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Last Week… 1. The Question was: “Who does what” 2. Looked at the six key elements to consider in organizational design 3. Looked at mechanistic vs organic.

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Presentation on theme: "Last Week… 1. The Question was: “Who does what” 2. Looked at the six key elements to consider in organizational design 3. Looked at mechanistic vs organic."— Presentation transcript:

1 Last Week… 1. The Question was: “Who does what” 2. Looked at the six key elements to consider in organizational design 3. Looked at mechanistic vs organic designs and structural contingency factors 1-1

2 This Week’s Objectives Look at actual organizational structures (traditional vs contemporary designs) 2. Understand why we communicate and how it works 3. Consider the various methods of communication and how to know what works 4. Examine the barriers to effective communication 5. Understand the flow of communication in organizations 6. Look at two contemporary communication issues

3 Organizational Structures 1-3

4 Traditional Organizational Designs Simple Structure Simple Structure Low departmentalization, wide spans of control, centralized authority, little formalization Low departmentalization, wide spans of control, centralized authority, little formalization Functional Structure Functional Structure Departmentalization by function Departmentalization by function Operations, finance, human resources, and product research and development Operations, finance, human resources, and product research and development Divisional Structure Divisional Structure Composed of separate business units or divisions with limited autonomy under the coordination and control of the parent corporation Composed of separate business units or divisions with limited autonomy under the coordination and control of the parent corporation Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Ninth Canadian Edition Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada 9-4

5 Strengths/Weaknesses of Common Traditional Organizational Designs Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Ninth Canadian Edition Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada 9-5

6 Contemporary Organizational Designs Team Structures Team Structures The entire organization is made up of work groups or self-managed teams of empowered employees The entire organization is made up of work groups or self-managed teams of empowered employees Matrix Structures Matrix Structures Specialists for different functional departments are assigned to work on projects led by project managers Specialists for different functional departments are assigned to work on projects led by project managers Matrix participants have two managers Matrix participants have two managers Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Ninth Canadian Edition Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada 9-6

7 Contemporary Organizational Designs (cont.) Project Structures Project Structures Employees work continuously on projects, moving on to another project as each project is completed Employees work continuously on projects, moving on to another project as each project is completed Learning Organization Learning Organization An organization that has developed the capacity to continuously learn, adapt, and change through the practice of knowledge management by employees An organization that has developed the capacity to continuously learn, adapt, and change through the practice of knowledge management by employees Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Ninth Canadian Edition Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada 9-7

8 Boundary-less Organization Boundary-less Organization A flexible and an unstructured organizational design that is intended to break down external barriers between the organization and its customers and suppliers A flexible and an unstructured organizational design that is intended to break down external barriers between the organization and its customers and suppliers Removes internal (horizontal) boundaries: Removes internal (horizontal) boundaries: Eliminates the chain of command Eliminates the chain of command Has limitless spans of control Has limitless spans of control Uses empowered teams rather than departments Uses empowered teams rather than departments Eliminates external boundaries: Eliminates external boundaries: Uses virtual, network, and modular organizational structures to get closer to stakeholders Uses virtual, network, and modular organizational structures to get closer to stakeholders Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Ninth Canadian Edition Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada 9-8 Contemporary Organizational Designs (cont.)

9 Examples of Removing Boundaries Virtual Organization Virtual Organization An organization that consists of a small core of full-time employees and that temporarily hires specialists to work on opportunities that arise An organization that consists of a small core of full-time employees and that temporarily hires specialists to work on opportunities that arise Network Organization Network Organization A small core organization that outsources its major business functions (e.g., manufacturing) in order to concentrate on what it does best A small core organization that outsources its major business functions (e.g., manufacturing) in order to concentrate on what it does best Modular Organization Modular Organization A manufacturing organization that uses outside suppliers to provide product components for its final assembly operations A manufacturing organization that uses outside suppliers to provide product components for its final assembly operations Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Ninth Canadian Edition Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada 9-9

10 Contemporary Organizational Designs Chapter 9, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Ninth Canadian Edition Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada 9-10

11 Chapter 10, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Ninth Canadian Edition Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada Chapter 10 Communication and Information Technology

12 The Question… Why don’t people just do what I tell them to do? 1-12

13 Chapter 10, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Ninth Canadian Edition Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada What Is Communication? The transfer and understanding of meaning Interpersonal communication Communication between two or more people Organizational communication All the patterns, network, and systems of communications within an organization

14 Chapter 10, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Ninth Canadian Edition Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada Why do we communicate? (Functions of Communication) Control Motivation Emotional Expression Information

15 Chapter 10, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Ninth Canadian Edition Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada Exhibit 10.1 The Interpersonal Communication Process Receiver Message Channel Noise Encoding Decoding Feedback Message Sender

16 Chapter 10, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Ninth Canadian Edition Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada Interpersonal Communication Message Source: sender’s intended meaning Encoding The message converted to symbolic form Channel The medium through which the message travels Decoding The receiver’s retranslation of the message Noise Disturbances that interfere with communications

17 Chapter 10, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Ninth Canadian Edition Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada Interpersonal Communication Methods Face-to-face Telephone Group meetings Formal presentations Memos Postal mail Fax Publications Bulletin boards Audio-/videotapes Hot lines Computer conference Voice mail Teleconference Videoconference

18 Chapter 10, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Ninth Canadian Edition Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada Interpersonal Communication Methods

19 Chapter 10, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Ninth Canadian Edition Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada Interpersonal Communication Barriers Defensiveness National Culture Emotions Information Overload Interpersonal Communication Language Filtering SelectivePerception

20 Chapter 10, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Ninth Canadian Edition Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada Organizational Communication Formal Communication Communication that follows the official chain of command or is part of the communication required to do one’s job Informal Communication Communication that is not defined by the organization’s hierarchy Permits employees to satisfy their need for social interaction Can improve an organization’s performance by creating faster and more effective channels of communication

21 Chapter 10, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Ninth Canadian Edition Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada Direction of Communication Flow Downward Communications that flow from managers to employees to inform, direct, coordinate, and evaluate employees Upward Communications that flow from employees up to managers to keep them aware of employee needs and how things can be improved to create a climate of trust and respect

22 Chapter 10, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Ninth Canadian Edition Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada Direction of Communication Flow Lateral (Horizontal) Communication Communication that takes place among employees on the same level in the organization to save time and facilitate coordination Diagonal Communication Communication that cuts across both work areas and organizational levels in the interest of efficiency and speed

23 Chapter 10, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Ninth Canadian Edition Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada Exhibit 10.4 Three Common Organizational Communication Networks and How They Rate on Effectiveness Criteria Chain Moderate High Moderate Speed Accuracy Emergence of leader Member satisfaction Criteria Fast High Low Fast Moderate None High WheelAll-Channel

24 Chapter 10, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Ninth Canadian Edition Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada How IT Affects Organizations Removes the constraints of time and distance Allows widely dispersed employees to work together Provides for the sharing of information Increases effectiveness and efficiency Integrates decision making and work Provides more complete information and participation for better decisions Creates problems of constant accessibility to employees Blurs the line between work and personal lives

25 Chapter 10, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Ninth Canadian Edition Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada Current Communication Issues Managing the Organization’s Knowledge Resources Build on-line information databases that employees can access Create “communities of practice” for groups of people who share a concern, share expertise, and interact with each other

26 Chapter 10, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Ninth Canadian Edition Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada Current Communication Issues (cont.) Communicating Effectively with Customers Recognize the three components of the customer service delivery process: The customer The service organization The service provider Develop a strong service culture focused on the personalization of service to each customer: Listen and respond to the customer Provide access to needed service information

27 This Week’s Summary 1. Considered the difference between traditional and contemporary designs 2. Understood why we communicate and how it works 3. Considered the various methods of communication and how to know what works 4. Examined the barriers to effective communication 5. Looked at the flow of communication in organizations and some contemporary issues 1-27

28 Chapter 10, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Ninth Canadian Edition Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada Nonverbal Communication Communication that is transmitted without words Sounds Images Situational behaviours Clothing and physical surroundings Body language: gestures, facial expressions, and other body movements that convey meaning Verbal intonation (paralinguistics): emphasis that a speaker gives to certain words or phrases that conveys meaning

29 Chapter 10, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Ninth Canadian Edition Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada Evaluating Communication Methods Feedback Complexity capacity Breadth potential Confidentiality Encoding ease Decoding ease Time-space constraint Cost Interpersonal warmth Formality Scanability Time of consumption

30 Chapter 10, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Ninth Canadian Edition Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada Fitting Communication with Circumstances Managers can use 12 questions to help them evaluate appropriate communication methods for different circumstances. 1. Feedback. How quickly can the receiver respond to the message? 2. Complexity capacity. Can the method effectively process complex messages? 3. Breadth potential. How many different messages can be transmitted using this method?

31 Chapter 10, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Ninth Canadian Edition Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada Fitting Communication with Circumstances 4. Confidentiality. Can communicators be reasonably sure their messages are received only by those for whom they’re intended? 5. Encoding ease. Can the sender easily and quickly use this channel? 6. Decoding ease. Can the receiver easily and quickly decode messages?

32 Chapter 10, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Ninth Canadian Edition Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada Fitting Communication with Circumstances 7. Time–space constraint. Do senders and receivers need to communicate at the same time and in the same space? 8. Cost. How much does it cost to use this method? 9. Interpersonal warmth. How well does this method convey interpersonal warmth?

33 Chapter 10, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Ninth Canadian Edition Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada Fitting Communication with Circumstances Formality. Does this method have the needed amount of formality? Scanability. Does this method allow the message to be easily browsed or scanned for relevant information? Time of consumption. Does the sender or receiver exercise the most control over when the message is dealt with?

34 Chapter 10, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Ninth Canadian Edition Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada Barriers to Effective Interpersonal Communication Filtering The deliberate manipulation of information to make it appear more favourable to the receiver Emotions Disregarding rational and objective thinking processes and substituting emotional judgments when interpreting messages Information Overload Being confronted with a quantity of information that exceeds an individual’s capacity to process it

35 Chapter 10, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Ninth Canadian Edition Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada Barriers to Effective Interpersonal Communication Selective Perception Individuals interpret “reality” based on their own needs, motivations, experience, background, and other personal characteristics Defensiveness When threatened, reacting in a way that reduces the ability to achieve mutual understanding

36 Chapter 10, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Ninth Canadian Edition Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada Barriers to Effective Interpersonal Communication Language The different meanings of and specialized ways (jargon) in which senders use words can cause receivers to misinterpret their messages National Culture Culture influences the form, formality, openness, patterns, and use of information in communications

37 Chapter 10, Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter, and Nancy Langton, Management, Ninth Canadian Edition Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada The Grapevine An informal organizational communication network that is active in almost every organization Provides a channel for issues not suitable for formal communication channels The impact of information passed along the grapevine can be countered by open and honest communication with employees


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