Architecture styles briefed description 1. Romanesque Architecture used expressive language characterized by using the accurate and minute columns in facade perspective and entrances to give it character of vertical mouldings in addition to the use of the towers and small windows It characterized by using the architecture nature of the materials which In general has not reproduced forms that have been used in the wood when used stone instead, in Romanesque the magnitude of Roman architecture might Shrunk. 2. Gothic Architecture Features by using the different forms of Pointed arch, the multiple centers arches then the Elliptical arches as construction and expressive elements
3. Renaissance architecture provide a broader concern of front facade, considering it a disguise or mask for buildings and there has been a trend to highlight the structure of the building situated as well as the focus was on the roof lines levels in the façade and emergence of linear perspective and use simple mathematical ratios between the various elements and the buildings symmetry 4. Baroque architecture has trend towards influencing Theatrical effect and the emergence of the Oval form in the rules of expressive forms instead of pure circular basis in most buildings, which included formations of convex and concave and opposite combinations also appeared directions of minute ornaments and vague forms in manipulation within the facade shade, shadow, And light
5. Rococo and Eclecticism characterized by rooted orientation selective Several styles represent the most significant architectural carvings and ornamentations and decoration expansion of the use of drawings and sculptures denying any importance to the origin and employ architectural elements of any other civilization that may seem appropriate in the picture It is an extension of the baroque and higher Rococo in addition to Adoption of historic methods of revivals of old Greek and Roman classicism and the evolution and revivals of medieval architecture.
Romanesque Architecture Romanesque began late ninth century AD, and have greatest achievements in ten centuries after the emergence of Christianity and have had many changes that paved the way to great renaissance and buildings named medieval or Dark age buildings Romanesque, means: like the Romans and architecture is essentially A mixture of Roman and Byzantine architecture and other types Romanesque Interfere with Gothic and varies from country to country based on it distance from Italy were the cradle of Roman architecture style important Romanesque buildings are churches in Italy first, then in France, Germany, Spain and England recently
Romanesque style adopted Articulation system instability or Animation in shaping the plans and elevations in terms of using the successive arches, movement in the form to show the differences in sizes and lengths of blocs and the roof levels Dark Ages divided to three periods 1.Early period 450-900 2.Dark period 900-1200 3.Renaissance period 1200-1450
Romanesque Architecture Churches Features Vertical trends have emerged in churches because the church is the gate to Paradise where an expression of power and interest in church and religious buildings neglect mundane Churches differ from country to country, but the most have certain feature. the model church has thick walls, built pillars, huge arches and The tower rises from the ceiling at the point at which the wing intersects in the church main court The tower rises over four pillars, aisles separated from the main court corridors bypasses. adding internal balcony overlooking the bypass arcades called Treiforim (vestibule troika decades). The gallery lighting through row of windows within arches. Churches were very large to accommodate large numbers. For example, Church of St.Sernin (1080 - 1120 AD) in Toulouse, France
the massive west facade crowned by a tower or by twin towers, the complex design of the eastern part housing the sanctuary, the rhythmic alternation of piers and columns in the nave—represent only the advanced stages in a lengthy and complex formal evolution marked by considerable trial and error.
العوامل المؤثرة في تكوين عمارة الرومانيسك Influence Factors Romanesque Architecture 1.Historical 2.Geographical 3.Geological 4.Climatic 5.Religious 6.Social Natural Factors Civil Factors Historical Factors There were six factors that influence the construction of architecture styles which are:
Geographical On the decline of the Roman Empire, the Romanesque style grew in Western Europe countries which had been under the rule of Rome, and geographical position determined many of the peculiarities of the style in each country. Romanesque style took its name from Roman origin, owed something to Byzantine art, which was carried westwards along the great trade routes, by way of such centers as Venice, Ravenna, and Marseilles, and thus exercised a formative influence on Romanesque, The long, narrow peninsula of Italy stretches from the snowy Alps on the north, right down through the waters of the Mediterranean, almost to sultry Africa on the south. These geographical variations were accompanied by other differences which influenced the architecture in such varying degrees that it may considered under (a) Central Italy, within the inner zone of Roman influence ; (b) Northern Italy, in contact with Western Europe ; (c) South Italy and Sicily, open to influences from the East- (Islam).
A. Central Italy The central region Florence, Pisa, and Naples which are rich in ancient pagan monuments and Early Christian churches that exercised a paramount influence on architecture. B. North Italy Milan, the capital of Lombardy, has prosperity of its proximity to several Alpine passes and its situation in the fertile plains of Lombardy, where the cultivation 'of the vineالعنب and mulberry was then, as now, a staple industry. Venice and Ravenna, which were connecting trade links between East and West, fell geographically under the influences of Byzantine art. C.South Italy and Sicily including Calabria, was influence from the East, after having been a Greek and Roman colony, it formed part of the Byzantine Empire under Justinian. While Sicily, an island which is triangular in form, is situated in the Mediterranean sea, and, facing Greece on one side, Italy on another, and North Africa on the third, was exposed to influences from all three countries.
Geological The use of local materials, whether stone or brick, marble or terra-cotta, as well as of ready-made columns and other features from old Roman buildings, accounts for many of the varying characteristics in each country over this wide area, with its different geological formations. A.Central Italy: Tuscany has mineral wealth and abundance of stone. Various building materials were used in Rome, including bricks, volcanic tufa or peperino, travertine stone from Tivoli and marble from Carrara, Paros, and other Greek islands. Much material was also obtained from the ruins of Classic buildings.
B. North Italy: The plains of Lombardy supplied clay for making bricks, which, used with marble from the hills, gave a special character to the architecture. Venice on the Adriatic imported marbles in her merchant vessels. C. South Italy and Sicily: The mountains of South Italy and Sicily supplied limestone and many kinds of marble, while the sulphur mines, especially of Sicily, largely contributed to that prosperity which was conducive to building enterprise.
Climate The Climatic conditions contributed to differences of treatment north and south of the Alps. In the duller climates of the north, window openings were enlarged to admit sufficient light, while in the south they were kept small to exclude the dazzling sunshine. The slope of roofs was also largely determined by climate ; flat roofs in the south and high-pitched roofs in north to throw off rain and snow. A. Central Italy The brilliant sunshine demanded small windows and thick walls, both in cities of the plain and in cities built on the hill-tops, both for defense and to be above the miasma of the low-lying country. The climate not only varies from north to south, but also from east to west according to the proximity to the Apennines, which are often snow-clad, or to the sea-board.
B. North Italy The climate varies between extremes of heat and cold. The towns from Milan on the west to Venice on the east lie below the Alps, and thus in the winter they are swept by the ice-winds from the mountains. in the summer these same mountains protect them from the north winds, when the heat in the plains is often excessive. C. South Italy and Sicily The climate is almost sub- tropical ; palms grow in the open air and the orange and lemon groves of Palermo are famous. On the southern coasts of Italy buildings have the flat roofs and other characteristics of Oriental cities.
Stavronikita Monastery - Mount Athos (Macedonia)