2 Ludwig Van Beethoven Third member of the great Viennese masters The great transitional composerBy the time he was 35 years old he was the most important composer in the world
3 LIFE-TIME-LINES BEETHOVEN 1770-1827 MOZART 1756-1789 HAYDN 1732-1809 1820
4 Childhood Father and Grandfather were musicians. Father was Ludwig’s first music teacher.His father was an alcoholicSupported his family as a childShowed an interest in composing very early
5 – Christian Gottlob Neefe “Louis van Beethoven… a boy of 11 years and a most promising talent. He plays the clavier very skillfully and with power, reads at sight very well… This youthful genius is deserving of help to enable him to travel. He would surely become a second Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart were he to continue as he has begun.”– Christian Gottlob NeefeGerman composer and organist.Persuaded Beethoven’s father to allow him to teach the young composer.
6 Young adulthoodBeethoven went to Vienna, Austria to learn more about composing when he was 17. He played for MozartHe had to return home when his mother died, and help raise his brothers.
7 Return to ViennaWhen Beethoven was 22 (1792), he moved to Austria and never returned to Germany.He studied with Haydn
8 Ludwig Van BeethovenOldest son of Johann van Beethoven and Maria Magdelena Beethoven.His mother was very kind and demure.His father was very cold and tyrannical.Father was an organist and second rate tenor in the court chapel of the highborn prince max Friedrich.Father was a bad alcoholic.He was oppressive when drunk.He was relieved of his duties with the chapel due to his drunkenness.Young Beethoven took his fathers place as the replacement keyboard player and as a replacement singer for his father when his father was too drunk to do his job.In the end he replaced his father in the position at the age of 12.Beethoven’s father insisted upon being the young composer’s only teacher.Taught him clavier: piano, and violin.His father was a harsh teacher.Harsh punishments for not performing perfectly.His teaching abilities were not as good as other teachers. He had no patience for his son’s mistakes.Would beat him for not submitting.Would lock him in a cellar for not practicing enough.His father’s harshness coupled with his alcoholism caused helped to ruin the family life.Beethoven felt that it was up to him to save the family.True, it’s “van,” not the aristocratic “von,” but if someone mistakenly thinks I’m a “von” of royal blood I certainly won’t correct him.
9 Beethoven and Patronage Patronage is gone. Besides, Beethoven considered himself equal to, not the servant of, any noble!made his living by:selling compositions to publishersconcertizing as a pianist1st musician to make a living almost exclusively through compositionBeethoven and PatronageBeethoven manipulated the patronage system so that he could live more freely.Gave music lessons to wealthy families.Sold music to many publishers.Even when Napoleon was threatening the whole survival of continental Europeans, Beethoven had contacts with publishers in England who would continue to publish his music.Beethoven: PatronageInvited into the homes of the aristocracy.Treated as an equal to the aristocracy.Believed that one must be treated as an equal if music is to be produced.
10 His temperamentBeethoven was not easy to be around. He had a temper, and he was very demanding.He would get lost in his own thoughts and would get impatient with others when they didn’t do what he thought they should do.He criticized other musicians when they didn’t perform his pieces the way he wanted them to sound.His whole life was very ‘stormy’ …there were many sad and discouraging times.
11 Beethoven’s Contract“But as it has been demonstrated that only one when he is free from care as possible can devote himself to a single department of activity and create works of magnitude which are exalted and which ennoble art, the undersigned have decided to place Herr Ludwig van Beethoven in a position where the necessities of life shall not cause him embarrassment or clog his powerful genius.”
12 Beethoven’s Contract His Imperial Highness, Archduke Rudolph 1500 florinsThe Highborn Prince Lobkowitz700 florinsThe Highborn Prince Ferdinand Kinsky1800 FlorinsTotal… florins (150,000 USD)
13 Beethoven’s ContractAll Beethoven had to do was to declare Vienna his home.”It is good to walk among the aristocracy, but first you must MAKE them respect you.”
14 Beethoven, the pianist the most virtuosic in Europe a composer dazzling technique and powergenius improvisera composermuch music for pianopiano is being developedcast iron frame (stronger, more powerful instrument)larger range (Beethoven wrote notes that were not on current pianos, then told manufacturers to build new instruments)
15 Losing his hearing Beethoven began hearing buzzing in his ears. At first he tried to hide his loss of hearing from his friends.He continued to write music when he was deaf.Beethoven tried many hearing devices, but none of them worked.He could watch people’s lips to understand what they were saying, or have them write in a notebook.
16 Beethoven’s Deafness Manifests itself as early as 1796 By 1820 he could barely hearHeiligenstadt TestamentLetter Beethoven writes in 1802Describes his illness and his melancholy
17 Ca. 1799, Beethoven learned his increasing deafness was irreversible Ca. 1799, Beethoven learned his increasing deafness was irreversible. Deep in despair, he remained in Heiligenstadt the summer and fall of 1802 contemplating suicide.
18 Beethoven’s Deafness“Though born with a fiery, active temperament I was soon to withdraw from society, to live a life alone. If at times I tried to forget all this, oh how harshly was I flung back by the doubly sad experience of my bad hearing. Yet it wasn’t possible for me to say to people, “Speak Louder, shout for I am deaf! Ah, how could I possibly admit to an infirmity in the one sense that ought to be more perfect in me than in others, a sense that I once possessed in the highest degree.”
19 “How humiliated I have felt if somebody standing beside me heard the sound of a flute in the distance and I heard nothing...It is impossible for me to say to people, ‘Speak louder, for I am deaf.’ How would it be possible for me to admit to a weakness of the one sense that should be perfect to a higher degree in me than in theirs. So forgive me if you see me draw back from your company which I would so gladly share. I would have ended my life. It was only my art that held me back for it seemed impossible to leave the world until I have brought forth all that is within me.”— Beethoven
20 Medical methods back then... Doctors poured warm milk and crushed nuts in Beethoven’s ears, telling him that this would help restore his hearing!Doctors rubbed Beethoven’s arms with an ointment until they blistered, then punctured and drained the blisters…telling him that this would help restore his hearing!
21 Beethovenian PathosMan at some unexpected time in his life will sink to the depths of his existence, into the depths of chaos. It is only HE that can make the decision to turn the chaos into a triumphant victory. Rising out of the depths of human chaos is humanity’s primary task for survival.
22 Beethovenian Pathos Shows up in music. Sense of despair. Sense of acceptanceSense of reconciliationSense of victory over despair.
23 “I am resolved to rise superior to every obstacle “I am resolved to rise superior to every obstacle. With whom need I be afraid of measuring my own strength? I will take Fate by the throat. It shall not overcome me. O how beautiful it is to be alive—would that I could live a thousand times.”-Beethoven
24 Beethoven’s death Beethoven died in Vienna, Austria in 1827. Thousands of people lined the streets during his funeral procession to pay tribute.
25 Beethoven, the composer Wrote many works for pianoWrote music that required improvement of the pianoFor years, his compositions drew mixed reactionsCritics and journalists hassled him Intellect, Intellect, Intellect. Why must Herr Beethoven write such difficult and complex music? It sounds like cats fighting! Cannot he write a decent singable melody?
26 “I carry my thoughts within me long, often very long before I write them down. As I know what I want, the fundamental idea never deserts me. It mounts, it grows in stature. I hear, I see the picture in its whole extent standing all of a piece before my spirit, and there remains for me only the task of writing it down.”-Beethoven
27 Some of his Works 32 Piano Sonatas Fur Elise Fidelio (his only opera) Moonlight SonataSonata PathetiqueFur EliseFidelio (his only opera)9 SymphoniesChoral Symphony …#9 (Ode to Joy)Beethoven’s Fifth …#5Pastorale …..#6
28 Beethoven Symphonies Supreme architect 5th Tied all movements into a theme5thFate versus hope
32 Symphony #5 C minor op. 67. Archetypical Sonata Allegro Form. Three note motive.Shows up throughout the whole symphony.What is this piece about?
33 Beethoven Piano Sonata in C minor. Pathetique Beethovenian Pathos in each movementDramatic quality, sudden dynamic changesAdagio section that is hymn-like2nd and 3rd movements are in Rondo form
34 Beethovenian Pathos Mvt.1 Slow intro Tempo rubato Sense of sadness and then anger/ desperation as the music moves to the fast section.
35 Beethovenian Pathos Mvt. 2. Slow and hymnl-ike Sense of calm acceptanceFamiliar theme
36 Beethovenian PathosMvt. 3.Rising out of chaos.Sounds of triumph.
37 Ludwig van Beethovencomposed by evolving and revising musical ideas and compositionskept notebooks of themes and ideasB’s manuscripts, unlike Mozart’s, are a MESS--a sea of cross-outs, arrows, re-writes, etc.Much of B’s music was composed in deafness (total by age 29!) He could only hear the music in his head.works are larger, longer, more complexTRANSITION composer:B’s last two composition periods and styles clearly point the way to the coming Romanticism.composed for himself and future, NOT for publishers or middle class marketFor Beethoven music is much more important to human existence than mere entertainment!
38 1. Early years a. Beethoven born in Bonn b. Studied under Christian Gottlob Neefe ( )1. Court organist at Bonn2. Wrote Singspiels and songsc. 1787: Brief visit to Vienna,may have played for Mozartd. 1790: Haydn hears Beethoven's musicand urges the archbishop of Cologneto send him to Vienna
39 2. Vienna a. Beethoven moves to Vienna in November of 1792 b. Studies with a number of composers: studied with Haydn: Johann Schenk ( ):composer of Singspiels: Johann Georg Albrechtsberger:teaches Beethoven counterpoint4. Antonio Salieri ( ):teaches vocal composition
40 3. Compositional overview a. 9 symphonies b. 11 overturesc. Incidental music to playsd. 1 violin concerto e. 5 piano concertosf. 16 string quartets g. 9 piano triosh. 10 vioin sonatas i. 5 cello sonatasj. 30 large piano sonatask. Numerous piano variationsl. 1 oratorio m. 1 operan. 2 Masses (including the Missa Solemnis in D)o. Arias, songs and 1 song cycle
41 His Musical Style: Three Periods 1. Classical Elements: Musical style learned at the hands of Mozart and Haydn.Use of sonata allegro form. Perfect architecture in his music.Balanced melodies.Diatonic Harmony
42 5. The "Three Periods" and Beethoven Historiography a. It is customary to divide Beethoven's worksinto three periods on the basis of style and chronologyb. "Bonn" period is usually not taken into account
43 5. The "Three Periods" and Beethoven Historiography (cont.) c. Periodic breakdown1. Early Period in Vienna ( )Six String Quartets, Op.18/1-6The first 10 piano sonatas (through Op.14)Symphonies 1 & 2
44 5. The "Three Periods" and Beethoven Historiography (cont.) C. Periodic breakdown2. Middle Period: Beethoven's "Heroic" period ( )Symphonies EgmontCoriolan overture - FidelioPiano concertos in G and Eb - Violin concertoPiano sonatas through Op.90String quartets:Op.59/1-3 ("Rasumovsky"), Op.74 ("Harp"), Op.95 ("Quartetto serioso")
45 5. The "Three Periods" and Beethoven Historiography (cont.) c. Periodic breakdown3. Late Period: Reflective and introspective style( )Last 5 piano sonatasDiabelli VariationsMissa solemnis
46 First Period Sonatas 1. Op.2/1-3 (f,A,C): Publ.1796 & Dedicated to Haydn2. Op.7 (Eb): publ. in 17973. Op.10 No.1 (c min.)4. Op.13 "Pathetique" slow mov't
47 First PeriodCharacteristic texture1. Frequent use of octaves2. Thick piano writing
48 First Period Contemporaries that may have influenced Beethoven 1. Muzio Clementi ( )2. Jan Ladislav Dussek ( )3. Dussek's Grande Sonate, Op.44 "Lesadieux" (Eb) publ.1800 may have influencedBeethoven's Op.81a "Les adieux" of 1810
49 Second Period Expanded works. Form, melody, dynamics Explosive accents.Longer Movements in SymphoniesHymn-like calmness in his slower movements.
50 Second Period A. Background B. Symphony no.3 (Eb) "Eroica" C. Fidelio D. Piano SonatasE. Piano Concertos
51 Second Period A. Background 1. By 1803 Beethoven was recognized as the foremost pianis and composer for piano2. Patronage: differed from that of Mozart and Haydn,Beethoven was extremely independent, and drove ahard bargain both with publishers and patrons
52 Second Period B. Symphony no.3 (Eb) "Eroica”: Composed in 1803 1. Originally dedicated to Napoleon but Beethoventears up dedication when Napoleon declareshimself Emperor in dedication"Heroic Symphony... to celebrate the memoryof a great man"2. Significancea. Expansive movements and extraordinary lengthb. 2nd mov't is a funeral march (C minor)c. 4th mov't is a set of variations (w/fugato episodes)
53 Second Period C. Fidelio Compositional history a. Most problematic compostion as it was revised numrous timesb. Composed initially in 1803, First perf. in Vienna in 1805c- Originally has 3 acts but revises and shortens to 2 acts- March 1806 perf. of this version is immediately withdrawnd version: The 1st successful production (extensive revision)
54 Second Period D. Piano Sonatas 1. Op.27/1-2: From ca.1802 known as the "Moonlight" SonataEach designated as "quasi una fantasia"2. Op.53 (C) "Waldstein Sonata" andOp.57 (f) "Appassionata"Exemplary piano works of the middle periodEach is in three mov't scheme (fast-slow-fast)Formal schemes of the sonata, rondo andvariation are stretched to the limits
55 Second Period E. Piano Concertos 1. Composed concertos for his own concert appearances2. Piano concertos nos.1-3 (C,Bb,c)All date from early years in ViennaConcertos influenced by Mozart3. Violin Concerto, D maj. Op.61 (1806)
56 Third Period A. Background as a prosperous period for Beethoven2. Health deteriorating, deafness worsening3. Compositional output in the final yearsa : last 5 piano sonatasb. 1822: Missa Solemnisc. 1823: Diabelli Variationsd. 1824: Symphony no.9e : String Quartets
57 Third PeriodB. Characteristics of the late style -- Meditative qualitya. Manifest in the extensive development of themesb. Late use of variation forms --> thematic developmentlengthier passages subjected to dev. rather thanshort bar-long motivesc. Variation techniques used by Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven
58 Third Period B. Characteristics of the late style (Cont.) Meditative quality (Cont.)e. Fugato and use of contrapuntal textures1. Fugal movementsa. Finales of Op.106 and 110 Piano Sonatasb. Grosse Fugec. Gloria and Credo of the Mass in Dd. 2 double fugues in the finale of the 9th Symphonyf. Use of nontraditional movement plans1. Op.111 Piano Sonata: 2 mov't2. Op.131 String Quartet (C#min): 7 sections (mov't)
59 Third Period 1. Beethoven regarded the Mass as his greatest work C. Mass in D1. Beethoven regarded the Mass as his greatest work2. Mass as a single musical unity, a symphony in 5 mov'tD. Ninth Symphony1. Premiered on May 7, 18242. Significant featuresa. Choral finale1. Setting of Schiller's "Ode to Joy"2. Beethoven selects stanzas aboutuniversal brotherhood of manb. Double fugue in the finale
60 Final period Chromatic harmonies. Easier to produce for Beethoven due to the fact that the hands did not have to move so far on the piano.Music? “Not for you.. For a later time.As deafness sets in he returns to the piano sonata and the string quartet. Two genres he is most comfortable with.
61 Beethoven is Power, the strangler of fate, who bowed neither to any man or to lesser gods. With men who do not believe in me I cannot and will not associate.- BeethovenHis music reflects “the complete emancipation of human emotion and mind.”No composer was more committed to the struggle of mankind. Bach wrote for the Glory of God, Mozart because genius must out, (and because he had to eat), Beethoven to impose his will on the world.- All quotes from Goulding text
62 Symphony No. 5, 1st Movement CodaSymphony No. 9, Ode to JoyJacques-Louis David, Napoleon Crossing the Alps, 1800
63 musician’s ills. Instead he composed the heroic and remarkably Beethovendid not succumbto this, the gravest of amusician’s ills. Instead hecomposed the heroic and remarkablyoptimistic Third Symphony. Itis today one of the bestloved orchestralworks everwritten.
64 Ferdinand Ries recalls the piano contest with Stiebelt : Stiebelt again played a quintet with much success and in addition (and this was quite evident) had prepared a brilliant improvisation, choosing as the theme the subject of the variations of Beethoven's trio (Op.11). This outraged not only Beethoven's supporters but also the composer himself. He now had to seat himself at the piano in order to improvise. He went in his usual, I must say ungracious, manner to the instrument as if half lunging towards it, grabbing as he passed, the 'cello part of Stiebelt's quintet, placed it (intentionally?) upside down on the music stand and from the opening notes drummed out a theme with one finger. Offended and stimulated at the same time, he improvised in such a manner that Stiebelt left the room before Beethoven had finished. He refused ever to meet him again; in fact he made it a condition that Beethoven should not be invited anywhere where his company was requested.
65 Ferdinand Ries describes the concert of 22 Dec 1808 : Beethoven gave a large concert in the Theater an der Wien at which were performed for the first time the 5th and 6th Symphonies as well as his Fantasia for Piano/orchestra and chorus. In this last work, at the place where the last theme already appears in a varied form, the clarinet player made, by mistake, a repeat of 8 bars. Since only a few instruments were playing, this error was all the more evident to the ear. Beethoven leapt up in a fury, turned round and abused the orchestra players in the coarsest terms and so loudly that he could be heard throughout the auditorium. Finally he shouted "From the beginning!” The concert was a great success, but afterwards the artists remembering only too well the honourable title which Beethoven had bestowed on them in public swore never to play for Beethoven again - this went on until Beethoven composed something new and their curiosity got the better of them.
66 Ludwig Reelstab on Beethoven's deafness : Beethoven: “This is a beautiful piano! I got it as a gift from London. Look at the name!" He pointed with his finger to the strip of wood above the keyboard.” It is a wonderful present,” said Beethoven looking at me "and it has a beautiful tone," he continued turning towards the piano without taking his eyes off me. He struck a chord softly. Never will another chord pierce me to the quick with such sadness and heartbreak. He has played C major in the right hand and B natural in the bass; he looked at me steadily and repeated the false chord several times to let the mild tone of the instrument sound, and the greatest musician on earth could not hear the dissonance!
67 LOG Beethoven Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, Op. 67 Symphony I = Standard symphony formatIMP Romantic characteristicscyclicism
68 It looks like a classical symphony, but mark this well: Underneath that polite, perhaps predictable, exterior rages an overwhelming storm of romanticism.
69 Music JournalismCA 1790 Music Journalism exploded on the European scene. Middle class people wanted to read essays, analyses, and criticisms about new compositions, performers, instruments, concert halls, etc. (ANYTHING MUSIC!) They bought music newspapers, journals, and magazines by the millions. While these music rags loved and praised Beethoven’s pianistic virtuosity (until deafness curtailed his playing), they mercilessly and audaciously condemned most of his compositions! “Intellect, intellect, intellect!” Herr Beethoven’s music is too complex. It isn’t musical entertainment; it’s intellectual “mind games.” Once again Beethoven wrote something that no one wants to hear. These invectives and journalistic fulminations bothered Beethoven a great deal. However, he is known to have replied to at least one upstart reporter, “Of course you don’t understand it (implying the interviewer had neither the intelligence nor world view). I wrote the piece for future generations. They will understand and appreciate it.” He was correct.
70 Symphony No. 5, Mvt. 1 Kamien, p. 193, CD #2 Exposition Development Recapitulation CodaT1 B T2 CT T1 B T2 CtWhat?How?22.214.171.124.LONG! •••— New ideas•••— motiveWhat change from Expos?What instruments?What instruments?Sonata form
71 Symphony No. 5, Mvt. 1 Kamien, Sonata form Exposition Development RecapitulationT1 B T2 CT T1 B T2 CtWhat?How?LONG! •••— New ideas•••— motiveWhat change from Expos?What instruments?What instruments?Sonata form
72 Symphony No. 5, Mvt. 1 D e v e l o p m e n t •••— motive Based on Th 2 2.b.c.d.2.e.•••— motiveBased on Th 2Reminder of Th 1Horn call w/ new answer2 notes of horn call!1 note of horn call!!Theme 2 reminder
73 Symphony No. 5, Mvt. 1 Click for guided listening to the entire development.
74 Symphony No. 5, Mvt. 1 D e v e l o p m e n t •••— motive is Based on Th 1Based on Th 2Reminder of Th 1Th 1 melody & RNew melody, motive RHorn call w/ new answer2 notes of horn call!1 note of horn call!!•••—motive isubiquitous!Reminder of Th 2Back to 1 note
75 Symphony No. 5, Mvt. 1 Click for guided listening to the recapitulationand coda.
76 Symphony No. 5, Mvt. 1 R e c a p i t u l a t i o n 4.a.b.Theme 1BridgeTheme 2Closing ThImportant additionSubdued horns +Bassoons!•••— in accompa-nimentYes! It was an oboe. Now it continues w/ a short cadenza.•••— motive is ubiquitous!
77 Symphony No. 5, Mvt. 1 C o d a Long! based mostly on •••— motive some new ideas introduced
78 This movement is UNIFIED like no earlier piece had ever been! Symphony No. 5, Mvt. 1Exposition Development Recapitulation CodaT1 B T2 CT T1 B T2 CtWhat?•••— motive•••— motive•••— motive•••— motiveThis movement is UNIFIED like no earlier piece had ever been!Listen to entire piece
79 Symphony No. 5, Mvt. 2I = contrasting key “time out,” lyrical double theme & variations (Why not a rondo?)A B A’ B’ A” (?) A’’’ Coda Ths A & B Mood? Instruments?
80 Symphony No. 5, Mvt. 3I = scherzo (“joke”) minuet & trio form & triple meter BUT character is rough and rollicking, not genteelA B A’energy level?Perceived tempo?Texture?Dynamic?Virtuoso double bass•••— motive R
81 Symphony No. 5 Bridge between mvts. 3 & 4 Listen for:timpani: •••— motive Rrepeated patterns--high stringsambiguous mode (How will this symphony end?)C minor? (turmoil, struggle, failure)C major? (victory, triumph, overcoming)Crescendo at end leads to Mvt 4
82 Symphony No. 5, Mvt. 4 Exposition Development Recapitulation Coda T1 B T2 CT T1 B T2 CtWhat?How?VERY LONG! Earlier themes reviewed including •••—•••— motive R!•••— motive R a la mvt 3C Major!Triumphant mood
83 Symphony No. 5Mvt 1: •••— motive used in every part of sonata formCyclicism: •••— motive used in Mvts 1, 3, 3-4 bridge, 4. (It is even obscurely used in mvt 2!!!)Mvts 3 & 4 tied together by ambiguous bridgeUnified
84 Symphony No. 5 Romantic Notions: 1. Postponement of gratification, “emotional progression”2. Conflict & struggle idea of C minor3. Symphony is more highly unified than earlier ones4. Symphony deals with emotion, passionMvt Mvt Mvt Mvt. 4 C minor C Major
85 LOG Beethoven String Quartet in C Minor, Op. 18, No. 4, Mvt. 4 String Quartet movementI = rondoString quartet = ??What is the meaning of Op. (opus)?
86 Rondo Form A B A C A B A Coda aababa ccdcdc aa’bab’a’ eeff dev BeethovenString Quartet in C Minor, Op. 18, No. 4, Mvt. 4Rondo FormA B A C A B A Codaaababa ccdcdc aa’bab’a’ eeffdevUnity: ?Contrast: ?
87 A B A C A B A aababa Rondo Form Unity: ? Contrast: ? Beethoven String Quartet in C Minor, Op. 18, No. 4, Mvt. 4Rondo FormA B A C A B AaababaUnity: ?Contrast: ?
88 A a a b a b a Rondo Form Q u e s t i o n A n s w e r Q u e s t i o n A BeethovenString Quartet in C Minor, Op. 18, No. 4, Mvt. 4Rondo FormAa a b a b aQuestionAnswerQuestionAnswerQuestionAnswerQuestionAnswerOpeningPhrase;IncompletecadenceClosingPhrase;Completecadence
89 Rondo Form A B A C A B A Coda aababa ccdcdc aa’bab’a’ eeff dev BeethovenString Quartet in C Minor, Op. 18, No. 4, Mvt. 4Rondo FormA B A C A B A Codaaababa ccdcdc aa’bab’a’ eeffRhythm ? ? ?Major ? ? ?Minor ? ? ?Style ? ? ?Energy ? ? ?devHow does Beethoven treat the upward scales?Unity: ?Contrast: ?Click the record, listen, track the form, describe points of contrast between the A, B, and C sections.
90 Beethoven Violin Concerto in D Major, Op. 61. Third Movement:Written in 1806From his first and second period of compositional period.Development of a five note motive.
91 Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) MusicLudwig van Beethoven ( )