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Jessica Wickes 1, Heather Koch 2, Zeno Franco, PhD 3 1 M3 Student, Urban & Community Health Pathway, 2 M2 Student, Global Health Pathway, 3 Department.

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Presentation on theme: "Jessica Wickes 1, Heather Koch 2, Zeno Franco, PhD 3 1 M3 Student, Urban & Community Health Pathway, 2 M2 Student, Global Health Pathway, 3 Department."— Presentation transcript:

1 Jessica Wickes 1, Heather Koch 2, Zeno Franco, PhD 3 1 M3 Student, Urban & Community Health Pathway, 2 M2 Student, Global Health Pathway, 3 Department of Family & Community Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin A Critical Evaluation of the Role of Social Media in Crisis Messaging during Disasters Resources 1. Hughes, A. L., Palen, L. (2012) The Evolving Role of the Public Information Officer: An Examination of Social Media in Emergency Management, Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, Latonero, M., Shklovski, I. (2011) Emergency Management, Twitter, and Social Media Evangelism. International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, 3, 4, 1– Nilsson, S., Brynielsson, J, Granasen, M., et al. (2012) Making use of New Media for pan-European Crisis Communication, Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM 2012), Vancouver, Canada. 4. Terpstra, T., de Vries, A., Stronkman, R. and Paradies, G. L. (2012) Towards a realtime Twitter analysis during crises for operational crisis management, Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM 2012), Vancouver, Canada. 5. Veil, S. R., Buehner, T. and Palenchar, M. J. (2011) A Work-In- Process Literature Review: Incorporating Social Media in Risk and Crisis Communication. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management. 19, 110–122. Method Systematic literature review Keywords: “disaster” and “social media” Source: Google Scholar Restricted to recent publications (2012- current) Interviews with key informants Selection criteria ranged from in large- scale disaster experience and community engagement work Groups Community-based organizations Government agencies Healthcare systems Located in a mid-sized city in the US Midwest Questions focused on familiarity with the US Federal Emergency Management Agency’s (FEMA) “Whole Community” approach; current relationships between the marginalized communities, departments of Public Health, and healthcare systems; and large-scale disaster experience Introduction In recent years, investigations have turned to social media, a worldwide reaching resource prevalent in all levels of society, and its capability to effect a more efficient and productive outcome in a disaster situation. These capabilities appear promising in synthesizing a coherent plan in a crisis situation, but there also exist significant hindrances to relying sustainably upon social media as the primary plan for disaster response situations. 1,2,4 These hindrances are often under-recognized by technologists developing and researching these systems. A systematic literature review and local key-informant interviews explore the published and supposed capabilities of social media in the field of crisis messaging. The review and interviews further reflect the limitations of this communication avenue that often prevent the immediate adoption of social media in the important area of public health crisis communication with at-risk communities. Results Virtual Operations Support Teams (VOST) and government domain websites Capabilities Observe virtually, communicate to public, handle remote operations Continuity despite time zones or geographical conditions Limitations Internet/cellular phone coverage inaccessible in marginalized communities Requires time to share events in fluid environments Government websites have been known to crash Milwaukee plans to use radio technologies or door-to- door communication to compensate Hashtag and Geographical Mapping Capabilities Hashtags/user designated locations can map situations like the Ushahidi Haiti Project and Chicago food poisonings Can filter tweets using hashtags, with phrases such as “damage” In one study 95.45% vs 86.36% of mock casualties were found using no media vs social media, respectively, and using social media resulted in individuals found earlier Tweets and hashtags enable grassroots responders Limitations Users can relocate quickly during events and designated locations change falsely or may not be geographical In one study, only 0.23% of 53,296 individuals had any geolocation metadata on their tweets Chicago discovered it can be more time-consuming to map situations than perform simple data extrapolation Government Communication with Public Capabilities Tool for multi-directional communication Individuals express public needs through social media About half of respondents reported to Red Cross that they would be willing to contribute to online databank or information Limitations Emergency professionals are trusted over governing authorities Organizations are not all experienced in social media About 60% of state health departments use social media Milwaukee’s public health department (PHD) has about 1200 followers with little response from the public Milwaukee’s PHD’s social media presence is not widespread, but is connected with news reporters Statements must be quick, inclusive, and thorough despite character and education limitations Retweeting and Social Media Rumors Capabilities Retweeting is collaborative filtering by local community Limitations Boston bombings demonstrated rumors can perpetuate by retweeting or propagation on official channels Chicago and Boston demonstrated that resources are misallocated due to rumors Conclusions Social media allows for a multi-way communication with people in a crisis situation. It can be used in a situation geographically far removed from the actual situation, while simultaneously allowing those heading the response to see the situation at the ground level. It allows resources to be appropriately directed, and individuals in danger to be quickly informed of the situation. Despite the numerous benefits of using social media as a response system, there are many potential disadvantages including spreading rumors and further marginalizing those without access to media, whether due to age, socioeconomic status, rural location, or due to immediate situational circumstances, including loss of internet or phone service. These consequences have specific ramifications for public health and crisis communication to marginalized communities. Thus, before social media can take the front seat in society’s response to disaster situations, communities need to determine how best to increase engagement, globally increase access to social media, and sort out false rumors quickly. 3,5 Systematic Review YeardesignCountryAuthorsLimitations of Using Social Media (SM) 2013Case study EnglandGlasgow, Finkposts tagged inappropriately 2012Case study McClendon, Robinson need to decrease ambiguous information; message content needs filtering to ensure relevance; information needs effective dissemination 2014Cross sectional USARubin et al.targeted populations need access to technology; need to better communicate with other health departments 2013Case study USAKaufmanneed to accept that inaccuracies outweigh waiting 2013Case study India, USAOh, Agrawal, Rao if don't provide timely and unambiguous information, the collective will inspire rumors 2013ReviewStevensprevention saves more lives than response, need to redirect to risk reduction 2014Case study USAPurohit et al.need to be able to scale state- of-the-art approaches 2013ReviewHagar"noise" and rumors need to be filtered out 2013ReviewWendling, Radisch, Jacobzone need to determine if communicating as one voice or multichannel; need to avoid rumor propagation; there can be an overload of information; need to protect privacy and confidentiality 2013ReviewHuynh, Rodrigues, Rumberger difficult to real-time filter SM 2013Case study AustraliaAhmed, Sinnappan using secondary data (newspaper) to evaluate SM use cannot guarantee comprehensive, impartial, and un-biased information 2013ReviewAustraliaBurgess, Brunsmuch of the research is "snapshot“, needs to be more generalized 2013Case study USA, India, Pakistan Imran et al.need to filter through the unstructured noise of SM 2013Case study JapanSakaki et al.SM has different uses depending on vicinity, ie communicating vs retweeting 2013ReviewRasheedrumors can disseminate and gain creditability quickly 2013Case study USAYang et al.large datasets require a great amount of processing capabilities 2013Case study USABurger et al.extreme power outages decrease usability of internet, cell phone, and social media 2013Case study JapanTanala, Sakamoto, Honda posting URLs in tweets to surpass character limits only increases rumor spreading behavior as individuals don't need to look at URLs to feel that they support the statement 2013Case study Chile, ChinaParis, Rubintourists may be particularly vulnerable during a disaster situation 2013Case study Australia, New Zealand Flew et al.need to identify accurate information; need to effectively respond without duplicating efforts


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