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Law Awareness in a Norm-regulated MAS Alberto Sardinha Gustavo Robichez de Carvalho Rodrigo Paes Pedro Cunha
© LES/PUC-Rio Outline Introduction Architecture Case Study : Supply Chain Management Conclusion Future Work
© LES/PUC-Rio Introduction Laws of a multi-agent system are defined at design time Static selection severely limits: –The openness of the system –The dynamic behavior that agents are expected to exhibit This work is concerned with the problem of law evolution awareness
© LES/PUC-Rio Law Awareness Law Awareness service is a publish/subscribe architecture –In runtime, this service notifies the catalogued agents of any law modification The subscriber (agent) sends a message containing a subscription to the publisher (law awareness service) –This subscription specifies the conditions under which the publisher will send a message to the subscriber Law Awareness Service Subscriber Subscription Notification
© LES/PUC-Rio Law Awareness The subscriber may send subsequent messages updating the subscription –Every update request or subscription tells the publisher what to look out for We propose a law awareness protocol as a means to agents interact with our service –subscribe-law-awareness The sender of this performative requests the service to be notified of law modifications. The condition field limits the kind of information that agents will receive. –update-subscription The sender of this performative informs the receiver the new conditions where the subscription is valid. The condition field limits the kind of information that agents will receive.
© LES/PUC-Rio Law Awareness We propose a law awareness protocol as a means to agents interact with our service –pause-notifications The sender of this performative asks the publisher to stop the notification process. –restart-notifications The sender of this performative asks the publisher to continue to notify law evolution. –notify-law-evolution The sender of this performative informs the receiver about the modification of laws. The content field informs the law variation. –unsubscribe-law-awareness The sender of this performative requests the service not to be notified of law modifications.
© LES/PUC-Rio Law Awareness Ontology
Case Study: Supply Chain Management
© LES/PUC-Rio Supply Chain Management Scenario SCM Model: Direct Sales to Customer This model is based on: –Dell –TAC SCM Arunachalam, R. and Sadeh, N. The Supply Chain Trading Agent Competition. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research Applications, Chopra, S. et al.. Supply Chain Management – Strategy, Planning and Operations. Published by Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004.
© LES/PUC-Rio Supply Chain Management Scenario Goals:
© LES/PUC-Rio Supply Chain Management Scenario Interaction between Manufacturer and Supplier:
© LES/PUC-Rio Supply Chain Management Scenario Ontolology to describe messages:
© LES/PUC-Rio Supply Chain Management Scenario Implementation based on Jess –The knowledge base of the agent is based on RDF triples as a template for unordered facts (deftemplate triple (slot predicate) (slot subject) (slot object)) –Example of fact in agent knowledge base (triple (predicate ns1#type") (subject ns2#ManufacturerOffer") (object ns3#Class") )
© LES/PUC-Rio Supply Chain Management Scenario Knowledge is loaded into agent (OWL to Jess) using XSLT stylesheets: Gandon, F. and Sadeh, N. Semantic Web Technologies to Reconcile Privacy and Context Awareness. Web Semantics Journal. Vol. 1, No. 3, 2004.
© LES/PUC-Rio Supply Chain Management Scenario Manufacturer receives a notification of a new Norm –The norm restricts the number of RFQs that can be sent to a Supplier This norm (in OWL) is added to the agents KB The agent is now aware of the new norm Law Awareness Service Subscriber Notification
© LES/PUC-Rio Supply Chain Management Scenario The Norm ontology and the instantiation
© LES/PUC-Rio Supply Chain Management Scenario Code of the Law Awareness: (defrule Norm_Awareness (triple (predicate ns1#hasRestriction") (subject ?normInstance) (object ?restriction) ) (triple (predicate ns2#type") (subject ?normInstance) (object ?normType) ) => (assert …) (printout t "Norm type = " ?normType crlf "Norm name = " ?normInstance crlf "will call restriction = " ?restriction crlf) )
(assert …) (printout t "Norm type = " ?normType crlf "Norm name = " ?normInstance crlf "will call restriction = " ?restriction crlf) )">
© LES/PUC-Rio Supply Chain Management Scenario Code of the VerifyRFQ restriction (in maxRFQs): (defrule Verify_RFQ (triple (predicate "ns1#type") (subject ?rfq) (object ns2#ManufacturerRFQ") ) => (assert (triple (predicate ns3#hasMessage") (subject ns4#sendRFQ") (object ?rfq) ) (verifyRestriction) (printout t "RFQ = " ?rfq " is restricted by norm " crlf) )
(assert (triple (predicate ns3#hasMessage") (subject ns4#sendRFQ") (object ?rfq) ) (verifyRestriction) (printout t "RFQ = " ?rfq " is restricted by norm " crlf) )">
© LES/PUC-Rio Supply Chain Management Scenario Code of the VerifyRFQ restriction (in maxRFQs): (deffunction verifyRestriction () (bind ?numRFQSent (+ ?numRFQSent 1)) (printout t "RFQs Sent = " ?numRFQSent crlf) (if (>= ?numRFQSent 3) then (printout t "Your are not allowed to send RFQs" crlf) )
Supply Chain Management Scenario DEMO
© LES/PUC-Rio Conclusions A first approach to tackle the problem of law evolution awareness –Provide a publish/subscribe architecture –Notifies in runtime the modifications of laws –Provide semantic support for agents We also depict the representation of laws using JESS and discuss how agents receive notifications and act according to law modification
© LES/PUC-Rio Future Work Use ROWL to describe rules (?) Include new Norms in more interactions Build service architecture with Semantic Web Services
A Semantic e-Wallet to Reconcile Privacy and Context Awareness Fabien L. Gandon & Norman M. Sadeh Mobile Commerce Lab. – Carnegie Mellon University.
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