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Informational Texts Connecting to the Literature Introducing the Informational Texts Vocabulary Informational Reading Focus: Evaluating Pro and Con Arguments.

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Presentation on theme: "Informational Texts Connecting to the Literature Introducing the Informational Texts Vocabulary Informational Reading Focus: Evaluating Pro and Con Arguments."— Presentation transcript:

1 Informational Texts Connecting to the Literature Introducing the Informational Texts Vocabulary Informational Reading Focus: Evaluating Pro and Con Arguments Evaluating Pro and Con Arguments Evaluating the Credibility Assignment Informational Texts Evaluating Arguments: Pro and Con Feature Menu

2 “A Sound of Thunder” and the Jurassic Park excerpt depict a future in which humans tamper with their environment, with disastrous results. The following articles take different positions on the impact humans have on the environment today. [End of Section] Connecting to the Literature

3 “Rising Tides” “An Arctic Floe of Climate Questions” Introducing the Informational Texts

4 “Rising Tides” Many scientists believe that global warming has increased the earth’s temperatures. How do you think rising temperatures could affect the Earth and people? For one opinion, read “Rising Tides.” Introducing the Informational Texts

5 “An Arctic Floe of Questions” Others believe that there is not enough information to know whether global warming is actually happening. Read “An Arctic Floe of Climate Questions” for an opposing argument. Introducing the Informational Texts [End of Section]

6 Vocabulary Development receding v.: moving back; becoming less. catastrophic adj.: disastrous. implications n.: possible connections or consequences. indiscriminate adj.: careless. deficient adj.: lacking. Vocabulary

7 Vocabulary Development equitable adj.: fair; just. demise n.: death; end. ominous adj.: threatening. impending v. used as adj.: about to happen. ignorance n.: lack of knowledge. Vocabulary

8 3. Small boats were __________ in the equipment needed to weather hurricanes. 4.The __________ waters revealed a scene of destruction. 5.Damage along the shore will have negative __________ for tourism. receding impending deficient ominous implications 1. Weather satellites gathered information about the __________ storm. 2. The dark clouds were an _________ sign. receding impending deficient ominous implications Vocabulary Practice F ill in the blanks with Word Bank words. [End of Section] Vocabulary

9 When you encounter two opposing views on an issue, you have to evaluate the credibility of each point of view Evaluating Pro and Con Arguments evaluate the arguments and decide which is stronger decide which side you believe

10 Understand the Arguments Make sure you understand the issue and the opinion, or claim, presented in each argument. Evaluating Pro and Con Arguments Check your understanding by paraphrasing the arguments in your own words.

11 Identify the Support Look for logical appeals and evidence. Types of evidence can includelogical appeals facts (statements that can be verified objectively) Evaluating Pro and Con Arguments statistics (numerical facts) examples comments from experts

12 Identify the Support Also, take into account any emotional appeals the writer uses. Emotional appeals can include Evaluating Pro and Con Arguments loaded words anecdotes (colorful or emotional stories)

13 What is the author’s claim? What evidence is provided to support the claim? Quick Check The reason it’s so hard to find answers is, in part, a matter of ignorance. Only in the past half-century have instruments begun to be set out at sea and on land to monitor what’s actually happening. And only since about 1972 have orbiting satellites been able to even roughly track what’s happening to ice at the poles. Because there is no long-term history of climate variability, we can’t know whether what seems unusual now is actually unusual in global climate. from “An Arctic Floe of Climate Questions” by Robert Cooke (from Newsday, April 18, 2001) Evaluating Pro and Con Arguments [End of Section] From “An Arctic Floe of Climate Questions” by Robert Cooke from Newsday, April 18, Copyright © 2001 by Newsday, Inc. Reproduced by permission of Tribune Media Services.

14 Quick Check Evaluating Pro and Con Arguments What is the author’s claim? The reason it’s so hard to find answers is, in part, a matter of ignorance. Only in the past half-century have instruments begun to be set out at sea and on land to monitor what’s actually happening. And only since about 1972 have orbiting satellites been able to even roughly track what’s happening to ice at the poles. Because there is no long-term history of climate variability, we can’t know whether what seems unusual now is actually unusual in global climate. from “An Arctic Floe of Climate Questions” by Robert Cooke (from Newsday, April 18, 2001) From “An Arctic Floe of Climate Questions” by Robert Cooke from Newsday, April 18, Copyright © 2001 by Newsday, Inc. Reproduced by permission of Tribune Media Services.

15 We’ve only been able to monitor data for a short time. Quick Check Evaluating Pro and Con Arguments What evidence is provided to support the claim? The reason it’s so hard to find answers is, in part, a matter of ignorance. Only in the past half-century have instruments begun to be set out at sea and on land to monitor what’s actually happening. And only since about 1972 have orbiting satellites been able to even roughly track what’s happening to ice at the poles. Because there is no long-term history of climate variability, we can’t know whether what seems unusual now is actually unusual in global climate. from “An Arctic Floe of Climate Questions” by Robert Cooke (from Newsday, April 18, 2001) From “An Arctic Floe of Climate Questions” by Robert Cooke from Newsday, April 18, Copyright © 2001 by Newsday, Inc. Reproduced by permission of Tribune Media Services.

16 To decided which argument is stronger and why, consider these questions: Is the argument logical? Watch out for common fallacies, or errors in logical thinking. Evaluating the Credibility Do the reasons the author presents make sense? Are they relevant to the issue?

17 Fallacies Circular Reasoning— presenting restatements of the author’s opinion as reasons or conclusions All students in the ninth grade need to get a laptop computer because it’s essential for all ninth-grade students to have one. False Cause and Effect— suggesting that one event caused another just because the two events happened in sequence Spelling scores for ninth- grade students went up after all students got laptop computers. Evaluating the Credibility

18 Fallacies Hasty Generalizations— making a broad, general statement or conclusion without sufficient evidence. Hasty generalizations are usually based on only one or two cases I should get a laptop computer because two of my friends have them, and their grades went up. Attacking the person— making a personal attack against someone with an opposing viewpoint rather than focusing on the issue Principal Smith says ninth graders don’t need computers because he is anti-computer and doesn’t like students. Evaluating the Credibility

19 How comprehensive is the support? Evaluating the Credibility Is there evidence to support every generalization or argument the author makes? Unsupported generalizations weaken an argument.

20 Evaluating the Credibility Does the author deal with opposing evidence? Does the writer discuss opposing evidence to anticipate objections? Addressing an opponent’s viewpoint is important when an issue is controversial and many people have clear pro (for) and con (against) views.

21 What might an opposing argument be? Quick Check Evaluating the Credibility The reason it’s so hard to find answers is, in part, a matter of ignorance. Only in the past half-century have instruments begun to be set out at sea and on land to monitor what’s actually happening. And only since about 1972 have orbiting satellites been able to even roughly track what’s happening to ice at the poles. Because there is no long-term history of climate variability, we can’t know whether what seems unusual now is actually unusual in global climate. from “An Arctic Floe of Climate Questions” by Robert Cooke (from Newsday, April 18, 2001) From “An Arctic Floe of Climate Questions” by Robert Cooke from Newsday, April 18, Copyright © 2001 by Newsday, Inc. Reproduced by permission of Tribune Media Services.

22 Lack of long- term evidence doesn’t mean that global warming isn’t happening. Quick Check Evaluating the Credibility The reason it’s so hard to find answers is, in part, a matter of ignorance. Only in the past half-century have instruments begun to be set out at sea and on land to monitor what’s actually happening. And only since about 1972 have orbiting satellites been able to even roughly track what’s happening to ice at the poles. Because there is no long-term history of climate variability, we can’t know whether what seems unusual now is actually unusual in global climate. from “An Arctic Floe of Climate Questions” by Robert Cooke (from Newsday, April 18, 2001) What might an opposing argument be? From “An Arctic Floe of Climate Questions” by Robert Cooke from Newsday, April 18, Copyright © 2001 by Newsday, Inc. Reproduced by permission of Tribune Media Services.

23 Is the structure effective? Evaluating the Credibility Does the structure help the writer’s strongest reasons stand out? (Readers generally remember the beginning or ending of a piece most clearly.) Writers commonly use cause and effect and compare and contrast writing structures to make their arguments.

24 What is the author’s intent? Evaluating the Credibility Is the author trying to persuade you or to issue a call to action?call to action Do there seem to be hidden agendas in the writer’s arguments?hidden agendas

25 What is the author’s intent? Quick Check Evaluating the Credibility The reason it’s so hard to find answers is, in part, a matter of ignorance. Only in the past half-century have instruments begun to be set out at sea and on land to monitor what’s actually happening. And only since about 1972 have orbiting satellites been able to even roughly track what’s happening to ice at the poles. Because there is no long-term history of climate variability, we can’t know whether what seems unusual now is actually unusual in global climate. from “An Arctic Floe of Climate Questions” by Robert Cooke (from Newsday, April 18, 2001) From “An Arctic Floe of Climate Questions” by Robert Cooke from Newsday, April 18, Copyright © 2001 by Newsday, Inc. Reproduced by permission of Tribune Media Services.

26 To convince readers that not enough evidence exists to prove global warming is a problem. Quick Check What is the author’s intent? Evaluating the Credibility The reason it’s so hard to find answers is, in part, a matter of ignorance. Only in the past half-century have instruments begun to be set out at sea and on land to monitor what’s actually happening. And only since about 1972 have orbiting satellites been able to even roughly track what’s happening to ice at the poles. Because there is no long-term history of climate variability, we can’t know whether what seems unusual now is actually unusual in global climate. from “An Arctic Floe of Climate Questions” by Robert Cooke (from Newsday, April 18, 2001) From “An Arctic Floe of Climate Questions” by Robert Cooke from Newsday, April 18, Copyright © 2001 by Newsday, Inc. Reproduced by permission of Tribune Media Services.

27 What is the tone? Evaluating the Credibility The tone of a persuasive argument should be serious, calm, and reasonable.tone You should question the credibility of the argument if the tone is humorous, angry, or highly emotional. Also, be wary of authors who exaggerate unimportant issues or make light of serious issues.

28 What is the author’s tone? Quick Check How does the tone affect the author’s argument? Evaluating the Credibility The reason it’s so hard to find answers is, in part, a matter of ignorance. Only in the past half-century have instruments begun to be set out at sea and on land to monitor what’s actually happening. And only since about 1972 have orbiting satellites been able to even roughly track what’s happening to ice at the poles. Because there is no long-term history of climate variability, we can’t know whether what seems unusual now is actually unusual in global climate. from “An Arctic Floe of Climate Questions” by Robert Cooke (from Newsday, April 18, 2001) [End of Section] From “An Arctic Floe of Climate Questions” by Robert Cooke from Newsday, April 18, Copyright © 2001 by Newsday, Inc. Reproduced by permission of Tribune Media Services.

29 Calm and reasonable Quick Check Evaluating the Credibility What is the author’s tone? The reason it’s so hard to find answers is, in part, a matter of ignorance. Only in the past half-century have instruments begun to be set out at sea and on land to monitor what’s actually happening. And only since about 1972 have orbiting satellites been able to even roughly track what’s happening to ice at the poles. Because there is no long-term history of climate variability, we can’t know whether what seems unusual now is actually unusual in global climate. from “An Arctic Floe of Climate Questions” by Robert Cooke (from Newsday, April 18, 2001) From “An Arctic Floe of Climate Questions” by Robert Cooke from Newsday, April 18, Copyright © 2001 by Newsday, Inc. Reproduced by permission of Tribune Media Services.

30 It makes the argument sound credible. Quick Check Evaluating the Credibility How does the tone affect the author’s argument? The reason it’s so hard to find answers is, in part, a matter of ignorance. Only in the past half-century have instruments begun to be set out at sea and on land to monitor what’s actually happening. And only since about 1972 have orbiting satellites been able to even roughly track what’s happening to ice at the poles. Because there is no long-term history of climate variability, we can’t know whether what seems unusual now is actually unusual in global climate. from “An Arctic Floe of Climate Questions” by Robert Cooke (from Newsday, April 18, 2001) From “An Arctic Floe of Climate Questions” by Robert Cooke from Newsday, April 18, Copyright © 2001 by Newsday, Inc. Reproduced by permission of Tribune Media Services.

31 As you read “Rising Tides” and “An Arctic Floe of Climate Questions,” evaluate the credibility of each argument and decide which is more convincing. Assignment Piece 1 Pro Piece 2 Con Claim Logical Appeals Emotional Appeals Tone Author’s Intent Credibility [End of Section]

32 The End

33 Logical appeals are the reasons the writer holds an opinion. Evaluating Pro and Con Arguments

34 Call to Action A call to action is a request to do something. Writers may ask you to Evaluating the Credibility write a letter change your behavior offer to help

35 Hidden Agendas Some writers may conceal their true motives for writing. Evaluating the Credibility For example, they may phrase opinions as facts in an attempt to persuade readers to take their side.

36 Tone Evaluating the Credibility Tone is the attitude a writer takes toward his or her subject or audience.


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