Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

LECTURE PRESENTATIONS For CAMPBELL BIOLOGY, NINTH EDITION Jane B. Reece, Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, Robert.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "LECTURE PRESENTATIONS For CAMPBELL BIOLOGY, NINTH EDITION Jane B. Reece, Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, Robert."— Presentation transcript:

1 LECTURE PRESENTATIONS For CAMPBELL BIOLOGY, NINTH EDITION Jane B. Reece, Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, Robert B. Jackson © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Lectures by Erin Barley Kathleen Fitzpatrick The Origin of Species Chapter 24

2 Overview: That “Mystery of Mysteries” In the Galápagos Islands Darwin discovered plants and animals found nowhere else on Earth © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

3 Video: Galápagos Tortoise

4 Figure 24.1

5 Speciation, the origin of new species, is at the focal point of evolutionary theory Evolutionary theory must explain how new species originate and how populations evolve Microevolution consists of changes in allele frequency in a population over time Macroevolution refers to broad patterns of evolutionary change above the species level © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

6 Animation: Macroevolution Right-click slide / select “Play”

7 Concept 24.1: The biological species concept emphasizes reproductive isolation Species is a Latin word meaning “kind” or “appearance” Biologists compare morphology, physiology, biochemistry, and DNA sequences when grouping organisms © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

8 The Biological Species Concept The biological species concept states that a species is a group of populations whose members have the potential to interbreed in nature and produce viable, fertile offspring; they do not breed successfully with other populations Gene flow between populations holds the phenotype of a population together © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

9 Figure 24.2 (a) Similarity between different species (b) Diversity within a species

10 Figure 24.2a (a) Similarity between different species

11 Figure 24.2b (b) Diversity within a species

12 Figure 24.2c

13 Figure 24.2d

14 Figure 24.2e

15 Figure 24.2f

16 Figure 24.2g

17 Figure 24.2h

18 Figure 24.2i

19 Figure 24.2j

20 Reproductive Isolation Reproductive isolation is the existence of biological factors (barriers) that impede two species from producing viable, fertile offspring Hybrids are the offspring of crosses between different species Reproductive isolation can be classified by whether factors act before or after fertilization © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

21 Figure 24.3_a Prezygotic barriers Habitat Isolation Temporal Isolation Behavioral Isolation Mechanical Isolation Gametic Isolation Reduced Hybrid Viability Reduced Hybrid Fertility Hybrid Breakdown Individuals of different species MATING ATTEMPT FERTILIZATION VIABLE, FERTILE OFFSPRING Postzygotic barriers (a)(c)(e) (d) (b) (g) (k) (h) (i) (j) (l) (f)

22 Figure 24.3_b Prezygotic barriers Habitat Isolation Temporal Isolation Behavioral Isolation Mechanical Isolation Gametic Isolation Individuals of different species MATING ATTEMPT FERTILIZATION (a) (c) (e) (f) (b) (g) (d)

23 Reduced Hybrid Viability Reduced Hybrid Fertility Hybrid Breakdown FERTILIZATION VIABLE, FERTILE OFFSPRING Postzygotic barriers (k) (h) (i) (j) (l) Figure 24.3_c

24 Prezygotic barriers block fertilization from occurring by: –Impeding different species from attempting to mate –Preventing the successful completion of mating –Hindering fertilization if mating is successful © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

25 Figure 24.3a (a)

26 Figure 24.3b (b)

27 Habitat isolation: Two species encounter each other rarely, or not at all, because they occupy different habitats, even though not isolated by physical barriers © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

28 Figure 24.3c (c)

29 Figure 24.3d (d)

30 Temporal isolation: Species that breed at different times of the day, different seasons, or different years cannot mix their gametes © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

31 Figure 24.3e (e)

32 Behavioral isolation: Courtship rituals and other behaviors unique to a species are effective barriers © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

33 Video: Albatross Courtship Ritual

34 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Video: Giraffe Courtship Ritual

35 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Video: Blue-footed Boobies Courtship Ritual

36 Figure 24.3f (f)

37 Mechanical isolation: Morphological differences can prevent successful mating © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

38 Figure 24.3g (g)

39 Gametic Isolation: Sperm of one species may not be able to fertilize eggs of another species © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

40 Postzygotic barriers prevent the hybrid zygote from developing into a viable, fertile adult: –Reduced hybrid viability –Reduced hybrid fertility –Hybrid breakdown © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

41 Figure 24.3h (h)

42 Reduced hybrid viability: Genes of the different parent species may interact and impair the hybrid’s development © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

43 Figure 24.3i (i)

44 Figure 24.3j (j)

45 Figure 24.3k (k)

46 Reduced hybrid fertility: Even if hybrids are vigorous, they may be sterile © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

47 Figure 24.3l (l)

48 Hybrid breakdown: Some first-generation hybrids are fertile, but when they mate with another species or with either parent species, offspring of the next generation are feeble or sterile © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

49 Limitations of the Biological Species Concept The biological species concept cannot be applied to fossils or asexual organisms (including all prokaryotes) The biological species concept emphasizes absence of gene flow However, gene flow can occur between distinct species –For example, grizzly bears and polar bears can mate to produce “grolar bears” © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

50 Figure 24.4 Grizzly bear (U. arctos) Polar bear (U. maritimus) Hybrid “grolar bear”

51 Figure 24.4a Grizzly bear (U. arctos)

52 Figure 24.4b Polar bear (U. maritimus)

53 Figure 24.4c Hybrid “grolar bear”

54 Other Definitions of Species Other species concepts emphasize the unity within a species rather than the separateness of different species The morphological species concept defines a species by structural features –It applies to sexual and asexual species but relies on subjective criteria © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

55 The ecological species concept views a species in terms of its ecological niche –It applies to sexual and asexual species and emphasizes the role of disruptive selection The phylogenetic species concept defines a species as the smallest group of individuals on a phylogenetic tree –It applies to sexual and asexual species, but it can be difficult to determine the degree of difference required for separate species © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

56 Concept 24.2: Speciation can take place with or without geographic separation Speciation can occur in two ways: –Allopatric speciation –Sympatric speciation © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

57 Figure 24.5 (a) (b) Allopatric speciation. A population forms a new species while geographically isolated from its parent population. Sympatric speciation. A subset of a population forms a new species without geographic separation.

58 Allopatric (“Other Country”) Speciation In allopatric speciation, gene flow is interrupted or reduced when a population is divided into geographically isolated subpopulations –For example, the flightless cormorant of the Galápagos likely originated from a flying species on the mainland © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

59 The Process of Allopatric Speciation The definition of barrier depends on the ability of a population to disperse –For example, a canyon may create a barrier for small rodents, but not birds, coyotes, or pollen © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

60 Figure 24.6 A. harrisii A. leucurus

61 Figure 24.6a A. harrisii

62 Figure 24.6b A. leucurus

63 Figure 24.6c

64 Separate populations may evolve independently through mutation, natural selection, and genetic drift Reproductive isolation may arise as a result of genetic divergence –For example, mosquitofish in the Bahamas comprise several isolated populations in different ponds © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

65 Figure 24.7 (a) Under high predation (b) Under low predation

66 Figure 24.7a

67 Figure 24.7b

68 Evidence of Allopatric Speciation 15 pairs of sibling species of snapping shrimp (Alpheus) are separated by the Isthmus of Panama These species originated 9 to 13 million years ago, when the Isthmus of Panama formed and separated the Atlantic and Pacific waters © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

69 Figure 24.8 A. formosus Atlantic Ocean A. nuttingi Isthmus of Panama Pacific Ocean A. panamensisA. millsae

70 Figure 24.8a

71 Figure 24.8b Atlantic Ocean Isthmus of Panama Pacific Ocean

72 Figure 24.8c A. formosus

73 Figure 24.8d A. panamensis

74 Figure 24.8e A. nuttingi

75 Figure 24.8f A. millsae

76 Regions with many geographic barriers typically have more species than do regions with fewer barriers Reproductive isolation between populations generally increases as the distance between them increases –For example, reproductive isolation increases between dusky salamanders that live further apart © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

77 Figure 24.9 Degree of reproductive isolation Geographic distance (km)

78 Barriers to reproduction are intrinsic; separation itself is not a biological barrier © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

79 Figure EXPERIMENT RESULTS Initial population of fruit flies (Drosophila pseudoobscura) Some flies raised on starch medium Mating experiments after 40 generations Some flies raised on maltose medium Female Starch Maltose Male Maltose Starch Number of matings in experimental group Female Starch population 1 Male Starch population 2 Number of matings in control group Starch population 2 Starch population 1

80 Figure 24.10a EXPERIMENT Initial population of fruit flies (Drosophila pseudoobscura) Some flies raised on starch medium Mating experiments after 40 generations Some flies raised on maltose medium

81 Figure 24.10b RESULTS Female Starch Maltose Male Maltose Starch Number of matings in experimental group Female Starch population 1 Male Starch population 2 Number of matings in control group Starch population 2 Starch population 1

82 Sympatric (“Same Country”) Speciation In sympatric speciation, speciation takes place in geographically overlapping populations © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

83 Polyploidy Polyploidy is the presence of extra sets of chromosomes due to accidents during cell division Polyploidy is much more common in plants than in animals An autopolyploid is an individual with more than two chromosome sets, derived from one species © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

84 An allopolyploid is a species with multiple sets of chromosomes derived from different species © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

85 Figure Species A 2n = 6 Species B 2n = 4 Normal gamete n = 3 Meiotic error; chromosome number not reduced from 2n to n Unreduced gamete with 4 chromosomes

86 Figure Species A 2n = 6 Species B 2n = 4 Normal gamete n = 3 Meiotic error; chromosome number not reduced from 2n to n Unreduced gamete with 4 chromosomes Hybrid with 7 chromosomes

87 Figure Species A 2n = 6 Species B 2n = 4 Normal gamete n = 3 Meiotic error; chromosome number not reduced from 2n to n Unreduced gamete with 4 chromosomes Hybrid with 7 chromosomes Unreduced gamete with 7 chromosomes Normal gamete n = 3

88 Figure Species A 2n = 6 Species B 2n = 4 Normal gamete n = 3 Meiotic error; chromosome number not reduced from 2n to n Unreduced gamete with 4 chromosomes Hybrid with 7 chromosomes Unreduced gamete with 7 chromosomes Normal gamete n = 3 New species: viable fertile hybrid (allopolyploid) 2n = 10

89 Many important crops (oats, cotton, potatoes, tobacco, and wheat) are polyploids © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

90 Habitat Differentiation Sympatric speciation can also result from the appearance of new ecological niches For example, the North American maggot fly can live on native hawthorn trees as well as more recently introduced apple trees © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

91 Sexual Selection Sexual selection can drive sympatric speciation Sexual selection for mates of different colors has likely contributed to speciation in cichlid fish in Lake Victoria © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

92 Figure Normal light Monochromatic orange light P. pundamilia P. nyererei EXPERIMENT

93 Figure 24.12a P. pundamilia Normal light

94 Figure 24.12b P. nyererei Normal light

95 Figure 24.12c Monochromatic orange light P. pundamilia

96 Figure 24.12d Monochromatic orange light P. nyererei

97 Allopatric and Sympatric Speciation: A Review In allopatric speciation, geographic isolation restricts gene flow between populations Reproductive isolation may then arise by natural selection, genetic drift, or sexual selection in the isolated populations Even if contact is restored between populations, interbreeding is prevented © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

98 In sympatric speciation, a reproductive barrier isolates a subset of a population without geographic separation from the parent species Sympatric speciation can result from polyploidy, natural selection, or sexual selection © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

99 Concept 24.3: Hybrid zones reveal factors that cause reproductive isolation A hybrid zone is a region in which members of different species mate and produce hybrids Hybrids are the result of mating between species with incomplete reproductive barriers © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

100 Patterns Within Hybrid Zones A hybrid zone can occur in a single band where adjacent species meet –For example, two species of toad in the genus Bombina interbreed in a long and narrow hybrid zone © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

101 Figure EUROPE Yellow-bellied toad, Bombina variegata Fire-bellied toad range Hybrid zone Yellow-bellied toad range Fire-bellied toad, Bombina bombina Frequency of B. variegata-specific allele Yellow-bellied toad range Hybrid zone Fire-bellied toad range Distance from hybrid zone center (km)

102 Figure 24.13a EUROPE Fire-bellied toad range Hybrid zone Yellow-bellied toad range

103 Figure 24.13b Frequency of B. variegata-specific allele Yellow-bellied toad range Hybrid zone Fire-bellied toad range Distance from hybrid zone center (km)

104 Figure 24.13c Fire-bellied toad, Bombina bombina

105 Figure 24.13d Yellow-bellied toad, Bombina variegata

106 Hybrids often have reduced fitness compared with parent species The distribution of hybrid zones can be more complex if parent species are found in patches within the same region © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

107 Hybrid Zones over Time When closely related species meet in a hybrid zone, there are three possible outcomes: –Reinforcement –Fusion –Stability © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

108 Figure Gene flow Population Barrier to gene flow

109 Figure Gene flow Population Barrier to gene flow Isolated population diverges

110 Figure Gene flow Population Barrier to gene flow Isolated population diverges Hybrid zone Hybrid individual

111 Figure Gene flow Population Barrier to gene flow Isolated population diverges Hybrid zone Hybrid individual Possible outcomes: Reinforcement OR Fusion Stability

112 Reinforcement: Strengthening Reproductive Barriers The reinforcement of barriers occurs when hybrids are less fit than the parent species Over time, the rate of hybridization decreases Where reinforcement occurs, reproductive barriers should be stronger for sympatric than allopatric species –For example, in populations of flycatchers, males are more similar in allopatric populations than sympatric populations © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

113 Figure Females choosing between these males: Females choosing between these males: Sympatric pied male Sympatric collared male Allopatric pied male Allopatric collared male (none) Female mate choice Own species Own species Other species Other species Number of females

114 Fusion: Weakening Reproductive Barriers If hybrids are as fit as parents, there can be substantial gene flow between species If gene flow is great enough, the parent species can fuse into a single species For example, researchers think that pollution in Lake Victoria has reduced the ability of female cichlids to distinguish males of different species This might be causing the fusion of many species © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

115 Figure Pundamilia nyererei Pundamilia pundamilia Pundamilia “turbid water,” hybrid offspring from a location with turbid water

116 Figure 24.16a Pundamilia nyererei

117 Figure 24.16b Pundamilia pundamilia

118 Figure 24.16c Pundamilia “turbid water,” hybrid offspring from a location with turbid water

119 Stability: Continued Formation of Hybrid Individuals Extensive gene flow from outside the hybrid zone can overwhelm selection for increased reproductive isolation inside the hybrid zone © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

120 Concept 24.4: Speciation can occur rapidly or slowly and can result from changes in few or many genes Many questions remain concerning how long it takes for new species to form, or how many genes need to differ between species © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

121 The Time Course of Speciation Broad patterns in speciation can be studied using the fossil record, morphological data, or molecular data © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

122 Patterns in the Fossil Record The fossil record includes examples of species that appear suddenly, persist essentially unchanged for some time, and then apparently disappear Niles Eldredge and Stephen Jay Gould coined the term punctuated equilibria to describe periods of apparent stasis punctuated by sudden change The punctuated equilibrium model contrasts with a model of gradual change in a species’ existence © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

123 Figure (a) Punctuated pattern Time (b) Gradual pattern

124 Speciation Rates The punctuated pattern in the fossil record and evidence from lab studies suggest that speciation can be rapid –For example, the sunflower Helianthus anomalus originated from the hybridization of two other sunflower species © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

125 Figure 24.18

126 Figure H. annuus gamete H. petiolarus gamete F 1 experimental hybrid (4 of the 2n = 34 chromosomes are shown) EXPERIMENT RESULTS Chromosome 1 H. anomalus Chromosome 2 H. anomalus Experimental hybrid

127 Figure 24.19a H. annuus gamete H. petiolarus gamete F 1 experimental hybrid (4 of the 2n = 34 chromosomes are shown) EXPERIMENT

128 Figure 24.19b RESULTS Chromosome 1 H. anomalus Chromosome 2 H. anomalus Experimental hybrid

129 The interval between speciation events can range from 4,000 years (some cichlids) to 40 million years (some beetles), with an average of 6.5 million years © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

130 Studying the Genetics of Speciation A fundamental question of evolutionary biology persists: How many genes change when a new species forms? Depending on the species in question, speciation might require the change of only a single allele or many alleles –For example, in Japanese Euhadra snails, the direction of shell spiral affects mating and is controlled by a single gene © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

131 In monkey flowers (Mimulus), two loci affect flower color, which influences pollinator preference Pollination that is dominated by either hummingbirds or bees can lead to reproductive isolation of the flowers In other species, speciation can be influenced by larger numbers of genes and gene interactions © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

132 Typical Mimulus lewisii (a) Typical Mimulus cardinalis (c) M. lewisii with an M. cardinalis flower-color allele (b) M. cardinalis with an M. lewisii flower-color allele (d) Figure 24.20

133 Figure 24.20a Typical Mimulus lewisii (a)

134 Figure 24.20b M. lewisii with an M. cardinalis flower-color allele (b)

135 Figure 24.20c Typical Mimulus cardinalis(c)

136 Figure 24.20d M. cardinalis with an M. lewisii flower-color allele (d)

137 From Speciation to Macroevolution Macroevolution is the cumulative effect of many speciation and extinction events © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

138 Figure 24.UN01 Cell division error 2n = 6 Tetraploid cell 4n = 12 2n2n 2n2n New species (4n) Gametes produced by tetraploids

139 Figure 24.UN02 Original population Allopatric speciation Sympatric speciation

140 Figure 24.UN03 Ancestral species: Product: Triticum monococcum (2n = 14) Wild Triticum (2n = 14) Wild T. tauschii (2n = 14) T. aestivum (bread wheat) (2n = 42)

141 Figure 24.UN04


Download ppt "LECTURE PRESENTATIONS For CAMPBELL BIOLOGY, NINTH EDITION Jane B. Reece, Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, Robert."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google