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© Copyright Selex ES. All rights reserved Quantum Technology Challenges for Defence Dr Paul Kimber Turing Gateway to Mathematics Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematics Cambridge University - August 2014 Quantum Technology Challenges for Defence
© Copyright Selex ES. All rights reserved Click to edit the outline text format Second Outline Level Third Outline Level Fourth Outline Level Fifth Outline Level Sixth Outline Level Seventh Outline Level Eighth Outline Level Ninth Outline LevelClick to edit Master text styles Second level – Third level – Fourth level – Fifth level Click to edit the outline text format Second Outline Level Third Outline Level Fourth Outline Level Fifth Outline Level Sixth Outline Level Seventh Outline Level Eighth Outline Level Ninth Outline LevelClick to edit Master text styles Click to edit the outline text format Second Outline Level Third Outline Level Fourth Outline Level Fifth Outline Level Sixth Outline Level Seventh Outline Level Eighth Outline Level Ninth Outline LevelClick to edit Master text styles Second level – Third level – Fourth level – Fifth level Click to edit the outline text format Second Outline Level Third Outline Level Four th Outli ne Leve l F i f t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S i x t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S e v e n t h O u t l i n e L e v e l E i g h t h O u t l i n e L e v e l Ninth Outline LevelClick to edit Master text styles 2 Selex ES Limited in the UK – Who we are. Selex ES global footprint: Over 70 international customers Sites: UK, Italy, USA, KSA, Brazil, UAE, Germany Over 17,000 employees world wide €3.5 billion revenues 12% investment in R&D In 2012 our UK business: Revenue: £1.08 Bn Sales in UK £410.9M Export Sales£671.2M R&D £142.9M (of which PV£47.0M) 4,711 people
© Copyright Selex ES. All rights reserved Click to edit the outline text format Second Outline Level Third Outline Level Fourth Outline Level Fifth Outline Level Sixth Outline Level Seventh Outline Level Eighth Outline Level Ninth Outline LevelClick to edit Master text styles Second level – Third level – Fourth level – Fifth level Click to edit the outline text format Second Outline Level Third Outline Level Fourth Outline Level Fifth Outline Level Sixth Outline Level Seventh Outline Level Eighth Outline Level Ninth Outline LevelClick to edit Master text styles Click to edit the outline text format Second Outline Level Third Outline Level Fourth Outline Level Fifth Outline Level Sixth Outline Level Seventh Outline Level Eighth Outline Level Ninth Outline LevelClick to edit Master text styles Second level – Third level – Fourth level – Fifth level Click to edit the outline text format Second Outline Level Third Outline Level Four th Outli ne Leve l F i f t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S i x t h O u t l i n e L e v e l S e v e n t h O u t l i n e L e v e l E i g h t h O u t l i n e L e v e l Ninth Outline LevelClick to edit Master text styles Airborne radar Electronic warfare systems EO/IR & Laser systems Integrated mission systems and sensors Airborne surveillance systems Tactical UAS Space sensors and equipment Integrated land and naval command and control systems Land and naval radar Electro-optical sensors Tactical communication systems Battlefield protection systems Homeland and critical infrastructures’ security architectures Cyber and secure communications systems Information management and automation systems Airport systems Air traffic and vessel management control systems Airborne and Space Systems Division Security and Smart Systems Division Land and Naval Systems Division Selex ES – How we organise our capabilities
© Copyright Selex ES. All rights reserved Signal Processing & Sensing Technology Effector Technology Digital processing & Information Management Applications Real World Signal Networking, Comms & CYBER Shooters Info Sys Sensors Networked sensors Tactical data networks Data-links Management systems Networking Methodologies Radio Frequency Fire control and surveillance radars Electro Optic Targeting missiles and surveillance systems Electronic Warfare Integrated defensive aids systems Acoustic & Motion Artillery pointing and battlefield navigation Signal & Data Processing is UBIQUITOUS across all we do in our multi-spectral sensing domains Our Real-world Sensing Technologies
© Copyright Selex ES. All rights reserved Within the UK Defence Community Quantum Technologies are viewed as a key area for providing new and innovative capabilities for our forces. Opportunities to exploit Quantum Technologies within Defence exist in: Sensing Domain– Quantum technology may open up new sensing domains that enable the direct measurement of phenomena that today we can’t measure such single module detection, atmospheric effects, time resolved photo- luminescence and improved imaging through turbulence etc. Navigation Domain - Where innovations such as the Quantum Compass (NPL) may offer a more resilient navigation solution than the ubiquitous GPS. Precision Timing Domain – Again a Quantum approach removes our current reliance on susceptible GPS solutions and like GPS a future Quantum based precision timing solution could also include accurate Navigation functionality to support operation in GPS denied environments. Computing Domain – Quantum computers may easily solve problems that today’s computers struggle with such as breaking difficult cryptographic ciphers. Quantum Materials – Inorganic and organic, including bio. Each of these Quantum Technology opportunities has it’s own unique mathematical challenges that must be understood before the technology can be widely explioted. Quantum Technology Challenges for Defence
© Copyright Selex ES. All rights reserved Quantum Technology Challenges for Defence UK Quantum Technology Landscape 2014 (See DSTL/Pub Final Version dated 14/02/2014)
© Copyright Selex ES. All rights reserved Practical Quantum Optical Sensing Challenges Quantum sensors are devices that exploit quantum correlations such as quantum entanglement to enhance performance over that of the more classical system approaches. The use of entangled photon pairs may provide benefits where imaging through turbulence, where the question arises whether GI and/or QI has a practical use in long range imaging (>1km) through turbulence. The problem is usually transformed into the measurement of correlated photon pairs in which “entanglement” is derived from the generation of photon pairs through parametric down conversion. producing temporally and spatially correlated pairs with temporal decorrelation, dt, setting the range and spatial decorrelation, dx. Can dt and dx be improved using entangled photons rather than classical correlation? Can this improvement be sustained through turbulence over a long range where the round trip time delay is ~1ms? The bandwidth for turbulence is Hz. Can higher order entanglement (3, 4, 5 etc. photons) increase temporal and spatial resolution through turbulence beyond classical limits? Selex ES POC here is Prof Rob Lamb
© Copyright Selex ES. All rights reserved Navigation & Precision Timing Challenges Here the need is for resilient and accurate chip-scale navigation and precision timing solution in a GPS denied environment. Mature Technology solutions are becoming available, but US ITAR rules will impact the ability of UK Industry to exploit these in the export domain and hence there is a need to mature non-US Quantum technology based solutions. Challenges for the maturation on Quantum technologies in the precision timing domain include susceptibility to stray magnetic or electric fields, vibration, shock and temperature. With the push toward smaller chip-scale solutions there is a clearly need for better modelling and methods for the calibration for these effects. Quantum Clock Synchronisation between large numbers of clocks – issues include compensation for relativistic effects, and non-Newtonian frames of reference, - what does simultaneity mean when clocks at different positions and relative velocities inherently run at different rates. Links also to gravimetric sensing and effects
© Copyright Selex ES. All rights reserved Quantum Computing Challenges Here the need is for high performance computing to meet the challenges of processing the large sensor data sets that we see on todays Battlespace. Quantum technologies may well offer novel ways to combine / process such multidimensional datasets that are essentially intractable with conventional vN architectures Mapping current data and information analytics algorithms onto quantum computers One challenge here is providing the ‘human in the loop’ with an intelligible/ understandable rationale for the information that is being provided – particularly where that human may be required to make decisions that involve the deployment of weapons Quantum Processing solutions are becoming available but there is a tendency to design these solutions around a specific problem types (e.g. simulated annealing problem set and the D-WAVE processor)
© Copyright Selex ES. All rights reserved Quantum Material Challenges -Inorganics Quantum materials — that is, materials for which the interactions between the constituent particles cannot be treated in a semi-classical manner — provide a wealth of especially challenging problems. Modelling and designing quantum based materials and structures t hat do not (readily) appear in nature -atomic level quantum engineering – predicting materials parameters such as bandgaps, electron mobility, detectivity, absorption spectra, thermal characteristics etc. Device Physics Modelling for Atomic scale engineered metamaterials and nanomaterials - understanding how the quantum interactions at materials level impact, influence and control the overall device behaviours and performance. Potential defence end user applications could include Improved IR and wide band sensors, Improved RF receivers front ends, eg better spectrum congestion capability, dynamic range Better power generation/handling devices Lower power utilization – reduce the soldier burden
© Copyright Selex ES. All rights reserved Quantum Material Challenges –Bio-organics Quantum mechanics has been shown to play a fundamental role in a number of important biological systems, and a number of theoretical papers and experimental confirmations on the role of quantum coherence in biological processes have been published. Math challenge is to develop techniques for modelling and analyzing complex biosystems / molecular structures that use for example quantum coherence Non trivial issue is that such bioorganic systems are typically complex and heirarchical eg. the form of the photosynthetic complex comprises tens of thousands of atoms arranged in heirarchical molecular groupings/structures Other bio systems exhibiting potential quantum coherence influence include the avian compass (entangled free radical pairs in biomolecules exhibit enhanced sensitivity to weak magnetic field) Sense of smell ( phonon-assisted electron tunnelling provides enhanced discrimination between different scents) A number of other examples Long term objective would be a formalism to allow one to the state space of bio-organic systems and their dynamics in quantum mechanical terms
© Copyright Selex ES. All rights reserved Questions ? Dr Paul Kimber Selex ES Limited Tel: Selex ES views our collaborations with Academia as being essential to our business and beneficial to all those involved.
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