Presentation on theme: "Informational Texts Evaluating Arguments: Pro and Con"— Presentation transcript:
1Informational Texts Evaluating Arguments: Pro and Con Feature MenuInformational TextsConnecting to the LiteratureIntroducing the Informational TextsVocabularyInformational Reading Focus: Evaluating Pro and Con ArgumentsEvaluating Pro and Con ArgumentsEvaluating the CredibilityAssignment
2Connecting to the Literature “A Sound of Thunder” and the Jurassic Park excerpt depict a future in which humans tamper with their environment, with disastrous results. The following articles take different positions on the impact humans have on the environment today.[End of Section]
3Introducing the Informational Texts “Rising Tides”“An Arctic Floe of Climate Questions”
4Introducing the Informational Texts “Rising Tides”Many scientists believe that global warming has increased the earth’s temperatures. How do you think rising temperatures could affect the Earth and people?For one opinion, read “Rising Tides.”
5Introducing the Informational Texts “An Arctic Floe of Questions”Others believe that there is not enough information to know whether global warming is actually happening.Read “An Arctic Floe of Climate Questions” for an opposing argument.[End of Section]
6Vocabulary Vocabulary Development receding v.: moving back; becoming less.catastrophic adj.: disastrous.implications n.: possible connections or consequences.indiscriminate adj.: careless.deficient adj.: lacking.
7Vocabulary Vocabulary Development equitable adj.: fair; just. demise n.: death; end.ominous adj.: threatening.impending v. used as adj.: about to happen.ignorance n.: lack of knowledge.
8Vocabulary Vocabulary Practice recedingimpendingdeficientominousimplicationsVocabulary PracticeFill in the blanks with Word Bank words.1. Weather satellites gathered information about the __________ storm.2. The dark clouds were an _________ sign.impendingominous3. Small boats were __________ in the equipment needed to weather hurricanes.4. The __________ waters revealed a scene of destruction.5. Damage along the shore will have negative __________ for tourism.deficientrecedingimplications[End of Section]
9Evaluating Pro and Con Arguments When you encounter two opposing views on an issue, you have toevaluate the credibility of each point of viewevaluate the arguments and decide which is strongerdecide which side you believe
10Evaluating Pro and Con Arguments Understand the ArgumentsMake sure you understand the issue and the opinion, or claim, presented in each argument.Check your understanding by paraphrasing the arguments in your own words.
11Evaluating Pro and Con Arguments Identify the SupportLook for logical appeals and evidence. Types of evidence can includefacts (statements that can be verified objectively)statistics (numerical facts)examplescomments from experts
12Evaluating Pro and Con Arguments Identify the SupportAlso, take into account any emotional appeals the writer uses. Emotional appeals can includeloaded wordsanecdotes (colorful or emotional stories)
16Evaluating the Credibility To decided which argument is stronger and why, consider these questions:Is the argument logical?Do the reasons the author presents make sense? Are they relevant to the issue?Watch out for common fallacies, or errors in logical thinking.
17Evaluating the Credibility FallaciesCircular Reasoning—presenting restatements of the author’s opinion as reasons or conclusionsAll students in the ninth grade need to get a laptop computer because it’s essential for all ninth-grade students to have one.False Cause and Effect—suggesting that one event caused another just because the two events happened in sequenceSpelling scores for ninth-grade students went up after all students got laptop computers.
18Evaluating the Credibility FallaciesHasty Generalizations— making a broad, general statement or conclusion without sufficient evidence. Hasty generalizations are usually based on only one or two casesI should get a laptop computer because two of my friends have them, and their grades went up.Attacking the person—making a personal attack against someone with an opposing viewpoint rather than focusing on the issuePrincipal Smith says ninth graders don’t need computers because he is anti-computer and doesn’t like students.
19Evaluating the Credibility How comprehensive is the support?Is there evidence to support every generalization or argument the author makes?Unsupported generalizations weaken an argument.
20Evaluating the Credibility Does the author deal with opposing evidence?Does the writer discuss opposing evidence to anticipate objections?Addressing an opponent’s viewpoint is important when an issue is controversial and many people have clear pro (for) and con (against) views.
23Evaluating the Credibility Is the structure effective?Does the structure help the writer’s strongest reasons stand out? (Readers generally remember the beginning or ending of a piece most clearly.)Writers commonly use cause and effect and compare and contrast writing structures to make their arguments.
24Evaluating the Credibility What is the author’s intent?Is the author trying to persuade you or to issue a call to action?Do there seem to be hidden agendas in the writer’s arguments?
27Evaluating the Credibility What is the tone?The tone of a persuasive argument should be serious, calm, and reasonable.You should question the credibility of the argument if the tone is humorous, angry, or highly emotional.Also, be wary of authors who exaggerate unimportant issues or make light of serious issues.
31AssignmentAs you read “Rising Tides” and “An Arctic Floe of Climate Questions,” evaluate the credibility of each argument and decide which is more convincing.Piece 1 ProPiece 2 ConClaimLogical AppealsEmotional AppealsToneAuthor’s IntentCredibility[End of Section]