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Citing Sources Using APA (6th ed.) This module discusses: Giving credit for ideas, words, and information Plagiarism and self plagiarism Paraphrasing Author.

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Presentation on theme: "Citing Sources Using APA (6th ed.) This module discusses: Giving credit for ideas, words, and information Plagiarism and self plagiarism Paraphrasing Author."— Presentation transcript:

1 Citing Sources Using APA (6th ed.) This module discusses: Giving credit for ideas, words, and information Plagiarism and self plagiarism Paraphrasing Author – date citation system Text citations Direct quotes Duration: 11 min 15 sec

2 When to Cite: Opinions, beliefs,…& Common Knowledge See APA (6th ed.), p. 169 Opinions, beliefs, ideas, and theories from any source Any information obtained that is not common knowledge Direct quotes of the words used verbatim Summarized or paraphrased ideas

3 When to Cite: Common knowledge See APA (6th ed.), p. 169 Opinions, beliefs, ideas, and theories from any source Any information obtained that is not common knowledge Direct quotes of the words used verbatim Summarized or paraphrased ideas

4 When to Cite: Direct Quotes and Paraphrased Ideas See APA (6th ed.), p. 169 Opinions, beliefs, ideas, and theories from any source Any information obtained that is not common knowledge Direct quotes of the words used verbatim Summarized or paraphrased ideas

5 Ethical Use of Information and Plagiarism Scholars are responsible for ethically using information. Problems by not properly citing the use of other people’s words, ideas, theories, and/or information is considered plagiarism.

6 Plagiarism and Self-Plagiarism Using another person’s ideas or words without giving them proper credit is considered plagiarism. Self-plagiarism Using text citations for direct quotes and paraphrasing

7 Two types of in-text citations paraphrase direct quote APA uses the author – date citation system

8 Paraphrased text citations Paraphrased text citation: Another study raised issues of motivation in reading (McPherson, 2007). Paraphrased text citation: McPherson (2007) raised issues of motivation in reading.

9 Paraphrased text citations (part 2) Paraphrased text citation: Another study raised issues of motivation in reading (McPherson, 2007). Paraphrased text citation: McPherson (2007) raised issues of motivation in reading.

10 Punctuation and Formatting for Authors in Text Citation APA’s Author-Date Citation System: Fink’s (2007) research confirmed the results of cloning. Research confirmed the results of cloning (Fink, 2007). Quantitative studies (Fink, 2001, 2007) confirmed … A couple of experiments (Eifrig, 1976; Skinner, 1956) found.... The Web site did not support the data (Wienhorst, n.d.). n.d. – no date Weiss (in press) is working on a new theory that …. See APA (6th ed.), pp

11 Punctuation and Formatting for Authors in Text Citation APA’s Author-Date Citation System: Fink’s (2007) research confirmed the results of cloning. Research confirmed the results of cloning (Fink, 2007). Quantitative studies (Fink, 2001, 2007) confirmed … A couple of experiments (Eifrig, 1976; Skinner, 1956) found.... The Web site did not support the data (Wienhorst, n.d.). n.d. – no date Weiss (in press) is working on a new theory that …. See APA (6th ed.), pp

12 Et al. Citations in text: First: Quinlan, Jones, Byron, and Montgomery (2008) Thereafter: Quinlan et al. (2008) observed (et al. is used after first use when there are three or more authors) Parenthetical citations in text: First: (Quinlan, Jones, Byron, & Montgomery, 2008) Thereafter: (Quinlan et al., 2008) One work by six or more authors: Wienhorst et al. (2009) (Wienhorst et al., 2009) See APA manual (6 th ed.), pp. 175, 177, 203 Always use et al. for six or more authors.

13 Punctuation for et al. Citations in text: Quinlan, Jones, Byron, and Montgomery (2008) stated Quinlan et al. (2008) observed (et al. is used after first use when there are three or more authors) Parenthetical citations in text: (Quinlan, Jones, Byron, & Montgomery, 2008) (Quinlan et al., 2008) One work by six or more authors: Wienhorst et al. (2009) (Wienhorst et al., 2009) See APA manual (6 th ed.), pp. 175, 177, 203

14 Group Authors - abbreviations Corporations, associations, government agencies, and study groups can serve as group authors. If the name is long and the abbreviation is readily recognizable, then use the abbreviation the first time and abbreviate thereafter. American Psychological Association (APA) (American Psychological Association [APA], 2001) Subsequent text citations use (APA, 2001) If the name is short or not readily understandable, then write out the name each time it occurs. University of Pittsburg (2006). Subsequent text citations use (University of Pittsburg, 2006) See APA (6th ed.), pp APA (6th ed.), p. 177

15 Group Authors – short names Corporations, associations, government agencies, and study groups can serve as group authors. If the name is long and the abbreviation is readily recognizable, then use the abbreviation the first time and abbreviate thereafter. American Psychological Association (APA) (American Psychological Association [APA], 2001) Subsequent text citations use (APA, 2001) If the name is short or not readily understandable, then write out the name each time it occurs. University of Pittsburg (2006). Subsequent text citations use (University of Pittsburg, 2006) See APA (6th ed.), pp APA (6th ed.), p. 177

16 Paraphrasing Direct quote APA manual (6 th ed.), pp “Signed into law in January 2002 by President George W. Bush, the No Child Let Behind (NCLB) Act signaled the nation’s most sweeping education reform of federal education policy in decades. NCLB laid the groundwork for education reforms and the president’s attempt to strengthen America’s education system” (Smith, 2008, p. 212).

17 Paraphrase at least 50% When the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act was signed into law in January of 2002 by President Bush, the law provided the most all- encompassing reform in education the United States in decades and provided a foundation for strengthening educational policy at the national level for years to come (Smith, 2008). Direct quote Paraphrased More than 50% reworded APA manual (6 th ed.), pp “Signed into law in January 2002 by President George W. Bush, the No Child Let Behind (NCLB) Act signaled the nation’s most sweeping education reform of federal education policy in decades. NCLB laid the groundwork for education reforms and the president’s attempt to strengthen America’s education system” (Smith, 2008, p. 212).

18 Researchers have noted adjustment problems during a rising ninth grader’s transition period. The rising ninth graders’ grade point averages and attendance tend to decrease. The upcoming freshman experience feelings of connectedness, and co-curricular participation. They also experience an increase in anxiety concerning school procedures and older students, social difficulties. So far, transition programs have varied widely within schools, and designs range from a one-day overview of a new school to a full school year of career-focused curriculum. Although the scope of research varies as much as the programs themselves, several important aspects have been emphasized, and it is apparent that longer-term comprehensive transition programming can be beneficial. Dropout There is a high school dropout epidemic in America. Each year, almost one-third of all public high school students – and nearly one-half of all blacks, Hispanics and Native Americans – fail to graduate from public high school (Bridgeland, Dilulio, Jr., and Morison, 2006). The most common reasons for dropping out of high school are attitude towards school, poor school performance, and poor relationship with teachers. Dropouts also had lower academic performance, decreased motivation, and an increased sense of alienation from the school environment (Lan & Lanthier, 2003). Research also revealed that high school students often consider the social organizational changes and academic work as the most difficult part of transition (Akos, 2004). Researchers have noted adjustment problems duringin anxiety concerning school procedures and older students, social difficulties. transition programs have varied widely within schools, and designs range from a one-day overview of a new school to a full school year of career-focused curriculum. Although the scope of research varies as much as the programs themselves, several important aspects have been emphasized, and it is apparent that longer-term comprehensive transition programming can be beneficial.The most common reasons for dropping out of high schoolattitude towards school, poor school performance, andrelationship with teachers.had lower academic performance, decreased motivation, and an increased sense of alienation from the school environmentResearch alsothat high school students oftenthe social organizational changes and academic work as the most difficultof transition (Akos, 46% of Paper Used Verbatim Found Using Turnitin Words in red were taken verbatim from a second source. Only a few words were paraphrased. Words in blue were taken verbatim from one source. (Lan & Lanthier, 2003). (Bridgeland, Dilulio, Jr., and Morison, 2006).

19 Researchers have noted adjustment problems during a rising ninth grader’s transition period. The rising ninth graders’ grade point averages and attendance tend to decrease. The upcoming freshman experience feelings of connectedness, and co-curricular participation. They also experience an increase in anxiety concerning school procedures and older students, social difficulties. So far, transition programs have varied widely within schools, and designs range from a one-day overview of a new school to a full school year of career-focused curriculum. Although the scope of research varies as much as the programs themselves, several important aspects have been emphasized, and it is apparent that longer-term comprehensive transition programming can be beneficial. Dropout There is a high school dropout epidemic in America. Each year, almost one-third of all public high school students – and nearly one-half of all blacks, Hispanics and Native Americans – fail to graduate from public high school (Bridgeland, Dilulio, Jr., and Morison, 2006). The most common reasons for dropping out of high school are attitude towards school, poor school performance, and poor relationship with teachers. Dropouts also had lower academic performance, decreased motivation, and an increased sense of alienation from the school environment (Lan & Lanthier, 2003). Research also revealed that high school students often consider the social organizational changes and academic work as the most difficult part of transition (Akos, 2004). Researchers have noted adjustment problems duringin anxiety concerning school procedures and older students, social difficulties. transition programs have varied widely within schools, and designs range from a one-day overview of a new school to a full school year of career-focused curriculum. Although the scope of research varies as much as the programs themselves, several important aspects have been emphasized, and it is apparent that longer-term comprehensive transition programming can be beneficial.The most common reasons for dropping out of high schoolattitude towards school, poor school performance, andrelationship with teachers.had lower academic performance, decreased motivation, and an increased sense of alienation from the school environmentResearch alsothat high school students oftenthe social organizational changes and academic work as the most difficultof transition (Akos, Other Problems With Plagiarism Also Found Using Turnitin The original idea was from Lan & Lanthier, but the source of this “paraphrase” was not cited. (Lan & Lanthier, 2003).

20 Example of a Direct Quote Text citation with direct quote: McPherson (2007) coined the phrase “goblet of motivation” (p. 71). APA manual (6 th ed.), pp

21 Text Citation with Direct Quote Text citation with direct quote: McPherson (2007) coined the phrase “goblet of motivation” (p. 71). The phrase that aptly describes the impact on reading is “goblet of motivation” (McPherson, 2007, p. 71). APA manual (6 th ed.), pp

22 Text Cites of Electronic Resources In another case, Scanlon, Gallego, Duran, and Reyes (2005) found that the results should be “based on assumptions that individuals are capable of self-directed and self-initiated learning” (Methods section, para. 7). “The qualitative research methods discussed by Durango were challenged by Bambang and Totonumu” (Pival, Falcao, & Quinlan, 2009, “Problems with Qualitative Research,” para. 5). See APA (6th ed.), p. 172 Use name of section. Use shortened title in quotation marks.

23 Block Quotes The abstract is a one-paragraph summary or overview of the paper and “should summarize the essential content of the paper” (Tunon, 2008, p. 34). Direct quote for less than 40 words: Block quote ( 40 words or more): Students at Nova Southeastern University have faced challenges in learning how to use APA formatting. When discussing the challenges, Strunk (1922) stated: Use quotes around an article title or book chapter, but italicize the title of a book, journal, brochure, or report when used in the body of the paper. Use a short title in the parenthetical citation or complete title if the title is short. NOTE Non-periodical titles like books and book titles have all the important words capitalized in the text citations, but these same book titles do not have all the important words capitalized in the reference list. (p. 342) Callahan (2001), however, says …. (NOTE: FSEHS allows single spacing, but APA uses double spacing.) Note where the periods go! APA manual (6 th ed.), pp. 92, 171

24 Ex. of Reference Citation Reference citation in reference list: McPherson, K. (2007). Harry Potter and the goblet of motivation. Teacher Librarian, 34(4), 71. doi: /

25 The end


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