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Dynamically Providing Contextual Information for Agents in Open MAS Carolina Howard Felicíssimo Advisor: Prof. Carlos José Pereira de Lucena Co-Advisor:

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Presentation on theme: "Dynamically Providing Contextual Information for Agents in Open MAS Carolina Howard Felicíssimo Advisor: Prof. Carlos José Pereira de Lucena Co-Advisor:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Dynamically Providing Contextual Information for Agents in Open MAS Carolina Howard Felicíssimo Advisor: Prof. Carlos José Pereira de Lucena Co-Advisor: Prof. Jean-Pierre Briot

2 August 8, 20062/27 Carolina Howard Felicíssimo © LES/PUC-Rio Agenda Introduction Motivation Case Study The DynaCIPOM Approach Readings

3 August 8, 20063/27 Carolina Howard Felicíssimo © LES/PUC-Rio Introduction Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) –A powerful technology that has emerged as a promising approach to develop information systems that are composed of several goal-oriented problem-solving entities (agents) Open MAS –A MAS where agents are able to join and leave it freely –Key characteristics are: agent heterogeneity (different implementations – agents must be threaten as black-boxes), conflicting individual goals and limited trust. Moreover, no centralized control is feasible

4 August 8, 20064/27 Carolina Howard Felicíssimo © LES/PUC-Rio Motivation Network Link Open MAS

5 August 8, 20065/27 Carolina Howard Felicíssimo © LES/PUC-Rio Motivation Network Link Open MAS Contextual Information Contexts: implicit information used to characterize situations of participants Context Information: Environment, Organization, Roles and Interaction Protocols* Dynamically Provide Refined Protocol Information - a Reason & Effect approach * Protocol: a set of contextual directives for acting * Directive: information for providing direction or indication

6 August 8, 20066/27 Carolina Howard Felicíssimo © LES/PUC-Rio Case Study The Supply Chain Management Game for the 2006 Trading Agent Competition (TAC SCM-06) A Competitive Benchmarking for The Trading Agent Community 8 supplier agents / (6) manufacturer agents / 16 different PC configurations. Each PC model is built from 4 component types: CPU, motherboards, memories, and hard disks. 10 different components (Pintel CPUs 2 and 5 GHz; IMD CPUs 2 and 5 GHz; Pintel and IMD motherboards; Memories 1 and 2 Gb; Hard Disks 300 and 500 Gb). Basic Requirements for the Manufacturer Agents: –Need to know how to place RFQs and Orders for different Suppliers –Need to know how to read Offers from different Suppliers Desired Requirement for the Manufacturer Agents: –Choose offers considering internal stimulus and external stimulus (e.g., current economic and politic laws) © TAC SCM-06

7 August 8, 20067/27 Carolina Howard Felicíssimo © LES/PUC-Rio Case Study Pintel Supplier Open Agent Main Platform Agent Manufacturer Memory 1 Gb PC1 Open Agent Platform MEC Supplier Hard Disk 300 Gb Open Agent Platform Watergate Supplier Open Agent Platform Mintor Supplier Open Agent Platform Basus Supplier Open Agent Platform Macrostar Supplier Pintel CPU 2.0 Pintel Motherboard manufactures supplies dealWith supplies dealWith supplies dealWith Queenmax Supplier Open Agent Platform

8 August 8, 20068/27 Carolina Howard Felicíssimo © LES/PUC-Rio Case Study Open Agent Main Platform Agent Manufacturer Memory 2 Gb PC16 Queenmax Supplier Open Agent Platform Hard Disk 500 Gb Open Agent Platform Watergate Supplier Open Agent Platform Mintor Supplier Open Agent Platform IMD Supplier Open Agent Platform Basus Supplier IMD CPU 5.0 IMD Motherboard manufactures supplies dealWith supplies dealWith supplies dealWith Open Agent Platform Macrostar Supplier Open Agent Platform MEC Supplier

9 August 8, 20069/27 Carolina Howard Felicíssimo © LES/PUC-Rio Case Study Base Price: 80 Profit: +X% Reputation: -Y% Offer Price: 4000 sendRFQs(IMDMotherboard,50) calculatePrice (IMDMotherboard,50) sendOffer(4000) AManufacturer AMacrostarSupplier sendOrder(IMDMotherboard,50) analyseOffers() criterion(cheaperPrice) ABasusSupplier sendRFQs(IMDMotherboard,50) Base Price: 80 Profit: +A% Reputation: -B% Offer Price:3990 calculatePrice (IMDMotherboard,50) sendOffer(3990)

10 August 8, /27 Carolina Howard Felicíssimo © LES/PUC-Rio Case Study Open Agent Main Platform Agent Manufacturer Memory 2 Gb PC16 Queenmax Supplier Open Agent Platform Hard Disk 500 Gb Open Agent Platform Watergate Supplier Open Agent Platform Mintor Supplier Open Agent Platform IMD Supplier Open Agent Platform Basus Supplier IMD CPU 5.0 IMD Motherboard manufactures supplies dealWith supplies dealWith supplies dealWith Open Agent Platform Macrostar Supplier Open Agent Platform MEC Supplier Missouri Colorado California Beijing Osaka Hiroshima Shanghai California Contextual Information

11 August 8, /27 Carolina Howard Felicíssimo © LES/PUC-Rio Case Study Environment Directives for Payments: 1.In USA, all negotiations are paid in American dollars (USD), its national currency. Negotiations outside USA have to have their values converted from USD to the national currency of the country where the seller is. 2.In Japan, all negotiations are paid in Yen, its national currency. Negotiations outside Japan have to have their values converted from Yen to the national currency of the country where the seller is. 3.In China, all negotiations are paid in Chinese yuan (CNY), its national currency. Negotiations outside China have to have their values converted from CNY to the national currency of the country where the seller is. Environment Directives for Calculating Prices: 1.In Missouri, a state corporate income tax rate of 6.25 is imposed on all sales. 2.In Colorado, a state corporate income tax rate of 4.63 is imposed on all sales. 3.In Missouri, a three day sales tax holiday occurs, every year, from August 4 to 6. Orders of computers and computers' components, with the maximum cost of $3,050, are eligible for tax free during the holiday. Example that can be implemented as a Meta-Rule!

12 August 8, /27 Carolina Howard Felicíssimo © LES/PUC-Rio Case Study Interaction Directives for Providing Discounts: 1.Basus and IMD offer 15% discount if their products are bought in bundles. 2.Macrostar and Pintel offer 10% discount if their products are bought in bundles. Role Directives for Providing Discounts: 1.MEC suppliers can give up to 5% discount. 2.Queenmax suppliers can give up to 8% discount on orders paid in cash. 3.Queenmax suppliers apply duty free discounts for tourists. Organization Directives for Providing Warranty: 1.Mintor give a two year limited warranty if a plus tax of 5% is accepted. 2.Watergate give one year limited warranty. Organization Directive for Payments of Ship Costs: 1.Mintor pay ship costs when warranty verification detects defective products. Organization Directive for Payments: 1.Every placed order for Queenmax have a down payment of 10%.

13 August 8, /27 Carolina Howard Felicíssimo © LES/PUC-Rio Case Study Economic Directives for Operating in the Market: 1.Organizations cant form trusts and monopolies (concentrations of wealth in the hands of a few). 2.Organizations cant make price fixing agreements. 3.Organizations cant form cartels. 4. (Meta-Rule) Pintel organizations increase 5% of their prices when IMD organizations are in crisis or goes bankrupt. Politic Directives for Operating in the Market: 1.Due to political crisis, American organizations dont deal anymore with Japanese organizations. (Meta-Rule) Mintor organizations increase 10% of their prices when Watergate organizations are not operating in the American market.

14 DynaCIPOM An Approach for Dynamic Contextual Information Provision in Open MAS

15 August 8, /27 Carolina Howard Felicíssimo © LES/PUC-Rio Case Study A priori knowledge needed (pre-implemented methods) for the calculating price protocol: calculatePrice(String product, int quantity):int –requestBasePrice(String product):int –getBasePrice(String product):int –requestBasePrice(String product, String mainOrganization):int –answerBasePrice():int –calculateCostPrice(int basePrice, int quantity): int –calculatePriceWithProfit(int currentPrice, int profitPercentage): int –applyDiscount(int currentPrice, int percentageOfDiscount, String discountIdentifier) ////(quantity or bundle or clientHistory) –applyTax(currentPrice):int –requestIncomeSaleTax():int –requestCurrencyForPayment():String –convertPriceValue(int mainOrgLocalCurrency, int orgLocalCurrency):int –answerPrice(int currentPrice, String currency)

16 August 8, /27 Carolina Howard Felicíssimo © LES/PUC-Rio Case Study

17 August 8, /27 Carolina Howard Felicíssimo © LES/PUC-Rio Case Study Macrostart calculating price protocol calculatePrice(String product, int quantity):int –requestBasePrice(String product):int –getBasePrice(String product):int –calculateCostPrice(int basePrice, int quantity): int –calculatePriceWithProfit(int currentPrice, 20): int –applyDiscount(int currentPrice, int percentageOfDiscount, quantity) –applyDiscount(int currentPrice, int percentageOfDiscount, bundle) –applyTax(currentPrice):int –requestIncomeSaleTax():int –answerPrice(int currentPrice, String currency)

18 August 8, /27 Carolina Howard Felicíssimo © LES/PUC-Rio Case Study

19 August 8, /27 Carolina Howard Felicíssimo © LES/PUC-Rio Case Study BasusChina calculating price protocol calculatePrice(String product, int quantity):int –requestBasePrice(String product):int –requestBasePrice(String product, String mainOrganization):int –calculateCostPrice(int basePrice, int quantity): int –calculatePriceWithProfit(int currentPrice, 18): int –applyDiscount(int currentPrice, int percentageOfDiscount, clientHistory) –applyDiscount(int currentPrice, int percentageOfDiscount, bundle) –applyTax(currentPrice):int –requestIncomeSaleTax():int –requestCurrencyForPayment():String –convertPriceValue(int mainOrgLocalCurrency, int orgLocalCurrency):int –answerPrice(int currentPrice, String currency)

20 August 8, /27 Carolina Howard Felicíssimo © LES/PUC-Rio DynaCIPOM An Approach for Dynamic Contextual Information Provision in Open MAS It is based on: –A Top-Down Contextual Modeling of Protocols –Environment Protocols –Organization Protocols –Role Protocols –Interaction Protocols –A Meta-Ontology to Explicitly Represent Contexts –A Rule Support to Compose and Retrieve Contextual Protocols

21 August 8, /27 Carolina Howard Felicíssimo © LES/PUC-Rio DynaCIPOM 349 customized compositions of contextual norms can be achieved with only 19 rules (Environment: =1 C = 1; Organization: C = 31; Role: =1 C = 63; Interaction: 2* =1 C = 254). Formula: =1 C Rule1- [ruleForOrgWithMOrgLaws: hasNorm(?Org,?MOrgLaws) <- hasNorm(?MOrg,?MOrgLaws), hasMainOrganization(?Org,?MOrg)] Rule2- [ruleForOrgWithEnvLaws hasNorm(?Org,?OrgEnvLaws) <- hasNorm(?OrgEnv,?OrgEnvLaws), isIn(?Org,?OrgEnv) Rule3- [ruleForOrgWithOEnvOfOrgEnvLaws hasNorm(?Org,?OEnvOfOrgEnvLaws) <- hasNorm(?OEnvOfOrgEnv,?OEnvOfOrgEnvLaws), belongsTo(?OrgEnv,?OEnvOfOrgEnv) isIn(?Org,?OrgEnv)] Rule4- [ruleForOrgWithMOrgEnvLaws: hasNorm(?Org,?MOrgEnvLaws) <- hasNorm(?MOrgEnv,?MOrgEnvLaws), isIn(?MOrg,?MOrgEnv) hasMainOrganization(?Org,?MOrg)] Rule5- [ruleForOrgWithOEnvOfMOrgEnvLaws: hasNorm(?Org,?OEnvOfMOrgEnvLaws) <- hasNorm(?OEnvOfMOrgEnv,?OEnvOfMOrgEnvLaws), belongsTo(?MOrgEnv,?OEnvOfMOrgEnv) isIn(?MOrg,?MOrgEnv) hasMainOrganization(?Org,?MOrg)]

22 August 8, /27 Carolina Howard Felicíssimo © LES/PUC-Rio DynaCIPOM – Current Implemented Architecture DynaCIPOM Behavior DynaCIPOM JADE Agent Architecture

23 August 8, /27 Carolina Howard Felicíssimo © LES/PUC-Rio DynaCIPOM – Current Implemented Architecture Network Host (CATOJUNIOR) Network Host (noteles) JADE Platform Architecture Network Link DynaCIPOM Answer USA hasProtocols: 1- USAProtForPayment 2- USAProtForCalculatingPrice Colorado hasProtocols: 1- USAProtForCalculatingPrice 2- ColoradoProtocolForGivingWarranty 3- ColoradoProtForCalculatingPrice

24 August 8, /27 Carolina Howard Felicíssimo © LES/PUC-Rio DynaCIPOM – Further Work Implement the Meta-Rule Solution Try JADEX to Support Protocol-Based for Agent Decision-Making in Open MAS DynaCIPOM answers will be added to agent beliefs –Start enhancing a JADEX implemented example with DynaCIPOM –Implement the TAC-SCM, 2006 example in JADEX with DynaCIPOM Network Link Open MAS Contextual Information DynaCIPOM Answer:

25 August 8, /27 Carolina Howard Felicíssimo © LES/PUC-Rio Readings About DynaCIPOM: –Dynamically Providing Contextual Protocol Information for Agents in Open Multi- Agent Systems. For the JAAMAS Journal. To appear. About the DynaCROM Approach: – Regulating Open Multi-Agent Systems with DynaCROM. FELICÍSSIMO, Carolina; LUCENA, Carlos; BRIOT, Jean-Pierre; NOYA, Ricardo. In: Second Workshop on Software Engineering for Agent-oriented Systems (SEAS, 2006), 2006, Florianopolis. – Toward a Normative Ontology for Implementing Contextual Regulations in Open MAS. FELICÍSSIMO, Carolina; LUCENA, Carlos; BRIOT, Jean Pierre; BREITMAN, Karin; CASANOVA, Marco; CHOREN, Ricardo. Biblioteca de Informatica da PUC-Rio, 2006 (Monografias em Ciência da Computação no. 31/06). –An Approach for Contextual Regulations in Open MAS. FELICÍSSIMO, Carolina; LUCENA, Carlos; BRIOT, Jean-Pierre; CHOREN, Ricardo. In: Eight International Bi-Conference Workshop on AGENT-ORIENTED INFORMATION SYSTEMS at AAMAS-2006 (AOIS-06), 2006, Japan, About a Case Study for the DynaCROM Approach: –Supporting Regulatory Dynamics in Open MAS. FELICÍSSIMO, Carolina; CHOREN, Ricardo; BRIOT, Jean-Pierre; LUCENA, Carlos. In: AAMAS06 Workshop on Coordination, Organization, Institutions and Norms in agent systems (COIN-06), 2006, Japan, 2006.

26 August 8, /27 Carolina Howard Felicíssimo © LES/PUC-Rio Readings About the DynaCROM Ontology: –Normative Ontologies to Define Regulations Over Roles in Open Multi-Agent Systems. FELICÍSSIMO, Carolina; LUCENA, Carlos; CARVALHO, Gustavo; PAES, Rodrigo. In: AAAI Fall Symposium Roles, an Interdisciplinary Perspective: Ontologies, Programming Languages, and Multiagent Systems. 2005, Virginia, Arlington. AAAI Press, v. 1. p –An Approach to Regulate Open Multi-Agent Systems Based On A Generic Normative Ontology. FELICÍSSIMO, Carolina; LUCENA, Carlos. In: First Workshop on Software Engineering for Agent-oriented Systems (SEAS 2005), 2005, Uberlândia. About the DynaCROM Rules: – Inferring Contextual Laws with Rules for Regulations in Open Multi-Agent Systems. FELICÍSSIMO, Carolina; LUCENA, Carlos; BRIOT, Jean Pierre; BREITMAN, Karin; CASANOVA, Marco; CHOREN, Ricardo. Biblioteca de Informatica da PUC-Rio, 2006 (Monografias em Ciência da Computação no. 32/06). –Automating Regulations in Open Multi-Agent Systems. FELICÍSSIMO, Carolina; LUCENA, Carlos; BRIOT, Jean-Pierre; BREITMAN, Karin; NOYA, Ricardo. Rio de Janeiro: Assessoria de Biblioteca, Documentação e Informação. PUC-Rio Departamento de Informática, 2006 (Monografias em Ciência da Computação no. 11/06). About the DynaCROM First Ideas: –Sweetening Regulated Open Multi-Agent Systems with Support for Agents to Reason about Laws. FELICÍSSIMO, Carolina; LUCENA, Carlos; SARDINHA, José. Rio de Janeiro: Assessoria de Biblioteca, Documentação e Informação PUC-Rio Departamento de Informática, 2005 (Monografias em Ciência da Computação n 32/05).

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