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Chapter Ninth Edition America: Past and Present America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Copyright ©2011,

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter Ninth Edition America: Past and Present America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Copyright ©2011,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter Ninth Edition America: Past and Present America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Toward Empire 21

2 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands America Looks Outward Geography encouraged isolationism in U.S. (protected on both sides by oceans) Isolationism turns to imperialism – control over other peoples through annexation, military conquest, or economic domination U.S. expansion shifted after 1890 Strategically placed islands taken to create military and economic colonies

3 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Reasons for Expansion Expansion abroad sought to gain economic and military colonies for markets NOT for settlement (oversaturation of domestic markets) Census report of 1890 show end of frontier Evolutionary ideas encouraged expansion to provide civilization to native peoples around the world (notion of racial superiority) Missionary spirit New leaders, new ideas

4 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Foreign Policy Approaches: 1867–1900 Expansionist foreign policy Acquisitions: First, Midway Islands; then Steward buys Alaska from Russia Eroded European influence in Latin America –Diverted Latin American trade from Europe through a series of reciprocity treaties –U.S. supported Venezuela against Great Britain

5 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands The Lure of Hawaii and Samoa Military and economic value of Hawaii increased in 1890s Early on, U.S. missionaries go to Hawaii and gain power Reciprocity Agreement: duty free sugar to U.S. and U.S. protect Hawaii and get Pearl Harbor Queen Liliuokalani attempted to reduce U.S. influence 1893: American settlers pulled off coup against Queen President Cleveland wants to restore Queen to thrown but U.S. Americans in Hawaii refuse 1898: Hawaii made U.S. possession 1872: U.S. granted port facilities in Samoa and belonged to U.S. by 1899

6 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Hawaiian Islands

7 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands The New Navy Alfred Mahan argued that overseas markets were essential for America’s wealth and power U.S. needs strong merchant marine and navy Two-ocean navy needed U.S. shifted to construction of a battleship navy U.S. gained offensive capability at sea

8 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands War with Spain 1895: Rebellion in Cuba for freedom from Spain General Weyler’s policy lead to riots in Havana “Yellow Press” whipped up U.S. sentiment DeLome Letter about McKinley February, 1898: Explosion of the Maine April 19: Congress declared Cuba independent, passed “Teller Amendment” April 25: U.S. declared war on Spain

9 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands “A Splendid Little War” U.S. regular army small, ill-prepared Problems of equipment and supply Theodore Roosevelt organizes the “Rough Riders” War only lasted 10 weeks Cuba invaded and captured Commodore George Dewey captured Philippines and provided U.S. with unexpected prize

10 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Guerrilla Warfare in the Philippines Emilio Aguinaldo led Philippine independence movement Filipinos used guerilla war tactics War more costly than Spanish-American War Aquinaldo lost and US replaced military rule with civilian rule under Taft Commission and promised independence July 4, 1946 given independence

11 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Spanish-American War: Pacific Theater

12 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Spanish-American War: Caribbean Theater

13 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands OUTCOME OF THE WAR WITH SPAIN 1898 – Treaty of Paris – Cuba given independence – Platt Agreement No treaties or debts to other countries Lease Guantanamo Bay to U.S. U.S. can intervene in Cuba to maintain orderly government U.S. acquires Puerto Rico, Guam, Philippines 1900 – U.S. is major world power and established as an overseas empire Teddy Roosevelt a war hero

14 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands The Treaty of Paris Debate Debate over annexation of the Philippines most important Opponents formed the Anti-Imperialist League –Against big armies, government, and debt –Trade can continue without annexation –Filipinos could never become Americans (assimilation) –Annexation incompatible with independence and self- determination (anti-American) –Cheap labor will come from Philippines and take jobs 1899: Ratification of peace treaty made U.S. a colonizing nation

15 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands American Empire, 1900

16 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands World Colonial Empires, 1900

17 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Governing the Empire Does the Constitution follow the flag? Supreme Court said No – Congress will decide each case Puerto Rico made territory and government set up under Foracker Act Hawaii, Alaska, Puerto Rico organized as territories, inhabitants made U.S. citizens Navy controlled Guam

18 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands Governing the Empire US prepared Cuba for freedom Cuban constitution ended U.S. occupation Cuba given independence Platt Amendment: U.S. given right to intervene in Cuban affairs and to lease Guantanamo Bay

19 Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. America: Past and Present, Ninth Edition Divine Breen Frederickson Williams Gross Brands The Open Door China vulnerable to European imperialism Foreign countries divided China into “spheres of influence” 1900: U.S. set “Open Door” policy in China –No European nation should carve out a “sphere of influence” in China and exclude others from trading in that area – all nations would have equal trading rights in China and China will preserve national authority U.S. gained economic rights in China Boxer Rebellion – Chinese try to push all foreigners out of China but fail


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