Rush-Bagot agreement and the Convention of 1818 marked an important turning point in Anglo- American and American-Canadian relations.
The Rush-Bagot Pact was an agreement between the United States and Great Britain to eliminate their fleets from the Great Lakes, excepting small patrol vessels.
The Convention of 1818 set the western boundary between the United States and British North America (later Canada) at the forty-ninth parallel up to the Rocky Mountains.
Both agreements reflected the easing of diplomatic tensions that had led to the War of 1812 and marked the beginning of Anglo-American cooperation. Oregon was to be jointly occupied by both British and American settlers. The Maine-Canada border would be decided in 1846.
The treaty was named for John Quincy Adams of the United States and Louis de Onís of Spain and renounced any claim of the United States to Texas. It fixed the western boundary of the Louisiana Purchase as beginning at the mouth of the Sabine River and running along its south and west bank to the thirty-second parallel and thence directly north to the Río Rojo (Red River).
The American System p Tariff of 1816 p Chartering of the Second Bank of the United States [BUS]. p Internal improvements at federal expense. - National Road Henry Clay, “The Great Compromiser”
Henry Clay's "American System," devised in the burst of nationalism that followed the War of 1812, remains one of the most historically significant examples of a government-sponsored program to harmonize and balance the nation's agriculture, commerce, and industry.Henry Clay
This "System" consisted of three mutually reenforcing parts: –a tariff to protect and promote American industry; –a national bank to foster commerce; and federal subsidies for roads, canals, –and other "internal improvements" to develop profitable markets for agriculture. Funds for these subsidies would be obtained from tariffs and sales of public lands. In the years from 1816 to 1828, Congress enacted programs supporting each of the American System's major elements.
The American System: The National [Cumberland] Road
The Erie Canal E 1817 – 1825. E 363 miles Albany to Buffalo. E Much further than any other American or European canal.
The American System WEST got roads, canals, and federal aide. p WEST got roads, canals, and federal aide. p EAST got the backing of protective tariffs from the West. p SOUTH ??
The Panic of 1819 initiated the nation's first major depression. It resulted from a confluence of national and international events. In the heady atmosphere after the War of 1812, both U.S. imports and exports surged. European demand for American goods, especially agricultural staples like cotton, tobacco, and flour, increased. To feed the overheated economy, state banks proliferated, and credit was easy.
The Bank of the United States, far from helping the economy, was among the destabilizing forces that led to the depression of 1819. At the same time, swelling crop yields in Europe reduced the demand for American farm products, whose prices plunged. An economic contraction in Europe led banks there to reduce credit. The crisis abroad, coupled with the contraction at home, forced American banks to call in their loans as well.
By early 1819, credit, once so easy, was unavailable to many Americans. With specie reserves depleted many American banks failed, and other businesses followed. Sales of public lands plummeted. Unemployment soared, and in some regions food and other basic necessities were difficult to come by. Especially hard hit were cities outside of New England like Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, and Cincinnati. Farmers suffered too, though many survived by resuming a subsistence lifestyle.
The Panic of 1819 fostered mistrust of banks, bankers and paper money. The volatile Tennessee politician Davy Crockett spoke for many when he dismissed "the whole banking system" as nothing more than "a species of swindling on a large scale."
This mistrust of corporations was aggravated by landmark decisions handed down in 1819 by the Supreme Court under Chief Justice John Marshall. In Dartmouth College v. Woodward, the Supreme Court protected private corporations against interference by the state governments that had created them. In McCullough v. Maryland, it ruled that the Bank of the United States, though privately run, was a creation of the federal government that could not be touched by the states. These pro-capitalist court rulings aggravated class divisions, which escalated over the next decade.
The Compromise of 1820: A Firebell in the Night!
The Tallmadge Amendment p All slaves born in Missouri after the territory became a state would be freed at the age of 25. p Passed by the House, not in the Senate. p The North controlled the House, and the South had enough power to block it in the Senate.
The Monroe Doctrine, 1823 3.What would the US do if the warning was not headed? Monroe Doctrine 2.What warning is given to the European countries? 1.What foreign policy principles are established? p Referred to as “America’s Self-Defense Doctrine”
Little noted by the Great Powers of Europe, but eventually became a longstanding tenet of U.S. foreign policy. Monroe and his Secretary of State John Quincy Adams drew upon a foundation of American diplomatic ideals such as disentanglement from European affairs and defense of neutral rights as expressed in Washington’s Farewell Address and Madison’s stated rationale for waging the War of 1812.John Quincy AdamsWar of 1812
The three main concepts of the doctrine –separate spheres of influence for the Americas and Europe, –non-colonization, –and non-intervention were designed to signify a clear break between the New World and the autocratic realm of Europe. Monroe’s administration forewarned the imperial European powers against interfering in the affairs of the newly independent Latin American states or potential United States territories.
While Americans generally objected to European colonies in the New World, they also desired to increase United States influence and trading ties throughout the region to their south. European mercantilism posed the greatest obstacle to economic expansion. In particular, Americans feared that Spain and France might reassert colonialism over the Latin American peoples who had just overthrown European rule. Signs that Russia was expanding its presence southward from Alaska toward the Oregon Territory were also disconcerting.