invaded and took over the Orthodox Christian city of Constantinople, the Byzantine Empire capital. Seen as one of the final acts in the Great Schism between the Roman Catholics and the eastern Orthodox Church Considered to be the last major Crusade.

16 Result of the Fourth Crusade
A Latin Empire was created. It lasted from It was in the lands of the Byzantine Empire that they had conquered.

17 Map of the Fourth Crusade

18 The Fifth Crusade European Catholics attempt to regain Jerusalem and the rest of the Holy Land. Led by King Andrew II of Hungary and Duke Leopold VI of Austria. Organized by Pope Innocent II and his successor, Pope HonoriusIII.

19 Results of the Fifth Crusade
Jerusalem was left in Muslim control. 8 year peace treaty between Ayyubid empire and Christian kingdoms. Crusaders surrendered after a night attack by Sultan Al-Kamil because they lost too many soldiers and were dangerously low on their supplies.

20 The Sixth Crusade 1228-1229 Another attempt to regain Jerusalem.
Not much actual fighting happened. The Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick II, used diplomatic strategies to regain control over Jerusalem for the Kingdom of Jerusalem.

21 Results of the Sixth Crusade
Frederick II diplomatically won control over Jerusalem for the Kingdom of Jerusalem. This control lasted for the next 15 years.

22 The Seventh Crusade 1248-1254 Led by Louis IX of France.
Defeated and captured, along with his men, by Egyptian army led by Ayyubid Sultan Turanshah.

23 Results of Seventh Crusade
Decisive Muslim victory. Approximately 800,000 bezants, medieval gold coins, were paid in ransom for Louis and his thousands of troops.

24 The Eighth Crusade 1270 Started by King Louis IX of France.
Some consider this crusade to be the seventh because it is not certain whether the fifth and sixth crusade were one, single crusade, or two separate ones. Louis’ brother, Charles of Anjou, convinced him to attack Tunis, a large city right off the Mediterranean Sea.

25 The Eighth Crusade continued
During the war, Louis died on August 25 of a “flux in the stomach”, Gastroesophageal Disease- his stomach acid flowed backwards into his esophagus. His last word was “Jerusalem”. After Louis’ death, plagued with various diseases and other problems, Louis’ army was forced to abandon their conquering of Tunis.

26 Results of the Eighth Crusade
Treaty of Tunis. Death of Louis IX. Opening of trade with Tunis. Charles dubbed Louis’ son, Philip II, the new king. Because Philip ll was still too young, Charles became the actual leader of the Crusades.

27 The Ninth Crusade Often considered the end of the Eighth Crusade. Considered final major medieval crusade. Led by Prince Edward of England. Not considered a total failure because Edward abandoned the efforts because he had family issues at home to tend to and did not feel able to resolve the conflicts with his enemies.

28 Results of the Ninth Crusade
Treaty of Caesarea. Mameluk, an Arabic designation for slaves, was destroyed. A truce that lasted ten years was put in place between the Crusaders and the Mameluks.

29 So, yea. This is the end. Ultimately, the Crusades failed in taking back Jerusalem solely for Christianity. To this day, Jerusalem’s main religions are Judaism, Islam, and Christianity.

30 Sources

31 More Sources

32 Still More Sources

33 How ‘Bout ‘Dem Sources

34 Why So Many Sources?

35 I Have Grown a Deep Hatred for Sources

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