# AIDS IN AFRICA. Two orphaned children stand next to the graves of their parents who died from the AIDS virus. An infected mother with her child who has.

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AIDS IN AFRICA

Two orphaned children stand next to the graves of their parents who died from the AIDS virus. An infected mother with her child who has the disease as well.

70% of the world’s estimated 40 million people living with HIV/AIDS are located in Sub-Saharan Africa.

AIDS IN AFRICA A computational model using social sciences, math, and science curriculums with an written evaluation process. Created by: Kathy Hemenover(Library/Media Specialist) Angie Messer(Algebra II Instructor) Fred Nelson(Physics Instructor) Tracy Robinson(Social Sciences Instructor) Manhattan High School- Manhattan Kansas

Sub-Saharan Africa is home to 90% of the world’s HIV infected children.

Module Description This module will introduce students to the AIDS epidemic and its effect on the population growth in Africa, especially in the country of Kenya. The students will be studying the AIDS epidemic by also looking at the following concepts: social factors, economic conditions, life expectancy and political values which have helped to contribute to this plague. This module will also help students to develop skills in data analysis and interpreting charts as well as graphs. This instructional tool will also introduce computational math to ninth grade students by using the Stella model, Microsoft Word and PowerPoint. This unit will be used in a Ninth grade Social Sciences classroom with a math and science emphasis. This module will be used in a 51 minute class period and will emphasize research, data manipulation, and a final written evaluation process.

Of 30 children born in sub-Saharan Africa- 10 will acquire the virus simply by being born- 4 will be infected from breast feeding.

Most of these children will not live to see their 5 th birthdays.

Requirements The students will have a background in basic geography terms and will have studied the world population growth factors. The students will also have been introduced to Africa with a pretest, a map exercise, notes and a integrated worksheet. This module will need the following materials: –AIDS notes with an emphasis on Kenya –Stella Model –Student research on the AIDS epidemic using the following websites: http://www.kenyaweb.com/health/aids/ http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2000/aids/stories/women.children/ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp- srv/inatl/longterm/africanlives/kenya/kenya_aids.htmhttp://www.washingtonpost.com/wp- srv/inatl/longterm/africanlives/kenya/kenya_aids.htm http://www.aidschannel.org/themes/country/country_404_1.shtml http://www.hrw.org/press/2001/06/kenya0625.htm http://www.time.com/time/newsfiles/aids/ –Worksheets –AIDS epidemic simulation Cups Water Mild acid Acid based indicator

12 million African children have been orphaned due to the AIDS virus.

Objectives Students will begin to investigate the African AIDS epidemic and understand the shifts in population, especially in Kenya. The students will recognize that social conditions will lead to not only to the growth of certain indicators but to the decline in others. The students will learn how to analyze graphs as well as exponential growth and decay. Students will use the Stella model to manipulate data to determine the impact of the AIDS epidemic on the population. By using an simulation of an AIDS epidemic the students will be able to comprehend how quickly this disease can effect the population. Through the interpretation of data obtained through research and manipulation, the students will then write an essay to explain the population decrease in Kenya. The students will also be able to recognize what solutions could be found in the data manipulation as well.

17 million Africans have already died since the epidemic began in the late 1970’s.

State and National Standards This project is based on Kansas State Standards which align with National Standards for both Math and Social Sciences. Social Studies Standards: –Geography: Geography Standard: The student uses a working knowledge and understanding of the spatial organization of Earth’s surface and relationships among people, places, and physical and human environments in order to explain the interactions that occur in our interconnected world. –evaluates the relative merits of maps, graphic representations, tools, and technologies in –terms of their value in solving geographic problems (e.g., map projections, aerial photographs, –satellite images, geographic information systems). –uses geographic tools and technologies to pose and answer questions about past and –present spatial distributions and patterns on Earth –interprets maps and other graphic representations to analyze world events to suggest –solutions to world problems

State and National Standards Benchmark 2 - Regions: The student analyzes the spatial organization of people, places, and environments that form regions on Earth’s surface. –explains how U.S. and world regions are interdependent (i.e., through trade, diffusion of –ideas, human migration, economic networks, international conflicts, participation in –international organizations). –demonstrates how various regional frameworks are used to interpret the complexity of –Earth (e.g., vegetation, climate, religion, language, occupations, industries, resources, –governmental systems, economic systems). –explains the factors that contribute to human and physical changes in regions (i.e., –environmental changes expand or contract regions, technology alters perception and use –of the place, migration changes cultural characteristics). –uses regions to analyze past and present geographic issues to answer geographic –questions (illustrations: conflicts caused by overlapping regional identities, causes and –impacts of regional alliances, changing regional identities).

State and National Standards Benchmark 4 - Human Systems: The student understands how economic, political, cultural, and social processes interact to shape patterns of human populations, interdependence, cooperation, and conflict. –describes and analyzes the characteristics, structure, and patterns of different populations –through the use of demographic concepts (i.e., population pyramids, birth/death rates, –population growth rates, migration patterns). –predicts trends and evaluates the local-to-global impact of population growth and –migration on physical and human systems in response to environmental, social, –economic, political, and technological changes

State and National Standards for Mathematics Math Standards: –In grades 9-12, students should be able to draw reasonable conclusions about a situation being modeled. –In grades 9-12, students should be able to understand how sample statistics reflect the values of population parameters and use sampling distributions as the basis for informal inference; –Instructional programs from pre-kindergarten through grade 12 should enable all students to recognize and apply mathematics in contexts outside of mathematics.

Widow inheritance has caused infection rates to reach about 30% in Nairobi Kenya.

Introduction This project will be an in depth look at the spread of AIDS in Kenya and what factors have contributed to this epidemic. The students, through the manipulation of the Stella model, will begin to understand the severe impact AIDS will have on Africa, especially Kenya. The students will also understand how the HIV/AIDS virus is linked to social, economic, and political conditions as well as life expectancy. Through the collection of data and research the students will be able to write a well written essay explaining the conditions of Kenya as well as provide thought provoking solutions to this epidemic.

Stella Model

Population(t) = Population(t - dt) + (births - deaths) * dt INIT Population = 30765916 INFLOWS: births = birth_rate*Population OUTFLOWS: deaths = death_rate*Population AIDS = 1-Impact_of_orphans birth_rate = (35/1000)/Economy/(Education/.76)/(Health_care) death_rate = (14/1000)*(AIDS/.93)*(War)*(Impact_of_orphans) Economy = Income/1600 Education = -2/1000 Health_care = 3/1000 Impact_of_orphans = 1 Income = 1600 War = 1

Stella Model

In recent years the government budget for Health care per person in Kenya has dropped from \$9.50 to less than \$3.00.

Sample Lesson Plan Day 1: Introduce students to the project through notes and discussion. Explain project and objectives(Notes will be available later). Day 2: AIDS simulation- have students use the simulation to understand how fast this epidemic is spreading and how easy the disease can be transmitted. Discuss and then have student break out into groups and begin the research phase. Day 3: Research with websites and hardcopy materials with worksheets. Day 4: Research phase with worksheets. Day 5: Introduce Stella model and explain the objectives- discuss. Have the students work with the model to understand concepts. Continue research. Day 6: Stella manipulation with worksheets in groups(worksheets will be available later.) Day 7: Stella manipulation with worksheets in groups. Day 8: Group discussion about data acquired- begin to formulate data into a web format for essay. Day 9- Work on essay- data collection and research into web. Day 10: Begin working on essay- in class. Essay will be due on a later date.

Within 10 years the average life expectancy in 11 countries in Africa will drop below 40 as HIV/AIDS continues to shorten life spans.

Assessment in development The students will be assessed on the following: –Research collected –Data Manipulation with the Stella Model –Essay

‘My husband died out of ignorance. I don’t want the rest of the world to make the same mistake.’ — CHRISTINE KOWI Kenyan AIDS

Works Cited http://www.kenyaweb.com/health/aids/ http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2000/aids/stories/women.chil dren/http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2000/aids/stories/women.chil dren/ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp- srv/inatl/longterm/africanlives/kenya/kenya_aids.htmhttp://www.washingtonpost.com/wp- srv/inatl/longterm/africanlives/kenya/kenya_aids.htm http://www.aidschannel.org/themes/country/country_404_1.sht mlhttp://www.aidschannel.org/themes/country/country_404_1.sht ml http://www.hrw.org/press/2001/06/kenya0625.htm http://www.time.com/time/newsfiles/aids/ http://www.msnbc.com/news/329969.asp?cp1=1#BODY

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