RPDP Secondary Literacy Introduction These strategies and writing tips for proficiency are the ones that I have developed and used successfully for many years with my ELL and read/ write students. However, they may also be used with any students who need a little extra help with their writing. I recommend that you stop as needed and practice the various strategies rather than presenting this to your students your in its entirety. Good luck.
RPDP Secondary Literacy Students will – analyze a writing prompt examine different types of writing practice strategies for writing proficiency
RPDP Secondary Literacy When your teacher gives you a writing assignment, do you ever just sit there wondering where to begin?
RPDP Secondary Literacy Take a few minutes to watch this presentation, and the next time you write for proficiency, it should be a lot easier.
RPDP Secondary Literacy First, always read the topic and the directions carefully.
RPDP Secondary Literacy Make sure that you understand the writing prompt.
RPDP Secondary Literacy The prompt is the topic and the directions for a writing assignment.
RPDP Secondary Literacy Address the assigned topic. Provide background information.
RPDP Secondary Literacy Take a minute to think and plan what you and plan what you want to say.
RPDP Secondary Literacy Often a prompt will give you a choice by using the word Remember to write about only one of the choices: Think about an advertisement that is your favorite or least favorite.
RPDP Secondary Literacy If the directions contain two or more parts – Be sure that you respond to everything that is asked.
Describe your school or place where you are receiving your high school education. Tell about the building and neighborhood, the students and teachers, and the events that take place in your school.
RPDP Secondary Literacy Describe your school or place where you are receiving your high school education. Tell about the building and the neighborhood, the students and teachers, and the events that take place in your school. Look how many parts there are in this one writing assignment.
RPDP Secondary Literacy Organize your ideas on a piece of scratch paper before you begin writing. My school building neighborhood students teacher s events
RPDP Secondary Literacy My school building neighborhood students teachers events new homes parks and churches modern Homecoming sports helpful kind big gray a lot friendly nice old and young
RPDP Secondary Literacy My school building neighborhood students teachers events beautiful new homes green parks and new churches modern Homecoming sports such as football and soccer helpful kind big gray stone a lot friendly nice huge several buildings very old and young over 3,000 students clean and From many different countries
RPDP Secondary Literacy my schoolneighborhood not very oldnice modernfamilies huge (more details) houses and apartments graychurches and parks over 3000 studentsclean several buildingsother schools nearby (not important) different programs teachersevents lots of themsports (more details) friendlymany different clubs helpfulHomecoming, Sadie’s, Prom old and youngfreshman barbecue senior trip
Your paper’s easier to write. You’ll respond to all parts of the topic. You won’t forget your good ideas.
RPDP Secondary Literacy Ask yourself what verb tense you need to use: probably either PAST or PRESENT. You can tell from the verb tense used in the directions.
RPDP Secondary Literacy Try to keep all your verbs in the same tense – the tense you selected from reading the prompt.
RPDP Secondary Literacy Have you heard people say: You only get one chance to make a first impression? Your topic sentence is very important. Think of it as your first impression.
RPDP Secondary Literacy Take your topic sentence from the first sentence in the directions. Make necessary changes, like changing you/your to I/me/my. Be sure to change the verb tense so it agrees with the first person I or third person he, she, it.
RPDP Secondary Literacy Example: Discuss a situation that taught you a lesson. Write: A situation that taught me a lesson was when I lost my wallet.
RPDP Secondary Literacy If the first sentence of the topic does not contain the words you or your - you can use that as the first sentence of your paragraph. Almost everyone has had at least one teacher who is hard to forget.
Almost everyone has had at least one teacher who is hard to forget. This is a free sentence because you don’t have to change it. It also provides the reader with
RPDP Secondary Literacy Copy this sentence onto your paper exactly as it is. Then, your second sentence can discuss your response. Almost everyone has had at least one teacher who is hard to forget. My tenth grade English teacher is a person I will always remember…
RPDP Secondary Literacy This way, you can be sure of two things: 1. Your first sentence is correct. 2. You’re focused on the topic and what you need to write about.
RPDP Secondary Literacy Now, describe your tenth grade teacher and explain why she’s hard to forget.
RPDP Secondary Literacy Let’s try one you’ll have to change– Recall a time when someone helped you. Explain who that person was, where you were, what happened, when it happened, and how you felt. A time when someone helped me was last year. I was taking the CAT bus home from school because I stayed late to make-up a math test. I opened my wallet to pay for the bus ride and saw I had no money. It was almost dark and I told the driver my problem. Just then, a kind lady with long, red hair stood up and put in the exact change for me. She told me that she had a daughter about my age and hoped someone would do the same thing for her…
RPDP Secondary Literacy A time when someone helped me was last year. I was taking the CAT bus home from school because I had stayed late to make-up a math test. I opened my wallet… See how short and simple you can make your topic sentence? You can save your interesting and colorful details for your supporting sentences.
RPDP Secondary Literacy Topic Sentence Never write the word BECAUSE in your topic sentence! Because…
RPDP Secondary Literacy If you write: My best year in school was ninth grade because because I made many new friends. The rest of your paragraph has to be about your new friends in ninth grade.
RPDP Secondary Literacy My best year in school was ninth grade. First, I made many new friends. In fact, I met my best friends in my ninth grade English class. In addition, I had wonderful teachers, who really helped me with my reading and math. Also, ninth grade was my first experience playing sports…
RPDP Secondary Literacy By shortening your topic sentence and eliminating the word BECAUSE – you can now write about the experiences that made ninth grade your best year in school.
RPDP Secondary Literacy If you’re a student still learning English and have trouble with past tense verbs, you can write your topic sentence: My best year in school was ninth grade. I can close my eyes and picture it now. I have many new and wonderful friends. My teachers are very friendly and helpful. I play soccer everyday after school. In fact, my coach helps me …
RPDP Secondary Literacy My best year in school was ninth grade. I can close my eyes and picture it now. I have many new and wonderful friends. My teachers are very friendly and helpful. I play soccer everyday after school. In fact, my coach helps me…
RPDP Secondary Literacy By bringing your reader back to the past (like a time machine), you can now write your paper in the present tense instead of the past. instead of the past.
RPDP Secondary Literacy You can probably communicate with people in almost any country in the world if you know the verbs and how to use them.
RPDP Secondary Literacy Make sure you understand whether you’re using regular or irregular verbs. It makes a difference in the past tense because irregular verbs don’t end in –ed the way regular verbs do.
RPDP Secondary Literacy I help my teacher every day after school. I helped my soccer coach yesterday. I bring my lunch to school each day. Yesterday, I brought lunch for my friend, too.
RPDP Secondary Literacy It’s a good idea to memorize your irregular verbs.
RPDP Secondary Literacy If you’re writing about one person, one place, or one thing in the present tense, add either –s or –es to the end of your verbs. Example: I walk. He/she/it walks.
RPDP Secondary Literacy If you’re not sure which verb form to use, substitute the pronouns: he, she, it, or they for your nouns. If you can substitute he, she, or it in the present tense, then you need to add –s or –es to your verb.
RPDP Secondary Literacy My teacher speaks. He speaks. The student comes to class everyday. She comes to class everyday. They come to class everyday.
RPDP Secondary Literacy Do not change your verb tenses after the following words: towould did could canshould willmight
RPDP Secondary Literacy They could not went on the trip. (incorrect) They could not go on the trip. (correct) Be careful with your verb tenses after the word NOT.
RPDP Secondary Literacy No more than 1 – 2 lines. This will help prevent run-on sentences. Run-on sentences are sentences that are too long and seem to go on forever.
RPDP Secondary Literacy Your paragraph should contain no less than : Your paragraph should contain no less than : A topic sentence At least 8 – 10 supporting sentences that give more details about your topic A conclusion or summary sentence
RPDP Secondary Literacy first also for example then in addition in fact next however above all soon meanwhile in reality later at last unfortunately suddenly therefore meanwhile before finally in conclusion afterward for these reasons in the future
RPDP Secondary Literacy Your transition words help the reader follow your ideas.
RPDP Secondary Literacy Make sure you understand the difference! Plural words: events, students, books Possessive: Juan’s truck my friend’s locker Some words just end in –s like always.
RPDP Secondary Literacy Write neatly and clearly. If they can’t read it, they can’t pass it!
RPDP Secondary Literacy Be descriptive enough so anyone reading your paper can close his eyes and picture what you’re writing about.
RPDP Secondary Literacy If you’re writing about a ring you found, say what color the stone is, if it’s silver or gold, big or small, and how it’s shaped. I found a gold ring with a huge, round, sparkling red stone.
RPDP Secondary Literacy Your enthusiasm should really show and bring your topic to life for the reader.
RPDP Secondary Literacy Make your writing should sound like you’re writing from experience. Show understanding of the topic even if you have to invent situations and details. Guess I’ll have to invent things.
RPDP Secondary Literacy Try to make your paper sound like YOU wrote it. Give it your own style and personality. Make it sound honest and written from the heart.
RPDP Secondary Literacy Always make your paper sound like there is a reason for you to be telling this. No one enjoys reading a paper that was just “thrown together” for a grade. You don’t “throw yourself together” to come to school each day!
RPDP Secondary Literacy Always describe your reaction to what happened or your character’s reaction.
RPDP Secondary Literacy THIS = singular; for this reason THESE = plural; for these reasons For this reason, my favorite singer is Jennifer Lopez. For these reasons, my favorite singer is Jennifer Lopez. The singular pronoun THIS = 4 letters. The plural pronoun THESE = 5 letters. (several, more than one) (one) www.musicofpuertoric...s/jennifer_lopez.jpg
RPDP Secondary Literacy In Spanish, you write - “Ella no tiene nada.” In English, you can’t use none, nothing, no one, nobody, in the same sentence with no, not, or never. You have to write: any, anything, anyone, anybody
RPDP Secondary Literacy He does not have any money. (correct) He does not have no money. (incorrect) He doesn’t have no money. (incorrect) She did not say anything. (correct) She did not say nothing. (incorrect) She didn’t say nothing. (incorrect)
RPDP Secondary Literacy Do not start sentences with these words: andbecause butso
RPDP Secondary Literacy When you find yourself starting sentences with these words!
RPDP Secondary Literacy Remember these transition words and phrases: And Also, In addition, But However, Yet, So Therefore, Consequently, Because For this reason,
RPDP Secondary Literacy Instead of writing: But I was the only one who knew the correct answer. Write: However, I was the only one who knew the correct answer.
RPDP Secondary Literacy …and then… and then… and then…
RPDP Secondary Literacy Tells a story about something that happened in the past Keep your verbs in the past tense. Don’t go back and forth between the past and the present.
RPDP Secondary Literacy Or forces the reader to slow down and reread your paper will lower your writing score.
RPDP Secondary Literacy You are trying to make the reader think differently. Your position must be very clear. Use facts, examples, and reasons to support your opinion. Whatever position you take, stay with it.
RPDP Secondary Literacy If you write that a TV program is bad and should be canceled, don’t bother to discuss any good points about the show. That would not be related to your topic.
RPDP Secondary Literacy Try to stay focused on your position. Give at least 3 reasons to persuade your reader. 123123
RPDP Secondary Literacy The Cristina Show 1.Topics discussed are too personal. 2.Very embarrassing. 3.Bad taste, offends many people.
RPDP Secondary Literacy After each reason, give an example: The topics people talk about on the Cristina show are too personal. For example, the guests talk about very private things that only the family should know about. Reason Example
RPDP Secondary Literacy Sometimes it’s embarrassing to watch Cristina’s show in front of other people. In fact, my grandfather always takes my little sister to the kitchen for a drink when guests say things that are very personal.
RPDP Secondary Literacy This explains how to do something, like a step by step set of instructions. It can describe an idea, a process, or an event. You can also use it to explain a relationship.
RPDP Secondary Literacy When you’re writing to explain, your transition words are important to help your reader understand and follow what you are saying. When you’re writing to explain, your transition words are important to help your reader understand and follow what you’re saying.
RPDP Secondary Literacy When baking a cake, first preheat the oven. Next, mix the dry ingredients such as flour and sugar. After this, add the wet ingredients such as eggs and milk. Before you pour the cake batter into the baking pan, grease the pan so the cake doesn’t stick to the sides.
RPDP Secondary Literacy Use a semi-colon for two sentences that are related in meaning. Example: The sky is clear; you can see across the city for miles.
RPDP Secondary Literacy You would not use a semi-colon for: The sky is clear; I ate ham and eggs for breakfast. These two thoughts are not related in meaning.
RPDP Secondary Literacy If you’re not sure how to spell a word, don’t use it. Choose another word that means the same thing – or almost the same thing. For words you use more than once, make sure you spell them the same way each time.
RPDP Secondary Literacy It’s too easy to make mistakes after contractions, especially with not. Instead of writing: I didn’t know anyone at the party. Write: I did not know anyone at the party.
RPDP Secondary Literacy In Spanish, the single word es is used to mean it is / he is / she is. After a noun or pronoun, you don’t need to repeat the it, he, or she. Example: The singer has a good voice. (correct) The singer he has a good voice. (incorrect)
RPDP Secondary Literacy Don’t forget to indent the first line of each paragraph: about the width of two fingers or the size of your thumb.
RPDP Secondary Literacy No matter what – Never leave your reader “hanging” and wondering how your paper ends.
RPDP Secondary Literacy How should you end your paper? You can finish by writing: “In conclusion,…” “It is clear that … Then, recopy or reword your topic sentence. InIt. Only capitalize the In or It.
RPDP Secondary Literacy In conclusion, ninth grade was my best year in school. It is clear that ninth grade was my best year in school. These are not the best endings, but they are safe if you’re not an experienced writer.
RPDP Secondary Literacy In the future,… is also a good way to begin a closing sentence, but can’t be used for all paragraphs. In the future, I will think of my ninth grade year and smile.
RPDP Secondary Literacy A sharp pencil point and neat handwriting are very important.
RPDP Secondary Literacy Don’t attach any additional sheets of paper to your answer sheet. Don’t attach any extra sheets of paper to your answer sheet.
RPDP Secondary Literacy Proofread your writing before you turn it in. Be careful copying your sentences from your scratch paper to your answer sheet.
RPDP Secondary Literacy It’s very easy to miss a word. Double-check your final copy line by line. Use another piece of paper as a marker. Go down the page line by line. Make sure you’ve included everything and spelled words that are repeated the same way way throughout your paper.
RPDP Secondary Literacy Clear topic sentence Supporting sentences with transition words Check your capitals, punctuation, and spelling. Turn any fragments into complete sentences. Eliminate any unrelated sentences. Verb tenses should agree. Details should fit where placed with logical sequence. Conclusion or summary sentence
RPDP Secondary Literacy The paper is off the topic. The paper contains obscene or objectionable material. The paper is blank. The paper contains insufficient writing for evaluation. The paper is written in a foreign language. The paper is unreadable.
RPDP Secondary Literacy Get a good night’s sleep before the test. Eat a healthy breakfast. Take your time and don’t rush or worry if other students finish before you. Good luck!!!