Chapter Outline Using the Sociological Imagination The Sociological Perspective Uses of the Sociological Perspective The Social Sciences Founders of Sociology Theoretical Perspectives Theoretical Perspectives and Sport
Defining Sociology Sociology is the scientific study of social structure. Maintains a group focus. Emphasizes patterned social relationships between members. Uses social factors to explain human social behavior.
Sociologists Focus… On the group, not the individual. On patterns of social behavior. On social forces that encourage conformity. On the effects people have on social structure.
Benefits of Sociology Provides a vision of social life that extends beyond one’s limited personal experience. Research contributes to public policies and programs. Enhances the development of occupational skills.
Origins of Sociology Born out of social upheaval created by the French and Industrial Revolutions. In an attempt to understand the chaos of their time, early sociologists emphasized social stability and social change.
Early Sociologists Auguste Comte Believed society could advance only if studied scientifically. Harriet Martineau Contributed to research methods, political theory, and feminism.
Early Sociologists Herbert Spencer Social progress occurs if people do not interfere with natural processes. Karl Marx History unfolds according to the outcome of class conflict.
Emile Durkheim Two major contributions: The psychological explanation of social life Introduction of statistical techniques in social research.
Max Weber Method of verstehen assumed an understanding of human social behavior based on putting oneself in the place of others. Explored the process of rationalization in the transition from traditional to industrial society.
American sociology Born during a time of social upheaval (following the Civil War). From the 1800s to World War II, the center of American sociology was the University of Chicago. After World War II, sociology departments in the East and Midwest rose to prominence.
Assumptions of Functionalism 1. A society is a relatively integrated whole. 2. A society tends to seek relative stability. 3. Most aspects of a society contribute to the society’s well-being and survival. 4. Society rests on the consensus of its members.
Assumptions of the Conflict Perspective 1. A society experiences inconsistency and conflict everywhere. 2. A society is continually subjected to change. 3. A society involves the constraint and coercion of some members by others.
Income Before and After Tax, 1980, 1998, 1999 Pretax Incomes After-Tax Incomes Category % change 1980-98 % change 1980- 1999 Lowest 20%-1%19% Middle 20%12%16% Highest 20%44%67% Top 5%78%241%
Assumptions of Symbolic Interactionism 1. People’s interpretations of symbols are based on meanings they learn from others. 2. People base interaction on their interpretations of symbols. 3. People can gear their interaction to the behavior they think others expect of them and they expect of others.
Theoretical Perspectives and Sport: Functionalism 1. Socializes people to the basic beliefs, norms, and values of society. 2. Promotes a sense of social identification. 3. Offers a safe release of aggressive feelings generated by the frustrations, anxieties, and strains of modern life. 4. Promotes the development of physical fitness and sound character.
Theoretical Perspectives and Sport: Conflict Theory Sport is a social institution in which the most powerful oppress, coerce, and exploit others. Reflects the unequal distribution of power and money. Prepares people for a world full of stopwatches, time schedules, and production quotas.
Theoretical Perspectives and Sport: Symbolic Interactionism Concerned with meanings assigned to symbols of sports activities. Meanings and interpretations affect the self-concepts of the participants as well as the relationships among those involved.
Paradoxes In Sport Social integration PositiveCan unite social classes and racial/ethnic groups. NegativeCan heighten barriers between groups.
Paradoxes In Sport Fair play PositivePromotes fair play through adherence to rules. NegativeEmphasis on winning induces cheating.
Paradoxes In Sport Physical fitness Positive Promotes strength, weight control, endurance, and coordination. Negative Can lead to drug use, excess weight loss or gain, and injuries.
Paradoxes In Sport Academic Positive Contributes to education through scholarships. Negative Emphasizes athletics over the classroom and graduation.
Paradoxes In Sport Social Mobility Positive Allows athletes to obtain an education who might otherwise not attend college. Negative Promises of fame and wealth in the professional ranks after graduation can be kept only for a few.