Presentation on theme: "Career and Technical Education: An Alternative Approach to Educating At- Risk Youth Seminar in Applied Theory and Research I By Nicole Morris Final Presentation."— Presentation transcript:
Career and Technical Education: An Alternative Approach to Educating At- Risk Youth Seminar in Applied Theory and Research I By Nicole Morris Final Presentation Fall 2009 – 12.10.09
Table of Contents Introduction Statement of the Problem Review of Related Literature Statement of the Hypothesis Method Participants (N) Instruments (s) References
Introduction Shadowing the so-called “well adjusted” high school student are the youth falling victim to an extensive range of risk factors that make them a member of a growing population of diverse teens labeled “at-risk”. Their risk factors, be it low achievement, retention in grade, or behavior problems all bear the unique stamp of the individual that experiences expulsion, suspension, or other forms of rejection. (Poyrazli, Ferrer- Wreder, Meister, Forthun, Coastworth,& Grahame, 2008).
Statement of the Problem At-risk behavior patterns, be it prankish or criminal, is challenging educators’ to question their professional skills and their ethics. Hence, the question remains, how will the educational system carry out the job of reaching the high school student who has become so accustomed to academic failure?
Review of Related Literature The CTE Approach Education policy cannot continue to believe all students will proceed through a traditional four years of high school followed directly by two to four years of college. Sagor, R. (1999). Education should include all members of society, not just the elite. Dewey, J. (1916)
Review of Related Literature The CTE Approach Instructional Strategy #1 Alternative high schools that incorporate CTE programs have been effective in engaging academic understanding through Experiential Learning. Alfeld, C., Hansen, D., Aragon, S., & Stone, J. (2006). Leone, P. E., & Drakeford, W. (1999).
Review of Related Literature Experiential Learning Theorist: Carl Rogers Academic understanding and learning takes place when the subject matter is relevant to the personal interests of the student: The student participates completely in the learning process and has control over its nature and direction. Understanding and learning is practical, social, and personal. Students learn the method of self-evaluation to assess progress and success.
Review of Related Literature The CTE Approach Instructional Strategy #2 CTE’s positive approach uses contextualized learning to connect information to real-life understanding. Bennett, J. (2007).
Review of Related Literature Contextualized Learning Theorist: Nancy Karweit Contextualized Learning assists students to naturally seeks meaning in context, in relation to the person's current environment, by searching for relationships that make sense and appear useful: Address basic academics like math and science in context to a career such as construction or engineering. Provides clear transitions from education to career pathways.
Review of Related Literature The Benefits of an Alternative Education Pros Alternative education settings for at-risk youth provide a combination of intense, individualized academic instruction and behavior modification counseling in an alternative setting to assist students to achieve both personally and academically. Bennett, J. (2007).
Review of Related Literature Alternative Education for At-Risk Youth Pros An alternative academic setting transforms the school to nurture and re-engage the student who has given up on learning through: Reduced class size Instructional models that have a real-life approach Access to social services Use of technology D’Angelo, F., & Zemanick, R. (2009).
Review of Related Literature Setbacks: Why the Traditional Setting Doesn’t Work For some students, the traditional academic setting and course names are a constant reminder of their educational shortcomings, failure and overall rejection that takes place year after year. Foley, R., & Pang, L. (2006). Hughes-Hassell, S. (2008). Aron, L.Y. (2006, January ).
Review of Related Literature When the Alternative Setting Doesn’t Work Cons Exchanges between the teacher, administrator and At-risk student must remain positive, and an understanding of consequences for inappropriate actions must be established. When rules are not established for At-risk students: Unpleasant or violent confrontations erupt. Students become dis-engaged. Students choose to leave or dropout of school.
Statement of the Hypothesis H R 1 : An alternative high school in Queens, NY that includes Career and Technical Education (CTE) programs are more effective to re-engage academic understanding of mathematics, over a 6 month period to 17 over-aged ninth graders that exhibit at-risk behavior patterns.
Method Participants Total population of 17 over-aged ninth grade boys and girls: 65% or 11 students are boys 35% or 6 students are girls Racial breakdown of ninth grade students: 71% or 12 students are African-American 29% or 5 students are Latino Socio-Economic status of ninth grade students: Lower SES to include one homeless student Public Transfer high school located in Queens, NY
Method Instruments Surveys, and questionnaires to parents/guardians, students and teacher. Consent forms to parents/guardians, students and teacher. Math Assessments: Learning portfolio of best work Supplemental Math games, instruction and exams from Digital Tabula Timed Math exams Peer to Peer assessment
References Alfeld, C., Hansen, D., Aragon, S., & Stone, J. (2006). Inside the black box: Exploring the value added by career and technical student organizations to students' high school experience. Career and Technical Education Research, 31(3), 121-55. Retrieved September 23, 2009, from Eric Education Full Text database. Aron, L.Y. (2006, January). An overview of alternative education. The Urban Institute. Retrieved September 17, 2009, from http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/411283_alternative_education.pdf Bennett, J. (2007). Work-based learning and social Support: Relative influences on high school seniors' occupational engagement orientations. Career and Technical Education Research, 32(3), 187-214. Retrieved September 23, 2009, from Eric Education Full Text database. Clayton, M., Sun Ho, P., Hudis, P. (2007). Designing a multidisciplinary integrated curriculum: A practical manual. The California Center for College and Career. Retrieved September 17, 2009 from, http://www.connectedcalifornia.org/downloads/Practical_Manual.pdf Conner, E., & McKee, J. (2008). Drop-out challenges: Pathways to success. Principal Leadership (High School Ed.), 9(3), 38-43. Retrieved September 23, 2009, from Eric Education Full Text database. D'Angelo, F., & Zemanick, R. (2009). The twilight academy: An alternative education program that works. Preventing School Failure, 53(4), 211-18. Retrieved September 23, 2009, from Eric Education Full Text database. Department of Education. (n.d.). Implementation work-based learning programs: A guide for coordinators. Retrieved September 17, 2009 from http://schools.nyc.gov/NR/rdonlyres/BA9BFF18-054E-4DB0-94A7- DCCD236D7A59/0/WBLguidevs3.pdf Dewey, J. (1916). Democracy and education. Toronto: Macmillan Co.
References Duke, D. & Griesdorn, J. (1999). Consideration in the design of alternative schools. Clearing House, 73 (2), 89- 92. Retrieved September 23, 2009, from Eric Education Full Text database. Foley, R., & Pang, L. (2006). Alternative education programs: Program and student characteristics. The High School Journal, 89(3), 10-21. Retrieved September 23, 2009, from Eric Education Full Text database. Gunn, T., Chorney, D., & Poulsen, J. (2009). High school completion: A comprehensive review of projects directed toward keeping students in school. Journal of At-Risk Issues, 15(1), 17-24. Retrieved November 17, 2009, from Eric Education Full Text database. Hughes-Hassell, S. (2008). Alternative educational settings: What can we learn from them? Knowledge Quest, 37(1), 8-11. Retrieved September 23, 2009, from Eric Education Full Text database. Ingersoll, S., & LeBoef, D. (1997). Reaching out to youth out of the education mainstream. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice, February, 1997. Retrieve November 17, 2009, from http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles/163928.pdf Kleiner, B., Porch, R., & Farris, E. (2002). Public alternative schools and programs for students at risk of education failure: 2000-01 (NCES Rep. No. 2002-004). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved September 17, 2009, from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2002/2002004.pdf Leone, P. E., & Drakeford, W. (1999). Alternative education: From a “last chance” to a proactive model [Electronic version]. The Clearinghouse, 73(2), 86–88. Loftstrom, M., & Tyler, J. (Spring 2009). Finishing high school: Alternative pathways and dropout recovery. Future of Children, 19(1), 77-103. Retrieved November 17, 2009, from Eric Education Full Text database.
References National Alternative Education Association. (2009). Exemplary practice in alternative education: Indicators of quality programming. Retrieved September 17, 2009, from http://www.state.tn.us/education/learningsupport/alted/doc/ExemplaryPracticesinAE.pdf National Commission on Excellence in Education. (1983). A nation at risk: The imperative of educational reform. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education. Orfield, Gary. (1988). Race, Income, and Education Inequality. In school success for students at risk: Analysis and recommendation of the council of chief state School officers. Orlando, Fla.: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, Inc. Poyrazli, S., Ferrer-Wreder, L., Meister, D., Forthun, L., Coastworth, J., & Grahame, K. (2008). Academic achievement, employment, age and gender and students' experience of alternative school. Adolescence, 43, 547-56. Retrieved September 23, 2009, from Eric Education Full Text database. Sagor, R. (1999). Equity and excellence in public schools: The role of the alternative school. The Clearing House, 73(2), 72-5. Retrieved September 23, 2009, from Eric Education Full Text database. Scott, T., Nelson, C., & Liaupsin, C. (2002). Addressing the needs of at-risk and adjudicated youth through positive behavior support: Effective prevention practices. Education and Treatment of Children, 25(4), 532-51. Retrieved September 23, 2009, from Education Full Text database. Sprague, J., & Tobin, T. (1999). Alternative education programs for at-risk youth: Issues, best practice, and recommendations. Oregon School Study Council Bulletin, 42(4), 1-19. Retrieved November 17, 2009, from Educations Full Text database. Wilkins, J. (2008). School characteristics that influence student attendance: Experiences of students in a school avoidance program. The High School Journal, 91(3), 12-24. Retrieved September 23, 2009, from Education Full Text database. Zweig, J. (2003, June). Vulnerable youth: Identifying their needs for alternative educational settings. The Urban Institute. Retrieved November 17, 2009, from http://urbaninstitute.org/UploadedPDF/410828_vulnerable_youth.pdf