Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Comma Sense A Quick Guide. Independent Clauses Subject, verb, and maybe modifiers: Joe sang. Joe sang. Mary ran. Mary ran. Sing. Sing. Run. Run. Joe sang.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Comma Sense A Quick Guide. Independent Clauses Subject, verb, and maybe modifiers: Joe sang. Joe sang. Mary ran. Mary ran. Sing. Sing. Run. Run. Joe sang."— Presentation transcript:

1 Comma Sense A Quick Guide

2 Independent Clauses Subject, verb, and maybe modifiers: Joe sang. Joe sang. Mary ran. Mary ran. Sing. Sing. Run. Run. Joe sang beautifully. Joe sang beautifully. Mary ran quickly. Mary ran quickly. Run fast. Run fast.

3 Coordinating Conjunctions F A N B O Y S FOR FOR AND AND NOR NOR BUT BUT OR OR YET YET SO SO

4 Coordinating Conjunctions (cont.) Yogurt is nutritious, and it makes a good snack. Yogurt is naturally rather tart, but fruit or jam is often added to sweeten it. Yogurt is naturally rather tart, yet many people like the taste. We can have yogurt and fruit, or we can go out for breakfast.

5 Independent Clauses (cont.)  These can be punctuated as sentences. But that is not the only way to punctuate independent clauses.  Two independent clauses that are closely related, especially if they have parallel structure, can be punctuated with a semicolon.  Contrasts between two statements can also be highlighted by using a semicolon.

6 Variation is the Spice of Writing  Independent clauses can be punctuated or combined  in various ways:  The sky darkened, but it did not rain.  The sky darkened, yet it did not rain.  The sky darkened, and it rained.  The sky darkened; it rained.  The sky darkened, the wind howled, and it rained.  The sky darkened, so we knew it would rain.  The sky darkened, for it was going to rain.  All last week, it either rained, or it snowed.  All last week, it rained or snowed.

7 Examples of Semicolon Use Yogurt is a nutritious dairy product; it often has added fruit or flavoring. Yogurt is a nutritious dairy product; it often has added fruit or flavoring. Yogurt is a nutritious dairy product; it is a good, light snack. Yogurt is a nutritious dairy product; it is a good, light snack. Yogurt is nutritious; however, ice cream tastes better. Yogurt is nutritious; however, ice cream tastes better. Yogurt is a dairy product; thus, it must be kept refrigerated. Yogurt is a dairy product; thus, it must be kept refrigerated.

8 Subordinating Conjunctions The following words make the clause dependent; it thus has to have an independent clause to lean on. The following words make the clause dependent; it thus has to have an independent clause to lean on. After, although, as, as if, as long as, as though, because, before, even though, if, if only, in order that, now that, once, provided, rather than, since, so that than, that, though, unless, until, when, whenever, where, whereas, wherever, whether, while. After, although, as, as if, as long as, as though, because, before, even though, if, if only, in order that, now that, once, provided, rather than, since, so that than, that, though, unless, until, when, whenever, where, whereas, wherever, whether, while.

9 Dependent Clauses Although a dependent clause may look like a complete sentence, it is not one. Although a dependent clause may look like a complete sentence, it is not one. Because a dependent clause starts with particular words, it needs an independent clause to lean on. Because a dependent clause starts with particular words, it needs an independent clause to lean on. If a dependent clause were a person, it could be used as a tax exemption by an independent clause because dependent clauses need to be supported. If a dependent clause were a person, it could be used as a tax exemption by an independent clause because dependent clauses need to be supported.

10 Why Use Commas? To separate main clauses linked by a coordinating conjunction To separate main clauses linked by a coordinating conjunction To set off most introductory elements To set off most introductory elements To set off nonessential elements To set off nonessential elements To separate items in a series To separate items in a series To separate coordinate adjectives To separate coordinate adjectives Other uses Other uses To set off absolute phrases To set off absolute phrases To set off phrases expressing contrast To set off phrases expressing contrast To separate parts of dates, addresses, long numbers To separate parts of dates, addresses, long numbers To separate quotations and signal phrases To separate quotations and signal phrases To prevent misreading To prevent misreading

11 Simple Rule For phrases, clauses, groups of words in a sentence: For phrases, clauses, groups of words in a sentence: DO NOT USE COMMAS, if it is an essential part of the meaning of the sentence. DO NOT USE COMMAS, if it is an essential part of the meaning of the sentence. USE COMMAS, if you can take a phrase, clause, or words out of a sentence without changing the basic meaning. USE COMMAS, if you can take a phrase, clause, or words out of a sentence without changing the basic meaning. In other words, commas often mark off added information. In other words, commas often mark off added information.

12 If you can leave part of a sentence out….  The man, who is a teacher, wore a long black cloak.  The movie, which got rave reviews, is still playing at the mall.  My son’s high school principal, James Smith, lives next door.  Mary, my oldest sister, is a pediatrician.  The SUV, which is at least twenty years old, was parked illegally.

13 If part of a sentence is necessary…. The man wearing a long black cloak is a teacher. The man wearing a long black cloak is a teacher. The man wearing a long black cloak is a teacher, not a vampire. The man wearing a long black cloak is a teacher, not a vampire. The woman standing by the door is my aunt. The woman standing by the door is my aunt. The movie playing at the mall is the one I want to see. The movie playing at the mall is the one I want to see. The SUV with the Missouri license plates is parked illegally. The SUV with the Missouri license plates is parked illegally. My sister Mary is a pediatrician.* My sister Mary is a pediatrician.*

14 Some uses for commas…. As I walked into the room, I saw the vase of roses on the table. As I walked into the room, I saw the vase of roses on the table. Because it was my birthday, I thought the flowers were for me. Because it was my birthday, I thought the flowers were for me. I picked up the card, thinking I knew who had sent them. I picked up the card, thinking I knew who had sent them. Surprised and pleased, I smiled at my mother and handed her the card. Surprised and pleased, I smiled at my mother and handed her the card.

15 Other Examples We went to the grocery and bought apples, oranges, bananas, and plums. Many years ago, I started teaching English in Louisville, Kentucky, across the river from Indiana. Michael Jackson was born in Gary, Indiana, on August 29, Casually, the young man strolled into the room. BUT -- The young man strolled casually into the room.

16 Punctuation Matters

17 The Panda Story A panda walks into a café. He orders a sandwich, eats it, then draws a gun and fires two shots in the air. “Why?” asks the confused waiter, as the panda makes towards the exit. The panda produces a badly punctuated wildlife manual and tosses it over his shoulder. “I’m a panda,” he says, at the door. “Look it up.”

18 Punch Line The waiter turns to the relevant entry and, sure enough, finds an explanation. “Panda: Large black-and-white bear-like mammal, native to China. Eats, shoots and leaves.” What kind of words was the Panda saying these (the ones in yellow) were? What were they meant to convey?

19 Punctuation Matters A woman without her man is nothing. A woman, without her man, is nothing. A woman: without her, man is nothing. Be sure to distinguish between the semicolon and the colon-- Semicolon ; smile and a wink Colon: eyes for a smiley face

20 Colons and Semicolons Use colons when what is on either side is balanced, as on a scale. The main clause below has a term (“groceries”) which is general and matches up with the specifics that follow the colon (“apples, oranges,” etc.) Use colons when what is on either side is balanced, as on a scale. The main clause below has a term (“groceries”) which is general and matches up with the specifics that follow the colon (“apples, oranges,” etc.) Example: Example: This morning, I bought a lot of groceries: apples, oranges, bananas, plums, and a pineapple. This morning, I bought a lot of groceries: apples, oranges, bananas, plums, and a pineapple.

21 General: Specifics

22 Colons and Semicolons For sentences with a series of items and internal punctuation, use semicolons between units. For sentences with a series of items and internal punctuation, use semicolons between units. Example: Example: The new contract will provide improvements for all hourly workers: recognition of seniority in scheduling, as well as a flex time option; a better physical environment on the work floor, even in break rooms and restrooms; and better health insurance.

23 Punctuation Matters Dear Jack, I want a man who knows what love is all about. You are generous, kind, thoughtful. People who are not like you admit to being useless and inferior. You have ruined me for other men. I yearn for you. I have no feelings whatsoever when we’re apart. I can be forever happy—will you let me be yours? I want a man who knows what love is all about. You are generous, kind, thoughtful. People who are not like you admit to being useless and inferior. You have ruined me for other men. I yearn for you. I have no feelings whatsoever when we’re apart. I can be forever happy—will you let me be yours?Jill

24 Punctuation Matters Dear Jack, I want a man who knows what love is. All about you are generous, kind, thoughtful people who are not like you. Admit to being useless and inferior. You have ruined me. For other men I yearn! For you I have no feelings whatsoever. When we’re apart I can be forever happy. Will you let me be? Yours, Jill I want a man who knows what love is. All about you are generous, kind, thoughtful people who are not like you. Admit to being useless and inferior. You have ruined me. For other men I yearn! For you I have no feelings whatsoever. When we’re apart I can be forever happy. Will you let me be? Yours, Jill


Download ppt "Comma Sense A Quick Guide. Independent Clauses Subject, verb, and maybe modifiers: Joe sang. Joe sang. Mary ran. Mary ran. Sing. Sing. Run. Run. Joe sang."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google