Presentation on theme: "Development Pioneer Consultants P. O. Box 105660 Dar es Salaam, Tanzania Tel: +255 (0) 22 2600674 Sexual Harassment and Gender-"— Presentation transcript:
Development Pioneer Consultants P. O. Box 105660 Dar es Salaam, Tanzania Tel: +255 (0) 22 2600674 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Sexual Harassment and Gender- Based Violence in the Public Service in Mainland Tanzania: A Case Study among Employees in Mtwara Region and Dar es Salaam Annette Altvater, Charles Mrema, Adelaide Kisinda & Dr Linda Helgesson Sekei, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania 28 May, 2014
What is Sexual Harassment ? Sexual harassment includes: intimidation; bullying or coercion of a sexual nature; and unwelcome or inappropriate promise of rewards in exchange for sexual favours. It can also include unwelcomed sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal (offensive comments or offensive comments about a person’s sex) or physical violence of a sexual nature.
Objectives 1.Identify and describe public service policies, strategies and other frameworks that cover sexual harassment and gender-based violence. 2.Assess public servants awareness of the Code of Conduct and Ethics and whether or not the workplace programme (WPP) has also covered the area of sexual harassment. 3.Measure the magnitude and manifestation of the problem of SH-GBV and to develop a better understanding of the existing situation at the public workplaces. 4.Develop a better understanding of the causes and consequences of sexual harassment and violence at public workplaces. 5.Explore if there exists a link between SH and the transmission of HIV and other STIs at the workplace.
Background of the study 2007 2011 2011 2012/13 WPP (PO-PSM)-WPP (PO-PSM)- SH-GBV (Evaluation) GiZ: IDS (UDSM): Survey DPC:Additional analysis & FGDs
Methodological approach Linked to the WPP and streamlined with the WPP activities at the ministry, district and ward levels. Structured questionnaire through face-to-face interviews with 629 women and 964 men. (IDS) Additional analysis (DPC) Additional Focus Group Discussions (DPC & PO-PSM) Majority have participated in WPP activities Gender comparison and rural and urban comparison
Research instruments Three different instruments were used to collect data on the study population of public servants: Individual, anonymous questionnaire FGDs on districts and ward levels Key informant interviews
Sampling design Stratification of study population of public servants in Mtwara into; Urban sub-group: Had participated into in WPP one year prior to the survey Rural sub-group: At the time of the survey were implementing WPP Further subdivided into; Male public workers Female public workers further subdivided Urban Rural Male Female purposive or convenience sampling
Background of the respondents Questionnaire, face-to-face A total of 1593 respondent took part in this survey: All respondents were public servants. Majority had participated in WPP before Skewed towards male: 924 were male and 629 female Skewed towards rural: 940 respondents were from rural areas. FGDs and Individual interviews A total of 8 FGDs and 3 key informant interviews. All respondents were public servants Gender balanced: 4 FGDs with male and 4 with female. 4 in rural and 4 in urban Each FGD had around 8 participants. 3 key informant interviews: 2 in Dar es Salaam and 1 in Mtwara
Limitations of the study Slightly different questionnaires for male & female Assumption on female victims and male perpetrators Answer options related to the assumption Gender comparison limitations Assumption on definitions
Findings of the study Organised in a manner that is in line with each of the study objectives; 1.Awareness of the code of conduct and ethics for public employees. 2.Dimensions and magnitude of SH-GBV at public workplaces. 3.Causes of SH-GBV at public workplaces. 4.Link between SH-GBV and HIV/STIs at public workplaces. 5.Conclusions and recommendations.
Awareness of the Code of Conduct and Ethics for Public Employees
Click to edit the outline text format Second Outline Level Third Outline Level Fourth Outline Level Fifth Outline Level Sixth Outline Level Seventh Outline Level Eighth Outline Level Ninth Outline Level Male and female respondents’ awareness of the Code of Conduct and Ethics for Public Employees Why code of Conduct and Ethics for Public Employees? More men are aware of the Code of Conduct for Public employees than women. 63% of men report to be aware. 48% of female respondents. admitted to be aware.
Click to edit the outline text format Second Outline Level Third Outline Level Fourth Outline Level Fifth Outline Level Sixth Outline Level Seventh Outline Level Eighth Outline Level Ninth Outline Level Male and female respondents’ initial source of knowledge for the Code of Conduct and Ethics for Public Employees WPP seems to be the major source for both; 34% of women A relative high % of males (48%). Other government programs Directors and other officers mentioned, but seem to be the least source of knowledge for both male and female respondents.
Awareness of WPP intervention Well known from FGDs Referred to as a programme that was implemented once per year for one to two days Mainly covering the topic HIV/AIDS awareness, prevention and care. Not all had participated, but expressed a demand for such trainings: WPP includes all departments but there are few opportunities so it depends on how the groups are arranged (participants selected) from year to year. But it only includes a few people from the different departments. This is something which needs to be improved (Female FGD, Dar es Salaam, ward level). For us who attended the seminar it has helped us. But if it could have included people from all departments, it could have been more useful (Female FGD, Dar es Salaam, ward level).
Magnitude and manifestation of SH-GBV at public workplaces
Meaning of SH and SV from respondents’ perspective Respondents from the actual survey were assumed to understand the meaning and the difference between the terms Sexual Harassment and Sexual Violence In FGDs the meaning and difference was explored. Sexual favors such as agreeing to have sex with someone in return for financial or social gain at the workplace is considered as sexual harassment, while rape, beating and foul language was considered as sexual violence: To me I think there is a difference. Sexual violence is more than sexual harassment. For example if my boss wants me to offer him sex so that I can get good treatment at my workplace then that is sexual harassment. But if I refuse and he reaches an ultimate point of raping me, then that is sexual violence (Female FGD, Mtwara urban).
Click to edit the outline text format Second Outline Level Third Outline Level Fourth Outline Level Fifth Outline Level Sixth Outline Level Seventh Outline Level Eighth Outline Level Ninth Outline Level Female respondents’ reporting having been sexually harassed at their workplace 20.51% of women report to have been sexually harassed. 72.97% report to not been sexually harassed.
Click to edit the outline text format Second Outline Level Third Outline Level Fourth Outline Level Fifth Outline Level Sixth Outline Level Seventh Outline Level Eighth Outline Level Ninth Outline Level Female respondents’ reporting having been sexually violated at their workplace 2% report to have been sexually violated 40% of women report to not been sexually violated at their workplace 58% not indicated
Click to edit the outline text format Second Outline Level Third Outline Level Fourth Outline Level Fifth Outline Level Sixth Outline Level Seventh Outline Level Eighth Outline Level Ninth Outline Level Male respondents’ reporting having been sexually harassed/sexually violated at their workplace 12% of men indicated to have been sexually harassed. 4% of male respondent said to have been sexually violated.
Perceived causes of SH-GBV at workplaces testified by men Majority of them believe that women’s behavior is the cause of sexual harassment. 46.4% women’s dressing styles 37.0% women’s monetary needs 36.2% women behavior of seducing men 16.6% environment created by the current management system 10.4% women being unaware of their rights as Public servant 9.4% It is usual for men to want sexual friendship with women at the workplace. 8.9 % unaware of the principles of ethics regarding SH-GV in the public sector workplace is the cause.
Perceived causes of sexual harassment at workplace from FGDs Causes of SH-GBV was among the issues explored in the FGDs. Men living away from their wives Women dressing styles which are not in line with the Government Dress Code Some men believe that women dressing style should not taken as an excuse. “To me I can say that though the issue of dressing is regulated in public sector but still the situation is not good enough. Some women still do not wear decently. They put on clothes which shape their bodies which make it easier for men to be tempted” (Female FGD, Masasi district). “The government is trying hard on the dress code at workplace. What remains is upon us men because even when a woman put on a hijab dress, men still would like to get to know her” (Male FGD, Dar es Salaam, ward level)
Consequences of sexual harassment and remedial measures Fear Inefficiency at work Low productivity, Poor work relations, Loss of employees. Transmission of diseases e.g. HIV & STIs Public image may suffer especially if reported cases are not dealt with adequately. Sexual harassment can damage work environment - employees being uncomfortable working in such environment “A person who has been harassed will no longer be normal she/he will develop a certain worry towards the perpetrator that maybe if I deny him/her this time while I have already had sex with him/her ten times before, then what will be next?” (Female FGD, Dar es Salaam, district level)
Remedial measures from questionnaire The top six measure suggested by women: Stronger punishment of harassers. Regular seminars focusing on the code of conduct and ethics. Raising of salaries for women. Monthly secret vote on casting to reveal leaders who sexually harass their subordinates. Women should be decently dressed Increased sensitization and knowledge sharing on HIV.
Remedial measures from FGDs Encourage women to be confident Use suggestion boxes Empower PCCB External psychologist or institution to deals with SH-GBV cases Sensitization workshops on what SH-GBV is, as well as the laws and regulations that are in place Documentation of reported incidences which can be used to take to the next level More training on awareness SH-GBV media (radio and TV) Appointed officers should have a professional background in social behavior A system which issues written warnings to perpetrators Laws and regulations are in place but need to be reinforced
Link between SH-GBV and HIV/STIs at public workplaces
Fear of having been infected with HIV as a result of SH-GBV More men who are sexually harassed from rural areas feared having contracted HIV than men from urban areas. A few sexually harassed women also fear to contract HIV.
Does sexual harassment and gender violence contribute to the spread of HIV/AIDS in public workplaces?
Click to edit the outline text format Second Outline Level Third Outline Level Fourth Outline Level Fifth Outline Level Sixth Outline Level Seventh Outline Level Eighth Outline Level Ninth Outline Level Male and female opinions on whether SH-GBV contributes to the spread of HIV at public workplaces Majority of men and women believe that SH-GBV contributes to the spread of HIV. 79% of male 71% of female
Linkage SH-GBV & HIV at public workplaces – testimonies from FGDs: It even happens to teachers whereby head teachers use the capitation money to seduce teachers and make them close to him by telling them that he will give them some amount of money. For instance at school A, the headmaster had such tendencies and he had sexual relationship with many teachers, who some of them even died (Female FGD, Dar es Salaam, ward level). I was told that such actions persisted in the past when I was transferred to this office from Mtwara District Council about a year ago. I was told that there were some bosses who used to harass junior workers sexually and that some of them have already died (Key informant interview with HR manager, Mtwara urban).
Conclusions and lessons learned A significant portion are not aware of the existence of code of conduct. Both women and men are said to be victims of sexual harassment. The main perpetrators tend to be men with administrative power and leaders Men are harassed by other men in the case they are seen as an obstacle Younger male employees are sexually harassed by more senior women, Men feel sexually harassed by women who dress daringly Consequences of SH-GBV included mental and physical suffering Dress codes may not be solution to sexual harassment Having policies, strategies and legal framework is important but not sufficient
Recommendations From quantitative analysis (survey) From qualitative analysis (FGDs) Top 4 recommendations: The (PO-PSM) should conduct regular Monitoring and Evaluation Regular seminars targeting public servants Capacity building in handling SH-GBV cases A course on gender mainstreaming comprising of a strong component on SH-GBV Top 4 recommendations: PCCB should have a component to deal with SH-GBV External psychologist or institution to deals with SH-GBV cases. More training on awareness SH-GBV media (radio and TV). Appointed officers should have a professional background in social behavior.
Other Implications and recommendations (from survey)- cont. The governance instruments/committees for handling grievances/social conflicts including sexual harassment and gender violence at the workplace should be reassessed to improve its deficiencies and to better empower employees and build their skills to react effectively to any form of sexual harassment The President’s Office for Public Service Management (POPSM), through the gender desk officers and HIV focal persons, should conduct regular Monitoring and Evaluation to track the implementation of issued circulars on the Code of Conduct and Ethics for public servants. The strategy for dissemination of existing policies, laws and rules/regulations on workers’ rights should be reviewed and enriched to allow for more participatory and cost effective approaches (involving the Ministries, Departments and Agencies (MDAs) and NGOs.
Other Implications and recommendations (from survey) – cont. Regular seminars targeting public servants to discuss work-related conduct and ethics alongside discussions on HIV infections and the role of both relevant committees and gender/HIV focal persons at workplaces in addressing gender issues should be facilitated/ organized with adequate budgetary allocations. A nation-wide campaign to raise gender awareness particularly on sexual harassment and gender violence at workplace should be launched as well as discussions held on how to address the systemic patriarchal cultural inhibitions. The Ethics Committees established at workplaces should be empowered to handle issues of sexual harassment and gender violence and share data with higher level-based committees.
Other Implications and recommendations (from survey) - cont. The current Public Leadership Code of Ethics Act (1995) should be reviewed to incorporate issues of moral standards. The annual public servants’ (workers’) performance appraisal system should be redesigned to include assessment of social behaviours such as sexual harassment and gender violence and a reward system to comply with the workplace code of conduct and ethics. A course module on gender mainstreaming in local government/public service comprising of a strong component on SH-GV at workplace should be introduced in the public service training colleges (PSTCs). Capacity building for handling SH-GV cases need to be built in all public institutions.