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Visual Object Recognition Neurobiology 230 – Harvard / GSAS 78454 Gabriel Kreiman

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Presentation on theme: "Visual Object Recognition Neurobiology 230 – Harvard / GSAS 78454 Gabriel Kreiman"— Presentation transcript:

1 Visual Object Recognition Neurobiology 230 – Harvard / GSAS Gabriel Kreiman Phone: Web site: Dates: Mondays Time: 3:30 – 5:30 PM Location: Biolabs 1075

2 Gestalt laws – Basic phenomenological constraints Law of Closure — The mind may experience elements it does not perceive through sensation, in order to complete a regular figure (that is, to increase regularity). Law of Similarity — The mind groups similar elements into collective entities or totalities. This similarity might depend on relationships of form, color, size, or brightness. Law of Proximity — Spatial or temporal proximity of elements may induce the mind to perceive a collective or totality. Law of Symmetry (Figure ground relationships)— Symmetrical images are perceived collectively, even in spite of distance. Law of Continuity — The mind continues visual, auditory, and kinetic patterns. Law of Common Fate — Elements with the same moving direction are perceived as a collective or unit.

3 Click to edit the outline text format Second Outline Level  Third Outline Level Fourth Outline Level  Fifth Outline Level  Sixth Outline Level  Seventh Outline Level  Eighth Outline Level  Ninth Outline LevelClick to edit Master text styles  Second level  Third level  Fourth level » Fifth level Click to edit the outline text format Second Outline Level  Third Outline Level Fourth Outline Level  Fifth Outline Level  Sixth Outline Level  Seventh Outline Level  Eighth Outline Level  Ninth Outline LevelClick to edit Master text styles  Second level  Third level  Fourth level » Fifth level Click to edit the outline text format Second Outline Level  Third Outline Level Fourth Outline Level  Fifth Outline Level  Sixth Outline Level  Seventh Outline Level  Eighth Outline Level  Ninth Outline LevelClick to edit Master text styles  Second level  Third level  Fourth level » Fifth level Law of closure – The Kanizsa triangle

4 Law of similarity

5 Click to edit the outline text format Second Outline Level  Third Outline Level Fourth Outline Level  Fifth Outline Level  Sixth Outline Level  Seventh Outline Level  Eighth Outline Level  Ninth Outline LevelClick to edit Master text styles  Second level  Third level  Fourth level » Fifth level Click to edit the outline text format Second Outline Level  Third Outline Level Fourth Outline Level  Fifth Outline Level  Sixth Outline Level  Seventh Outline Level  Eighth Outline Level  Ninth Outline LevelClick to edit Master text styles  Second level  Third level  Fourth level » Fifth level Click to edit the outline text format Second Outline Level  Third Outline Level Fourth Outline Level  Fifth Outline Level  Sixth Outline Level  Seventh Outline Level  Eighth Outline Level  Ninth Outline LevelClick to edit Master text styles  Second level  Third level  Fourth level » Fifth level Law of proximity

6 Click to edit the outline text format Second Outline Level  Third Outline Level Fourth Outline Level  Fifth Outline Level  Sixth Outline Level  Seventh Outline Level  Eighth Outline Level  Ninth Outline LevelClick to edit Master text styles  Second level  Third level  Fourth level » Fifth level Click to edit the outline text format Second Outline Level  Third Outline Level Fourth Outline Level  Fifth Outline Level  Sixth Outline Level  Seventh Outline Level  Eighth Outline Level  Ninth Outline LevelClick to edit Master text styles  Second level  Third level  Fourth level » Fifth level Click to edit the outline text format Second Outline Level  Third Outline Level Fourth Outline Level  Fifth Outline Level  Sixth Outline Level  Seventh Outline Level  Eighth Outline Level  Ninth Outline LevelClick to edit Master text styles  Second level  Third level  Fourth level » Fifth level Law of continuity

7 Law of common fate

8 Size tolerance x A A A A A A A

9 Position tolerance x bddbbd db bd

10 Tolerance to viewpoint and illumination changes Chou Hung Cheston Tan Gabriel Kreiman

11 Tolerance to viewpoint and illumination changes

12 One-shot learning for scale tolerance

13 Other transformations require example- based training

14 Beyond pixels – Context matters

15 Visual recognition depends on experience

16 Recognition from minimal features

17 Recognition of caricatures Images: Hanoch Piven

18 Visual recognition can be extremely fast

19 Psychophysics: The study of the dependencies of psychological experiences upon the physical stimuli that generate them If we are careful, we can learn about how the brain works by measuring it indirectly, using the behavioral responses it generates. Basic measures: Reaction time — The time taken by subjects to perform a task or make a judgment can give an indication (or at least an upper bound) of how long the necessary psychological (and hence neural) processing takes. Performance — Often inversely related to reaction time. There are techniques for mitigating response biases. Threshold — Stimuli can be varied to determine the threshold for detection, discrimination, or some more complex psychological phenomenon. Depending on experimental goals, one or more can be probed.

20 Visual recognition can be extremely fast Kirchner, H., & Thorpe, S. J. (2006). Ultra-rapid object detection with saccadic eye movements: visual processing speed revisited. Vision Res, 46(11),

21 The visual system has a very large capacity

22 A massive recollection capacity Brady, T. F., Konkle, T., Alvarez, G. A., & Oliva, A. (2008). Visual long-term memory has a massive storage capacity for object details. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 105(38),

23 Gestalt laws apply to object recognition Pelli, Majaj, Raizman, Christian, Kim, & Palomares (2009). Grouping in object recognition: The role of a Gestalt law in letter identification. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 26(1),

24 Is information integrated over time?

25 Brief asynchronies disrupt object recognition, but some integration persists even beyond 100 ms.

26 Further reading  Regan, D. Human Perception of Objects (2000). Sinauer Associates. Sunderland, Massachusets.  Frisby, JP and Stone JV. Seeing (2010). MIT Press. Cambridge, Massachusetts. Original articles cited in class (see lecture notes for complete list)  Potter, MC (1969)Recognition memory for a rapid sequence of pictures. Journal of Experimental Psychology 81:  Kirchner, H., & Thorpe, S. J. (2006). Ultra-rapid object detection with saccadic eye movements: visual processing speed revisited. Vision Res, 46(11),  Brady, T. F., Konkle, T., Alvarez, G. A., & Oliva, A. (2008). Visual long-term memory has a massive storage capacity for object details. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 105(38),  Mooney CM. (1957). Age in the development of closure ability in children. Canadian Journal of Psychology 11:


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