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Presentation on theme: "Writing Empirical Research Reports©. Table of Contents UnitTopicSlides 1Role of Research in Knowledge Construction and Discipline Development 3-7 2Types."— Presentation transcript:

1 Writing Empirical Research Reports©

2 Table of Contents UnitTopicSlides 1Role of Research in Knowledge Construction and Discipline Development 3-7 2Types of Research Utilized in Disciplines of Social Sciences8-24 3Structure of Research Reports Identifying Research Topics Based on Literature Reviews How to Write Introductions and Literature Reviews How to Write Method Sections How to Write Analysis and Results Sections How to Write Discussion Sections How to Write Abstracts and Organize Reference Lists

3 Unit 1: Role of Research in Knowledge Construction and Discipline Development Unit Objectives Contributions of research to education theory and practice Functionality of research to researchers Unit 1: Role of Research in Knowledge Construction and Discipline Development

4 Contributions of research to education theory and practice Major shifts of educational paradigms Enrich our understanding or educational issues Improving personal education practice Unit 1: Role of Research in Knowledge Construction and Discipline Development

5 Pop Quiz Question Which one of the following is an example of “shifting paradigm of a discipline”? a. Whereas Piaget believed children’s limited language ability during early childhood shows they are ego-centric, Vygotsky believed it shows children are gradually internalizing language to guide their thinking. b.Chomsky’s research convinced researchers that the reinforcement theory based on behaviorism was not adequate to explain children’s language development. Chomsky’s scholarly work intrigued the cognitive revolution in psychology and linguistics. c.Dr. Lan found from his studies that introducing self-monitoring in the learning process improves student learning outcome so he developed a protocol that helps students systematically evaluate their understanding in his statistics class. d.Cumulating teaching experience year after year, senior teachers tend to know what works and what does not work in classrooms.

6 How Does Research Help researchers and Practitioners Describe phenomena of interest Predict or explain phenomena of interest Control behaviors (promote desirable and reduce or eliminate undesirable behaviors) Unit 1: Role of Research in Knowledge Construction and Discipline Development

7 Pop Quiz Question Which one of the following is an example of researchers “controlling a phenomenon of interest”? a.Apple investigated the relationship between student academic ranking in the higher school and their average academic performance as freshmen so she could anticipate who would experience difficulties when starting college education. b.Bob sat in Ms. Smith’s classroom for weeks and he can tell the strategies that she used to deal with student disciplinary problems. c.Comparing weight changes of people in different treatment conditions, Dr. Cain concluded that diet plus exercise is the most efficient way to lose weight. d.Donna made an “educated guess” that next summer would be hot.

8 Unit 2: Types of Research Utilized in Disciplines of Social Sciences Unit Objectives Research methods utilized by social science researchers Comparison between qualitative and quantitative research methods Brief introduction to qualitative research methods Brief introduction to quantitative research methods Dr. Lan’s 5-step research procedure to start a new line of research Unit 2: Types of Research Utilized in Disciplines of Social Sciences

9 Research Methods for Social Sciences Quantitative Qualitative Mixed DescriptiveCorrelationalExperimental QUAN-Qual QUAL-Quan QUAN-QUAL Narrative EthnographicCase Study Unit 2: Types of Research Utilized in Disciplines of Social Sciences

10 Pop Quiz Question Of the following, which is an example of qualitative research? a. Correlational b. Causal-comparative c. Ethnographic d. Experimental

11 Comparisons bet. QUAN. and QUAL. Research Quantitative ResearchSteps of ProcessQualitative Research Description and Explanation-oriented Identifying a research Problem Exploratory and understanding-oriented Justifying for the research problem and specifying for the need for the study Reviewing the literatureJustifying for the research problem Specific and narrow; Large number of participants Selecting participants/samples General and broad; Participants’ experiences; Small group and sites Predetermined instruments; Numeric data; Measurable, observable Collecting DataEmerging protocols; Text or image data; Statistical analysis; Describing trends, comparing groups, and examining relationships Analyzing and Interpreting data Text analysis; Description, analysis, thematic development, and finding meanings Standard and fixed; Objective and unbiased Reporting and Evaluating Research Flexible and emerging; Reflexive and biased

12 Pop Quiz Question Which of the following statement is true regarding qualitative and quantitative research? a. Quantitative researchers develop deep relationships with their participants. b.Qualitative researchers rely on objective analysis of the data. c.Qualitative researchers manipulate the research context. d.Quantitative researchers state hypothesis prior to beginning the study.

13 Narrative Research: Definition and purpose Narrative research is the study of how different humans experience the world around them. Narrative researchers collect data about people’s lives and collaboratively construct a narrative about the experiences and meanings they contribute to the experiences. Narrative research has often been conducted in numerous disciplines (e.g., history, anthropology). Unit 2: Types of Research Utilized in Disciplines of Social Sciences

14 Narrative Research: Examples of types of narrative research forms Autobiographies Life writing Personal narratives Life histories Narrative interviews Oral histories Unit 2: Types of Research Utilized in Disciplines of Social Sciences

15 Narrative Research: Research Process Identify purpose of the study and a phenomenon to explore life writing Identify an individual who can help you learn about the phenomenon. Develop initial narrative research questions. Develop data collection methods, paying particular attention to interviewing, and collect the data. Collaborate with the research participant to construct the narrative and to validate the accuracy of the story. Write the narrative account. Unit 2: Types of Research Utilized in Disciplines of Social Sciences

16 Ethnographic (Ethnography) Research: Definition and Purpose  To describe, analyze, and interpret the culture of a group, over time, in terms of the group’s shared beliefs, behaviors, and language with Culture defined as a set of attitudes, values, concepts, beliefs, and practices shared by members of a group.  The study of cultural patterns and perspectives of participants in their natural settings.  Engage in long-term study of particular phenomena to situate understandings in context.  Engage in intensive participant observation. Unit 2: Types of Research Utilized in Disciplines of Social Sciences

17 Ethnographic (Ethnography) Research: Research Process  Identifying the purpose of the research  M aking time commitment  Demonstrating the relevance of the proposed study  Choosing the site and sample for the study  Negotiating for entry into the research site  Establishing rapport with the collaborators  Beginning data collection in a natural setting utilizing face-to-face interaction with the participants to accurate reflection of participants’ perspectives and behaviors.  uses inductive, interactive, and repetitious collection of unstructured data and analytic strategies Unit 2: Types of Research Utilized in Disciplines of Social Sciences

18 Case Study: Characteristics of Case Study Research Particularistic: Focused on a particular phenomenon, situation, or event Descriptive: Includes a think description of the phenomenon under study Heuristic: illuminate readers understanding of the phenomenon beyond original knowledge Unit 2: Types of Research Utilized in Disciplines of Social Sciences

19 Case Study: Research Procedure Determine the research questions. Define the case under study. Determine the theoretical and conceptual framework of the case study. Determine whether a single case study; a multiple case study; or a collective case study is appropriate. Unit 2: Types of Research Utilized in Disciplines of Social Sciences

20 Pop Quiz Question Jeremy, a researcher at a local university, is interested in the nature of playground bullying. He obtains permission for his research and goes to a local middle school to observe playground behaviors. He spends several months watching and taking notes. As he begins to understand the context of the playground, he interviews some students and teachers. He incorporates these interviews into his notes. He systematically identifies themes and categorizes his findings. At the end of his study he describes his findings and how these findings relate to other studies that have been conducted on playground behaviors. Of the following, which best describes Jeremy’s research? a.Narrative b.Experimental c.Survey d.Ethnographic

21 Comparisons between Quantitative Research Methods Research MethodProcedural Differences Outcome Differences DescriptiveObserve and collect data Descriptive information Correlational and Causal-Comparative Research Observe and collect data Descriptive information and association relationship between variables Experimental and Quasi-experimental Research Manipulate, observe, and collect data Descriptive information and causality relationship between variables Unit 2: Types of Research Utilized in Disciplines of Social Sciences

22 Pop Quiz Question Experimental research differs from causal-comparative research in that a.causal-comparative research is interested in statistical relationships between variables and experimental research is not. b.experimental research relies on data collection from multiple pools of participants while causal comparative research relies on participants from a single pool. c.experimental research controls the dependent variable in the study and causal-comparative controls the independent variable. d.experimental research controls the selection of participants from a single pool and randomly divides them into groups while causal-comparative research does not.

23 Mill’s Model of Causal Argument X is causally related to Y only when 1. X precedes Y in time. 2. X and Y are related. 3. No other variable is related to Y. The third condition can only be true in experimental research. Random assignment of participants to treatment conditions making the IV the only systematic difference between conditions that is related to the DV Unit 2: Types of Research Utilized in Disciplines of Social Sciences

24 5-Phase Research Procedure to Investigate a Particular Topic After a research question is identified: Phase 1: Exploring the problem (Qualitative research) Phase 2: Creating tools to measure variables identified (Instrument development) Phase 3: Examining the relationships between variables (Correlational research) Phase 4: Conducting studies to show causality relationship between variables (Experimental research) Phase 5: Designing programs to improve the problem (Evaluating research) Unit 2: Types of Research Utilized in Disciplines of Social Sciences

25 Unit 3: Structure of Research Reports Unit Objectives Major components of a research report How to write a title (other components will be discussed in following units) Unit 3: Structure of Research Reports

26 A title An abstract Introduction/Literature Review Method Result Discussion Reference list Unit 3: Structure of Research Reports

27 Pop Quiz Question Of the following, which is not a common component of a research report? a.A title b.An Abstract c.An introduction or a literature review d.An acknowledgement

28 Writing Titles A title should indicate Variable or variables investigated Relationship or differences investigated The population involved Unit 3: Structure of Research Reports

29 Pop Quiz Question For the title of “How PowerPoint destroys your lecture: Effect of information organization and intensity on student understanding of statistics” What part of the title does “information organization” represent? Type of study Independent variable Dependent variable Population

30 Writing Titles: Examples Acculturation, internet use, and psychological well- being among Chinese international students Demandingness and responsiveness of advisors as determinants of doctoral students’ experience The effects of self-monitoring on college students’ course performance, use of learning strategies, attitudes, self- judgment ability, and knowledge representation. How to teach online: Suggestions based on research findings How PowerPoint destroys your lecture: Effect of information organization and intensity on college student understanding of statistics Unit 3: Structure of Research Reports

31 Unit 4: Identifying Research Topics Based on Literature Reviews Unit Objectives Importance of research topics Characteristics of good research topics Sources of research topics Formats of stating research topics Purpose statement (Research objective) Research question Research hypothesis Hypothesis testing Unit 4: Identifying Research Topics Based on Literature Reviews

32 Why Are Research Topics Important? Selecting and defining a research topic is the first step in applying the scientific method The research topic provides focus and structure. The research topic is the driving force of a research project, which determines other aspects of the research study (e.g., sampling, assessment, analysis, etc.) Unit 4: Identifying Research Topics Based on Literature Reviews

33 Characteristics of Good Research Topic 1. The topic is theoretically based. 2. The topic has theoretical or practical importance. 3. The topic is researchable. 4. The topic is interesting. 5. The topic is ethical. 6. The topic is manageable for the researcher given skills, resources, and time available. Unit 4: Identifying Research Topics

34 Sources of Research Topics Theories Studies that can be replicated with issues to be clarified (e.g., population, assessment, analysis, etc.) Studies with inconclusive findings Studies with conflicting findings Personal experiences (need to be illustrated by theories) Unit 4: Identifying Research Topics

35 Pop Quiz Question Paola is a ninth grade mathematics teacher. She is interested in the role of assimilation and accommodation in learning geometry as proposed by Piaget. She designs a study to examine the Piagetian concepts in practice. The purpose of her study is best described as to a.test a theory. b.replicate a study. c.developed thorough library search. d. verify personal experiences. Unit 4: Identifying Research Topics

36 Formats of Stating Research Topics Purpose statement (Research objective) Research question Research hypothesis Unit 4: Identifying Research Topics

37 Research Topics Stated as Purpose Statements Quantitative research topics stated in purpose statements A purpose statement describes the variables of interest, relations among those variables, and aspects of the sample. e.g., “The purpose of the study is to investigate the psychometric properties of a new measure of spatial ability for middle school children.” e.g., “The topic to be investigated in this study is parents’ beliefs about homework for primary grade children.” 2-37 Unit 4: Identifying Research Topics

38 Research Topics Stated as Purpose Statements Qualitative research topics are often stated in more general language at the outset of a study because the focus of the study will likely emerge after time in the field. e.g., “The purpose of this study is to describe the experiences of elementary students who have previously been retained.” e.g., “This qualitative study explores the feelings of new teachers in large urban districts.” 2-38 Unit 4: Identifying Research Topics

39 Pop Quiz Question Of the following, which is more likely to be studied as a qualitative research topic? a.The purpose of this study is to examine relationships between future career goals and enrollment in advanced mathematics courses. b. The purpose of the study is to explore the experiences of students who seek help from faculty during office hours. c.The purpose of this study is to compare grades of students who go to office hours and those who do not. d.The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the number of office hours held by faculty and student performance in courses.

40 Research Topics Stated as Research Questions  Developing research questions “breathes life” into the research topic statements by adding another level of specificity to the research plan, such as To validate that you have a workable way to proceed with your research. To directly tied to the data collection strategies used. To lead to a plan for measurement instrumentation. To specify the analysis methods 2-40 Unit 4: Identifying Research Topics

41 Difference between Topic Statement and Research Questions Topic Statement: “The topic to be investigated in this study is secondary teachers’ attitudes toward required after-school activities.” Research Questions: What are secondary teaches’ attitudes toward varsity athletics programs? What instrumental strategies do secondary teachers use to accommodate student-athletes? How do these instructional strategies affect student achievement? Unit 4: Identifying Research Topics

42 Difference between Topic Statement and Research Questions Topic Statement: “The topic to be investigated in this study is factors and strategies related to life quality of senior citizens.” Research Questions: What social, emotional, financial, and physical barriers do senior citizens experience in Thailand? What strategies do senior citizens in Thailand employ to cope the barriers? Is there a relationship between frequencies of using the coping strategies and life quality of senior citizens in Thailand? Unit 4: Identifying Research Topics

43 Types of Hypotheses Studied in Quantitative Research  Association Hypothesis (about relationships between continuous variables)  Difference Hypothesis (about differences between categories. At least one categorical variable) Unit 4: Identifying Research Topics

44 Examples of Association Hypothesis and Difference Hypothesis  Students’ IQ scores are positively correlated to their achievement scores in a standardized test in verbal ability  There is gender difference in verbal ability measured by a standardized test Unit 4: Identifying Research Topics

45 Pop Quiz Question Which of the following is more likely to be an association hypothesis? a.There are differences in social skills between children from single-child families and multiple-siblings families. b.There is a relationship between the time parents reading books to their children and the children’s performance on standardized reading and comprehension tests. c.Advising style, defined as authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and uninvolved, is related to graduate student cognitive development. d.Students who learn sciences under problem-centered instruction outperform students who learn sciences under subject-centered instruction in creativity tests. Unit 4: Identifying Research Topics

46 Two Formats of Hypothesis Null Hypothesis Alternative Hypothesis Directional Alternative Hypothesis Non-directional alternative Hypothesis Unit 4: Identifying Research Topics

47 Research Topics Stated as Hypotheses: Null Hypothesis “There is no relationship between verbal ability and academic achievement.” (association hypothesis) “There is no difference between male and female students in verbal ability.” (difference hypothesis) Unit 4: Identifying Research Topics

48 Research Topics Stated as Hypotheses: Alternative Hypothesis  Directional Alternative Hypothesis  “There is a positive relationship between verbal ability and academic achievement.”  “Female students have superior verbal ability to male students.”  Non-Directional Alternative Hypothesis  “There are differences between male and female students in verbal ability.”  “There is a relationship between verbal ability and academic achievement.” Unit 4: Identifying Research Topics

49 Pop Quiz Question Which of the following is a null hypothesis for the research topic “Are there differences in final class grades between students who learn psychology with lectures or self-paced”? a.There is a difference in final class grade between students who learn psychology with lectures versus self-paced. b.There is no difference in final class grade between students who learn psychology with lectures versus self-paced. c.Students learn psychology with lectures earn higher class grades than those learn psychology with self-paced instruction. d.Students learn psychology via self-paced instruction earn higher class grades than those in lecture classes Unit 4: Identifying Research Topics

50 Pop Quiz Question Which of the following is a non-directional alternative hypothesis? a.There are no differences in motivation between students enrolled in free- or reduced-price lunch programs at school and those who are not enrolled in the programs. b.There are differences in motivation between students enrolled in free- or reduced-price lunch programs at school and those who are not enrolled in the programs.. c.Students enrolled in free- or reduced-price lunch programs show higher motivation in school than those who are not enrolled in the programs. d.Students enrolled in free- or reduced-price lunch programs show lower motivation in school than those who are not enrolled in the programs Unit 4: Identifying Research Topics

51 Research Topics Stated as Hypotheses Model for hypotheses: P = The participants X = The treatment variable (IV) or one of the two variables in a relationship Y = The outcome variable (DV) or another variable in a relationship Unit 4: Identifying Research Topics

52 Practice Examples: Identify the P, X, & Y for the hypothesis below: “Attendance at a Saturday tutoring program increases ninth grade students’ academic achievement.” P=Ninth grade students X=Saturday program attendance or nonattendance Y=Achievement  Is this an association or a different Hypothesis? 2-52 Unit 4: Identifying Research Topics

53 Practice Examples: Identify the P, X, & Y for the hypothesis below: “There is a relationship between proficiency of ninth grade students’ native language and foreign language.” P = Ninth grade students X = Proficiency of the native language Y = Proficiency of a foreign language  Is this an association or a different Hypothesis? 2-53 Unit 4: Identifying Research Topics

54 Why State Research Topics as Hypotheses? Hypotheses convert research questions to testable format. An (alternative) hypothesis is a prediction of the researchers’ expected findings. Hypotheses are derived from theory or knowledge gained through literature review. Hypotheses in quantitative studies are formulated before conducting the study Unit 4: Identifying Research Topics

55 Hypothesis Testing For Quantitative Research The hypothesis is used to guide the research study. The researcher conducts the study and then analyzes the data to determine if the hypothesis is supported. Hypotheses are not proven—they are supported or not supported. Valuable contributions to the literature can still be made if a hypothesis is not supported. Hypothesis testing contributes by expanding, refining, and revising the literature base Unit 4: Identifying Research Topics

56 Hypothesis Testing for Qualitative Research Qualitative studies The qualitative researcher does not state formal hypotheses before conducting studies. Qualitative researchers may develop guiding hypotheses for the proposed research. Qualitative researchers often generate new hypotheses during the course of their study. Qualitative researchers may generate research questions from their guiding hypotheses Unit 4: Identifying Research Topics

57 Unit 5: How to Write Introductions and Literature Reviews Unit Objectives Characteristics of a Good Literature Review Practical Strategies in Writing Literature Review Examples of useful tools used to summarize or organize a literature review Unit 5: How to Write Introductions and Literature Reviews

58 Theoretically Based Provide a theoretical “framework” to organize and present your literature review. e.g., Summarize learning outcomes by “domains” e.g., Summarize factors in a learning process by Bandura’s “reciprocal causation” Sometimes, multiple theoretical perspectives are involved in a study. Information processing theory for cognitive aspect of the learning process Piaget’s Child Development theory for the developmental aspect of the learning process Unit 5: How to Write Introductions and Literature Reviews

59 Characteristics of a Good Literature Review Theoretically based Relevant to the research question(s) to be investigated Logically organized to lead readers to the research question(s) to be investigated Updated to reflect the current knowledge on the issue to be investigated Information reviewed being synthesized and evaluated Unit 5: How to Write Introductions and Literature Reviews

60 Relevant to the research question(s) to be investigated Always keep your research questions in mind when reviewing literature. Fight against the temptation to conduct a “comprehensive” literature review. Do not be distracted by “interesting” studies unless they are relevant to your research questions. “Interesting” measurements “Interesting” ways of data collection Unit 5: How to Write Introductions and Literature Reviews

61 Logically organized to lead readers to the research question(s) to be investigated Present your research idea to your peers to convince them of the value of your study. Ask your audience if they follow the logic that leads them to your research questions. Using topic sentence and transition paragraph to show connections between ideas. Unit 5: How to Write Introductions and Literature Reviews

62 Updated to reflect the current knowledge on the issue to be investigated Being knowledgeable of frontier of the discipline. If the literature on your research topic is scarce, find from related fields. If a historical review is needed, keep it brief. Unit 5: How to Write Introductions and Literature Reviews

63 Information reviewed being synthesized and evaluated Compare and contrast constructs developed or used by researchers and indicate similarities and differences Compare and contrast measurements used by researchers and indicate strengths and weaknesses Compare and contrast populations involved and indicate different characteristics of the populations Compare and contrast findings of studies on the same topics and indicate gaps and propose possible explanations Unit 5: How to Write Introductions and Literature Reviews

64 Information reviewed being synthesized and evaluated Compare and contrast constructs developed or used by researchers and indicate similarities and differences. Compare and contrast measurements used by researchers and indicate strengths and weaknesses. Compare and contrast populations involved and indicate different characteristics of the populations. Compare and contrast findings of studies on the same topics and indicate gaps and propose possible explanations. Unit 5: How to Write Introductions and Literature Reviews

65 Pop Quiz Question Glenda is concerned about her sources of literature. Although the studies come from peer-reviewed journals, none of them have methodology sections and it appears they include prominent researchers’ opinions. What is likely Glenda’s concern? a.Her sources are too outdated. b.Her sources are secondary references. c.Her sources are popular not scholarly. d.Her sources are subjective. Unit 5: How to Write Introductions and Literature Reviews

66 Pop Quiz Question John carefully prohibits his own opinion from “contaminating” the information when loyally presenting the information of studies published in research journals in recent years. If you were his advisor, which of the following would be your major concern of the outcome of the review? a.The outcome of the review is not academically oriented. b.The outcome of the review is not logically organized. c.The outcome of the review is out-of-dated. d.The outcome of the review does not reflect the researcher’s synthesis and evaluation Unit 5: How to Write Introductions and Literature Reviews

67 Practical Strategies in Writing Literature Review Create ways to summarize outcomes of the lit review (e.g., tables, index cards, etc.) Visit libraries regularly and frequently to keep up your knowledge in the field Develop a multi-level outline with headings and sub-headings for the literature review. “There is no good writing, only good rewriting.” Start with a “good” research-oriented textbook to get a few key references. Unit 5: How to Write Introductions and Literature Reviews

68 An Example: A Table to Summarize Literature Review on Dropouts Student Factors School FactorsFamily FactorsCommunity Factors Prior academic performance (Smith, 2007; Davis, 2010); Motivation in school work (Lan, 2008; Pintrich, 2005;) Gender (…) Type of school (xxx, 2003; xxx, 1998) School size; Urbanicity of school; School finance; % dropout out in previous years; Family structure; Family income; Parental education; Number of siblings Unemployment rate; Concentration of minority; Unit 5: How to Write Introductions and Literature Reviews

69 An Example: An Outline for the Literature Review on Self-regulation in an Online Environment I.Rapid development of online instruction II.Importance of Self-regulation (SR) in online learning III.Current research on SR in online environment Scarcity of research on online SR Findings of online SR research conflicting with findings on SR in regular classrooms Possible explanation: Instruments measuring SR in regular classrooms used to measure SR in online environment IV.Purpose of the current study: To develop an instrument measuring SR in the online environment Unit 5: How to Write Introductions and Literature Reviews

70 Unit 6: How to Write Method Sections Unit Objectives Purpose of the method section Information Included in the Method Section Research Design Participants Measurement Procedure Unit 6: How to Write Method Sections

71 What purpose does the method section serve in a research report To establish internal validity and external validity Internal validity: the trustworthiness of the research findings External validity: the generalizability of the research findings beyond the sample studied To provide sufficient information for others to replicate the study Unit 6: How to Write Method Sections

72 Pop Quiz Question A researcher’s efforts to remove influence of extraneous variables is referred to as a.experimental control. b.sample assignment. c.sorting independent variables. d.determining dependent variables. Unit 6: How to Write Method Sections

73 Pop Quiz Question The type of validity concerned with whether findings can be generalized to other groups or other settings is referred to as a. internal validity. b.external validity. c.content validity. d.construct validity. Unit 6: How to Write Method Sections

74 Information Included in the Method Section Research Design Participants Measurement Procedure Unit 6: How to Write Method Sections

75 Research Design Describe the type of the study conducted (e.g., quantitative or qualitative? experimental or correlational? instrument development or program evaluation?) Unit 6: How to Write Method Sections

76 Research Design for Research Examining Difference Hypotheses Identify independent variable(s) Identify dependent variable(s) Describe how confounding variable(s) are controlled (for internal validity) Unit 6: How to Write Method Sections

77 An Example of Research Design for a Study Examining Difference Hypotheses “In this experimental study, two independent variables, information organization and information intensity, were manipulated to examine their effects on the dependent variable of graduate students’ understanding of the content taught in an introductory level of statistics. Student prior knowledge measured by their GRE quantitative test score was controlled as a covariate.” Unit 6: How to Write Method Sections

78 Research Design for Research Examining Association Hypotheses Identify variables of interest. Indicate criterion variable and predictors. Indicate the relationship to be studied. Unit 6: How to Write Method Sections

79 An Example of Research Design for a Study Examining Association Hypotheses “In this correlation study, the relationships between Chinese international students’ acculturation, ethnic identity, English proficiency and their attitude toward seeking professional counseling service were examined. The variables of acculturation, ethnic identity, and English proficiency were used as predictors to predict the criterion variable of attitude toward seeking professional counseling service.” Unit 6: How to Write Method Sections

80 Pop Quiz Question Mary, a university admission officer who was interested in choosing the most powerful predictors of student academic performance as freshmen. She collected students’ GPA’s in high schools, high school teachers’ ratings of the students, SAT scores, and ratings of student aspiration expressed in their personal statements. She also collected students’ GPA by the end of the freshman year. Of the following, which one is a predictor/independent variable in Mary’s research? a.Freshmen b.Freshman GPA c.College the students attending d.High school GPA Unit 6: How to Write Method Sections

81 Participants How was the sample selected? (i.e., How were participants recruited?) Consent procedure in recruitment and confidentiality of data collected Description of the sample to establish the external validity Response rate Demographics of the respondents Characteristics of non-respondents compared with respondents Unit 6: How to Write Method Sections

82 Measurement: Source of the measurement Using existing instruments Source of the measurement instruments Reliability and validity evidence on the instruments provided by other researchers Developing new measurement instruments Development of the test items pool Pilot study on psychometric characteristics of the measurement Revision and re-pilot (if need) Unit 6: How to Write Method Sections

83 Measurement Provide sample items for each construct measured Explain the scoring system of the instrument Response scale used in the instrument What scores are generated from the measurement? How is the score defined (e.g., sum of the item responses, mean of the item responses.) Range of the score Interpretation of the scores. Unit 6: How to Write Method Sections

84 Measurement: A sample of the scoring system “This instrument generated a score of self-regulation in online learning environment, defined as the mean of the 15 items designed to measure online self- regulation, ranging from 1 to 5, with lower scores signifying lower self-regulation and higher scores signifying higher self-regulation in online learning environments.” Unit 6: How to Write Method Sections

85 Procedure Present the step-by-step procedure vividly so other researchers could follow Research environment (e.g., field or lab, school or family, etc.) For experimental research: How was the independent variable manipulated? How was the dependent variable measured? Extremely important for qualitative research. Data sources (how participants were purposely selected?) Data analysis (how qualitative data were analyzed?) Length of time for participants to complete the study Unit 6: How to Write Method Sections

86 Unit 7: How to Write Analysis and Results Sections Unit Objectives The results section for quantitative analysis Information included Selecting appropriate analysis methods for various types of quantitative studies The results section for qualitative analysis Unit 7: How to Write Analysis and Results Sections

87 Results Sections for Quantitative Studies Include a brief introduction to refresh readers’ memory of the purposes of the study and the research questions. Psychometric characteristics of the measuring instruments Organize the results of the data analysis by research questions or hypotheses. Choose appropriate analysis method that addresses the research question. (See next two slides.) Always present descriptive statistics prior to inferential statistics. Do not repeat the information in text that is presented in tables or vise versa. Follow the APA format to provide information required. Unit 7: How to Write Analysis and Results Sections

88 Psychometric characteristics of the measuring Instruments (Reliability) Test-retest reliability (Consistency of performance across time by the same group of participants) Equivalence reliability (Consistency of performance across different forms by the same group of participants) Internal consistency reliability (Consistency of performance across items within a measurement measured by Cronback’s alpha) Inter-rater reliability (Consistency between raters on the same performance) Unit 7: How to Write Analysis and Results Sections

89 Pop Quiz Question Kari’s research study measured the effects of cooperative learning on learners’ ability to solve complex problems. After scoring the problems and entering the data, her advisor told her she must have another researcher score the problems. Interestingly, the scores she gave the participants did not match the scores that the other researcher gave. Kari’s scoring problem is indicative of a problem with a.internal consistency reliability. b.inter-rater reliability. c.content validity. d.consequential validity.

90 Psychometric characteristics of the measuring Instruments (Validity) Content validity Criterion-related validity Concurrent validity Predictive validity Construct validity Unit 7: How to Write Analysis and Results Sections

91 Psychometric characteristics of the measuring Instruments (Validity) Content validity Criterion-related validity Concurrent validity Predictive validity Construct validity Unit 7: How to Write Analysis and Results Sections

92 Psychometric characteristics of the measuring Instruments (Validity) To prepare a comprehensive examination for her Master’s students, Dr. Smith carefully listed all courses her students took during the Master’s program to make sure that every course was covered proportionally in the comprehensive exam. Dr. Smith’s effort is to assure a.Content validity. b.Concurrent validity. c.Predictive validity. d.Construct validity. Unit 7: How to Write Analysis and Results Sections

93 Importance of Soundness of Measurement for Quantitative Research Reliability Validity Internal Validity External Validity

94 Analysis Methods Designed to Test Association Hypothesis Manifested Latent Correlation Regression Factor Analysis Path Analysis Structural Equation Modeling

95 Analysis Methods Designed to Test Difference Hypothesis Testing MethodIndependent Variable(s) Dependent Variable(s) Covariate (s) t-test1 categorical IV with 2 values 1 continuous DVNone One-way ANOVA1 categorical IV with 2 or more than 2 values 1 continuous DVNone Factorial ANOVAMore than 1 categorical IV 1 continuous DVNone ANCOVA1 or more categorical IV 1 continuous DV1 or more continuous covariate (s) MANOVA1 or more categorical IV multiple continuous DV none MANCOVA1 or more categorical IV multiple continuous DV 1 or more continuous covariate (s)

96 Descriptive Statistics vs. Inferential Statistics Descriptive statistics: Statistical procedures that help describe the information gathered during a research study Inferential statistics: Statistical procedures that determine ho likely it is that results obtained from a sample or samples are the same results that would have been obtained from the entire population. Unit 7: How to Write Analysis and Results Sections

97 Descriptive Statistics vs. Inferential Statistics Descriptive StatisticsInferential Statistics FunctionalityDescribing the sample studied “Guess” what would happen if the entire population is studied Values calculatedStatisticsParameters SymbolsRoman letters (M, s, s 2 …)Greek letters (µ, σ, σ 2 …) Group targetedSample or samplesPopulation or populations How to obtainDirectly measured or observed Inferred from observed statistics Unit 7: How to Write Analysis and Results Sections

98 Results Sections for Qualitative Studies How were the qualitative data analyzed? Reading/Memoing to get initial sense of the data Describing to provide a narrative picture of the setting and the event that take place Classifying to break data down to smaller units and put together in a more general and analytic form Indicate “themes” or “trends” identified through analyzing qualitative data. Show evidence on “trustworthiness” and “transferability” of the outcomes of data analysis. Unit 7: How to Write Analysis and Results Sections

99 Pop Quiz Question Both Marianne and Bill examined the same set of qualitative data collected from couples in a study designed to understand relationship stress. Interestingly, the themes that emerged from the data were not consistent across the two researchers. Of the following, which is the most likely reason for the discrepancy? a.The data were not valid. b.The data were not reliable. c.Qualitative analysis is interpretive. d.Qualitative analysis is deductive Unit 7: How to Write Analysis and Results Sections

100 Unit 8: How to Write Discussion Sections Unit Objectives Refreshing research questions Summarizing research findings to answer research questions Theoretical contributions Practical Applications Suggestions on future research Unit 8: How to Write Discussion Sections

101 Refreshing Research Questions Start with a summary of research findings by answering research questions or hypotheses. Only say what your data allow you to day. Conclusions of the study must be supported by data. Do not interpret association as causality Do not introduce new data in the Discussion Section. Unit 8: How to Write Discussion Sections

102 Summarizing Research Findings to Answer Research Questions Tie findings of the study to the theoretical framework presented early in the “literature review” section. What findings were supported by the current literature? What findings were inconsistent with the current theoretical perspectives? Any explanation for unexpected findings? Unit 8: How to Write Discussion Sections

103 Theoretical Contribution of the Study Whether the study expands the current theory to a new population Whether the study expands the current theory to a new setting Whether the study introduces a new variable to clarify the current theory Unit 8: How to Write Discussion Sections

104 Practical Applications of the Study What can practitioners learn from your study to improve their practice? Practical suggestions/recommendations based on the study Unit 8: How to Write Discussion Sections

105 Suggestions for Future Research Acknowledge limitations of the study to be addressed in future research Another population? Another measurement tool? Another way of manipulating independent variable? Better control over confounding variables? New questions emerging from the study that need to be addressed in future research Unit 8: How to Write Discussion Sections

106 Pop Quiz Question Based on his study, Dr. Stevens believes teaching foreign language in an immersion environment will enhance student motivation in learning foreign language in addition to the cognitive and linguistic advantages of the teaching method. Dr. Stevens is most likely to include the idea in the discussion section when presenting a.Research questions. b. Theoretical contribution of the study. c.Practical applications of the research findings. d.Suggestions for future research. Unit 8: How to Write Discussion Sections

107 Pop Quiz Question After conducting a correlational study on the relationship between time people spending in prison and the aggressiveness of their behavior, a researcher concluded that the time criminals spending in jail increased the aggressiveness of behavior after being released. The researcher made a.a correct interpretation of his research finding because there is a strong relationship. b.a wrong interpretation of his research finding because aggressiveness of the behavior was the cause for lengthy sentence in prison. c.a wrong interpretation of his research finding because there is another factor, bipolar personality disorder, determines the relationship between the two variables investigated. d.a wrong interpretation because the type of research he conducted prohibits him from making any statement on causality. Unit 8: How to Write Discussion Sections

108 Unit 9: How to Write Abstracts and Organize Reference Lists Unit Objectives How to prepare an abstract How to prepare a reference list Unit 9: How to Write Abstracts and Organize Reference Lists

109 How to Write Abstracts Check “Notes to Contributors” of journals to know the word limit for abstracts Provide information that most likely interests your readers Type of research Variables studied Population Findings Theoretical contributions and practical applications Start it long then cut it to fit. Unit 9: How to Write Abstracts and Organize Reference Lists

110 Pop Quiz Question Of the following, Which one is most unlikely to be found in an abstract of a research report? a.“In the experimental study, we examined effects of reinforcement schedule and type of reinforcer on elementary students’ problem-solving ability.” b.“The study showed that student motivation in a foreign language class was significantly enhanced when immersion instruction was implemented.” c.“The t-test showed a significant difference between boys and girls in verbal ability, p =.02.” d.“It is suggested that the study be replicated in a rural environment to improve the external validity of findings of the study.” Unit 9: How to Write Abstracts and Organize Reference Lists

111 Pop Quiz Question For the following abstract, what do you want to add if space permits? “Two hundred second-grade students were administered a battery of published cognitive tests that measured a variety of academic achievement variables. The students were drawn from three elementary schools in a large, urban school district. All were tested near the end of second grade. Test administrators administered the tests in three sessions because students might become fatigued by taking the entire battery in a single testing session. The three hypotheses were confirmed. Implications for cognitive and development and directions for future research are discussed.” Unit 9: How to Write Abstracts and Organize Reference Lists

112 How to Write/Organize Reference Lists Assemble the reference list from the beginning of the research process. Use the required format (e.g., APA manual) when creating the reference list. Double check the references cited in the text against the reference list before submitting. Unit 9: How to Write Abstracts and Organize Reference Lists

113 Pop Quiz Question Which one of the following is a correct statement about the reference list of a research report? a.The reference list is optional for a research report. b.The reference list is not very useful resource of information for researchers. c.For most research journals, the reference list must contain all research studies cited by the author in the manuscript. d.The reference list is organized by the order the references appear in the manuscript. Unit 9: How to Write Abstracts and Organize Reference Lists


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