Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

1 Principles of Information Systems Ninth Edition Chapter 6 Telecommunications and Networks.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "1 Principles of Information Systems Ninth Edition Chapter 6 Telecommunications and Networks."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Principles of Information Systems Ninth Edition Chapter 6 Telecommunications and Networks

2 Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition2 Principles and Learning Objectives A telecommunications system and network have many fundamental components –Identify and describe the fundamental components of a telecommunications system –Identify two broad categories of telecommunications media and their associated characteristics –Identify several telecommunications hardware devices and discuss their functions

3 Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition3 Principles and Learning Objectives (continued) Telecommunications, networks, and their associated applications are essential to organizational success –Describe the benefits associated with the use of a network –Name three distributed processing alternatives and discuss their basic features –List and describe several telecommunications applications that organizations benefit from today

4 Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition4 An Overview Of Telecommunications Telecommunications –Electronic transmission of signals for communications Telecommunications medium –Any material substance that carries an electronic signal to support communications between a sending and receiving device Telecommunications protocol –Defines set of rules that governs the exchange of information over a communications medium

5 Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition5 An Overview Of Telecommunications (continued)

6 Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition6 An Overview Of Telecommunications (continued) Synchronous communications –Receiver gets message instantaneously Asynchronous communications –Receiver gets message after some delay

7 Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition7 Basic Telecommunications Channel Characteristics Simplex channel –Transmits data in only one direction Half-duplex channel –Transmits data in either direction, but not simultaneously Full-duplex channel –Permits data transmission in both directions at the same time

8 Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition8 Basic Telecommunications Channel Characteristics (continued) Channel bandwidth –Rate at which data is exchanged Telecommunications media –Categories: guided transmission media and wireless Guided transmission media types –Available in many types Twisted-pair wire –Classified by category: Category 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 5E, and 6

9 Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition9 Basic Telecommunications Channel Characteristics (continued)

10 Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition10 Basic Telecommunications Channel Characteristics (continued) Coaxial cable –Offers cleaner and crisper data transmission (less noise) than twisted-pair wire Fiber-optic cable –Transmits signals with light beams Broadband over power lines –Potential problem: transmitting data over unshielded power lines can interfere with both amateur (ham) radio broadcasts and police and fire radios

11 Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition11 Basic Telecommunications Channel Characteristics (continued) Wireless communications options –Wireless transmission involves the broadcast of communications in one of three frequency ranges Radio, microwave, or infrared frequencies

12 Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition12 Basic Telecommunications Channel Characteristics (continued)

13 Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition13 Short Range Wireless Options Near Field Communication (NFC) –Short-range wireless connectivity technology designed for cell phones and credit cards Bluetooth –Wireless communications specification that describes how cell phones, computers, personal digital assistants, etc., can be interconnected Ultra wideband (UWB) –Transmits large amounts of digital data over short distances of up to 30 feet

14 Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition14 Short Range Wireless Options (continued) Infrared transmission –Sends signals at a frequency of 300 GHz and above Zigbee –Form of wireless communications frequently used in security systems and heating and cooling control systems

15 Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition15 Medium Range Wireless Options Wi-Fi –Wireless telecommunications technology brand owned by the Wi-Fi Alliance Wireless access point –Consists of a transmitter with an antenna, receives the signal, and decodes it Wi-Fi access points –Have maximum range of about 300 feet outdoors and 100 feet within a dry-walled building

16 Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition16 Medium Range Wireless Options (continued)

17 Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition17 Wide Area Wireless Network Options Microwave transmission –High-frequency (300 MHz–300 GHz) signal sent through the air –Common forms of satellite communications Geostationary satellite Low earth orbit (LEO) satellite Very small aperture terminal (VSAT) Wireless mesh –Uses multiple Wi-Fi access points to link a series of interconnected local area networks

18 Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition18 Wide Area Wireless Network Options (continued) 3G wireless communications –Useful for business travelers, people on the go, and people who need to get or stay connected 4G wireless communications –Will provide increased data transmission rates in the 20–40 Mbps range Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) –Set of IEEE wireless metropolitan area network standards

19 Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition19 Future Wireless Communications Developments Digital signal –Represents bits Analog signal –Variable signal, continuous in both time and amplitude so that any small fluctuations in the signal are meaningful

20 Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition20 Networks and Distributed Processing Computer network –Consists of communications media, devices, and software needed to connect two or more computer systems or devices –Can transmit and receive information to improve organizational effectiveness and efficiency

21 Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition21 Network Types Personal area networks –Supports interconnection of information technology within a range of about 33 feet Local area networks –Connects computer systems and devices within a small area (e.g., office or home) Metropolitan area networks –Connects users and their devices in a geographical area that spans a campus or city Wide area networks –Ties together large geographic regions

22 Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition22 Network Types (continued)

23 Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition23 Network Types (continued)

24 Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition24 Basic Processing Alternatives Centralized processing –All processing occurs in a single location or facility Decentralized processing –Processing devices are placed at various remote locations Distributed processing –Processing devices are placed at remote locations but are connected to each other via a network File server systems –Users can share data through file server computing

25 Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition25 Basic Processing Alternatives (continued)

26 Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition26 Client/Server Systems Client/server architecture –Multiple computer platforms are dedicated to special functions Client –Any computer that sends messages requesting services from the servers on the network Database server –Sends only the data that satisfies a specific query, not the entire file

27 Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition27 Client/Server Systems (continued)

28 Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition28 Client/Server Systems (continued)

29 Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition29 Telecommunications Hardware Modems –Modulation/demodulation devices Multiplexers –Combines data from multiple data sources into a single output signal that carries multiple channels Front-end processors –Special-purpose computers that manage communications to and from a computer system

30 Telecommunications Hardware (continued) Private branch exchange (PBX) –Telephone switching exchange that serves a single organization Switches, bridges, routers, and gateways –Switch: Uses the physical device address in each incoming message on the network –Bridge: Connects one LAN to another LAN that uses the same telecommunications protocol –Router: Forwards data packets across two or more distinct networks toward their destinations –Gateway: Serves as an entrance to another network Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition30

31 Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition31 Telecommunications Software Network operating system (NOS) –Systems software that controls the computer systems and devices on a network Network management software –Protects software from being copied, modified, or downloaded illegally –Performs error control to locate telecommunications errors and potential network problems

32 Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition32 Securing Data Transmission Encryption –Converting an original message into a form that can only be understood by the intended receiver Key –Variable value that is applied (using an algorithm) to a set of unencrypted text to produce encrypted text or to decrypt encrypted text

33 Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition33 Securing Data Transmission (continued)

34 Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition34 Securing Data Transmission (continued) Securing wireless networks –Wired equivalent privacy (WEP) Used encryption based on 64-bit key, which has been upgraded to a 128-bit key –Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) Security protocol that offers significantly improved protection over WEP –War driving Involves hackers driving around with a laptop and antenna trying to detect insecure wireless access points

35 Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition35 Other Encryption Methods Data Encryption Standard (DES) –Early data encryption standard developed in the 1970s that uses a 56-bit private key algorithm Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) –Extremely strong data encryption standard based on a key size of 128 bits, 192 bits, or 256 bits

36 Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition36 Virtual Private Network (VPN) Private network that uses a public network (usually the Internet) to connect multiple remote locations Supports secure, encrypted connections between a company’s private network and remote users

37 Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition37 Telecommunications Services and Network Applications Cellular phone services –Operate using radio waves to provide two-way communications –Picocell Miniature cellular base station designed to serve a very small area such as part of a floor inside a building

38 Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition38 Cellular Phone Services Digital subscriber line (DSL) Service –Telecommunications service that delivers high- speed Internet access Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) Services –Enables voice conversations to be converted into packets of data that can be sent over a data network

39 Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition39 Cellular Phone Services (continued)

40 Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition40 Cellular Phone Services (continued)

41 Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition41 Linking Personal Computers to Mainframes and Networks Basic way that telecommunications connect users to information systems –Connecting personal computers to mainframe computers so that data can be downloaded or uploaded

42 Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition42 Voice Mail Users can send, receive, and store verbal messages for and from other people around the world Reverse 911 service –Delivers emergency notifications to users in a selected geographical area Voice-to-text services –Convert speech to text so that you can manage voice mails more effectively

43 Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition43 Home and Small Business Networks DSL modem –Enables each computer in the network to access the Internet Firewall –Filters the information coming from the Internet into your network

44 Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition44 Electronic Document Distribution Lets you send and receive documents in a digital form without printing them Much faster to distribute electronic documents via networks than to mail printed forms Viewing documents on screen instead of printing –Saves paper and document storage space

45 Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition45 Call Centers Physical location where an organization handles customer and other telephone calls Used by: –Customer service organizations –Telemarketing companies –Computer product help desks –Charitable and political campaign organizations

46 Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition46 Telecommuting and Virtual Workers and Workgroups Telecommuters –Need to be strongly self-motivated, organized, focused on their tasks with minimal supervision Jobs unsuitable for telecommuting –Those that require frequent face-to-face interaction, need much supervision, and have many short-term deadlines

47 Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition47 Videoconferencing Enables people to hold a conference by combining voice, video, and audio transmission Reduces travel expenses and time Increases managerial effectiveness through: –Faster response to problems, access to more people, and less duplication of effort

48 Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition48 Electronic Data Interchange Idea behind EDI –Connecting corporate computers among organizations EDI –Can link the computers of customers, manufacturers, and suppliers –Eliminates the need for paper documents and substantially cuts down on costly errors

49 Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition49 Electronic Data Interchange (continued)

50 Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition50 Public Network Services Give personal computer users access to vast databases, the Internet, and other services –Usually an initial fee plus usage fees –Fees are based on services used; can range from under $15 to over $500 per month Providers of public network services include Microsoft, America Online, and Prodigy

51 Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition51 Electronic Funds Transfer Transfers money from one bank account directly to another without the use of paper money Used for both credit and debit transfers

52 Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition52 Distance Learning Use of telecommunications to extend the classroom –Instructors create course home pages on the Internet –Students access the course syllabus and instructor notes on the Web page –Student mailing lists allow students and the instructor to one another –Chat groups allow students to form “virtual teams”

53 Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition53 Shared Workspace Common work area where: –Colleagues can share documents, issues, models, schedules, spreadsheets, and all forms of information

54 Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition54 Unified Communications Provides a simple and consistent user experience across all types of communications Global Positioning System applications –Global navigation satellite system employing over two dozen satellites in orbit at roughly 12,500 miles above the Earth

55 Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition55 Specialized Systems and Services Specialized services –Include professional legal, patent, and technical information Nike+iPod Sports Kit –Example of a specialized communications service

56 Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition56 Summary Telecommunications and networks –Creating profound changes in business because they remove the barriers of time and distance Communications –Can be classified as synchronous or asynchronous Telecommunications media can physically connect data communications devices –Guided transmission media and wireless media

57 Principles of Information Systems, Ninth Edition57 Summary (continued) Wireless communications solutions for very short distances include: –Near field communications, Bluetooth, ultra wideband, infrared transmission, and Zigbee Transborder data flow –Electronic flow of data across international and global boundaries Client/server system –Network that connects a user’s computer (a client) to one or more host computers (servers)


Download ppt "1 Principles of Information Systems Ninth Edition Chapter 6 Telecommunications and Networks."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google