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Justice, Crime and Punishment The African American Experience African American Leadership Course The Kwanzaa Gallery Instructor: Frank M. Johnson.

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Presentation on theme: "Justice, Crime and Punishment The African American Experience African American Leadership Course The Kwanzaa Gallery Instructor: Frank M. Johnson."— Presentation transcript:

1 Justice, Crime and Punishment The African American Experience African American Leadership Course The Kwanzaa Gallery Instructor: Frank M. Johnson

2 Introduction l Define the subject matter

3 Summary of Course l State what the audience will learn in this session

4 Who is in Attendance? l Find out any relevant background and interest of the audience

5 Agenda l List the topics to be covered l List the times allotted to each

6 Overview l Give the big picture of the subject

7 Connections l Explain how all the individual topics fit together

8 Vocabulary l Racial Justice l Social Justice l Racial Disparity l Economic Discrimination

9 Topic One l Explain details l Give an example l Exercise to re-enforce learning

10 National Criminal Justice Commission: Key Findings l Racial Disparity in the Justice System l Relative to their populations, there are seven times as many minorities in prison as whites. l In many cities, about half of young African American men are under the control of the criminal justice system. In Baltimore the figure is 56%; in D.C. it is 42%.

11 National Criminal Justice Commission: Key Findings l In a single year in Los Angeles, one third of the young African American men spend time behind bars. l Almost one in three young African American men in the age group is under criminal justice supervision on any given day. l Rates of offending are higher in impoverished minority communities, but not high enough to explain the disparity.

12 National Criminal Justice Commission: Key Findings l Racial disparities are better explained by disparate enforcement practices than higher rates of crime in minority communities. For example, African Americans constitute 12% of the U.S. population, 13% of the drug using population, but an astonishing 74% of the people in prison for drug possession. In Baltimore, 11,107 of the 12,965 persons arrested for “drug abuse offenses” in 1991 were African Americans.

13 National Criminal Justice Commission: Key Findings l As minorities move through the system, they encounter slightly harsher treatment at every step. Marginal disparities at arrest are combined with marginal disparities at the bail decision, the charging decision, the verdict and the sentence—by the end of the process, the disparity is considerable.

14 National Criminal Justice Commission: Key Findings l Involvement in the system starts a vicious cycle. A person arrested once is branded an ex-offender for life. The person is pointed to as an example of how many people in the neighborhood are bad, or how many are repeat offenders. Having a criminal record also makes it more difficult to find a job.

15 National Criminal Justice Commission: Key Findings l Latinos, Asians, Native Americans and other racial groups also suffer from disparate enforcement of the criminal law. l Rates of offending in middle class minority communities are the same as the general population.

16 RACE, ETHNICITY HEALTHCARE FACT SHEET l The experiences of young African American men differ in many ways from those of young men of other racial and ethnic groups; and yet are similar in other respects. This fact sheet, based largely on information collected from government sources such as the U.S. Census, National Vital Statistics System, and national surveys, examines the experiences of young African American men in education, employment, and the criminal justice system. It also compares how they fare in health coverage and health status with that of young men of other racial/ethnic groups.

17 Young African American Men in the United States SOCIODEMOGRAPHICS l In 2004, there were 4.5 million African American men between the ages of 15 and 29 living in the United States, about 14% of all men in this age group (Fig. 1).Fewer than 8% of young African American men have graduated from college compared to 17% of whites and 35% of Asians. Differences in income by educational level are well documented, as are racial and ethnic differences in income by educational level.1 People with more education tend to have higher incomes, but in 2002 at every educational level, African Americans with the same education made less than whites. l Young African American men are more likely than Hispanics and American Indians to graduate from high school, but are less likely to graduate than whites and Asians (Fig. 2). Less than 45% of white, African American and Hispanic male high school graduates between the age of 16 and 24 are enrolled in college compared to 68% of young Asian high school graduates.2

18 Young African American Men in the United States l The unemployment rate for young African American men is over twice the rate for young white, Hispanic and Asian men (Fig. 3). In addition, fewer African American men between the ages of 16 and 29 are in the labor force compared to white, Hispanic and Asian men in the same age group. Over 20% of young African American men live in poverty compared to 18% of Hispanic, 12% of Asian and 10% of white men.3

19 l African American men are disproportionately represented in the criminal justice system. The percentage of young African American men in prison is nearly three times that of Hispanic men and nearly seven times that of white men (Fig. 4). While African American men represent 14% of the population of young men in the U.S., they represent over 40% of the prison population.4 This figure does not include the number of young men on parole. Young African American Men in the United States

20 l Nearly 4 out of 10 young African American men lack health insurance. The percentage of uninsured African American men, while higher than that of whites, is lower than that of Hispanics, American Indians and Native Hawaiians. l Young men, regardless of race or ethnicity, are more likely to be uninsured than any other age group. Health insurance is important to a person’s overall health. People without health insurance are more likely than those with health insurance to delay needed care, less likely to fill prescriptions, and more likely to be diagnosed at a later stage when they do finally seek care. They are also less likely to have a usual source of care.

21 l Young African American men die at a rate that is at least 1.5 times the rate of young white and Hispanic men, and almost three times the rate of young Asian men. l While the death rate drops for men ages 25 to 29 for most groups, it continues to rise among African Americans. Young African American Men in the United States

22 l The leading causes of death for all young men ages 15-29, regardless of race or ethnicity, are unintentional injury (e.g. car accident, firearm, or drowning), suicide, and homicide. l For young African American men, more deaths are caused by homicide than any other cause. l Additionally, HIV is the sixth leading cause of death for young African American and Hispanic men, yet for other racial groups, HIV is not among the top 10 causes of death.5 Young African American Men in the United States

23 l The homicide death rate for young African American men is three times the rate for Hispanics, the population group with the next highest homicide mortality rate. l Although the rate declines for older African American men, death rates for homicide among African American men ages are still 3 times that of Hispanics and American Indians of that age group. l Homicide rates also are higher than the HIV death rate for African American men ages

24 Young African American Men in the United States l The higher death rates experienced by young African American men mask some of their healthier behaviors. l For example, African American men between the ages of 18 and 24 are less likely than white men to be current cigarette smokers (21% vs. 33 %), a major risk factor for lung cancer.6

25 Conclusions l The 4.5 million African American men ages 15 to 29 represent 14% of the U.S. male population of that age and 12% of all African Americans in the U.S. Their high rates of death, incarceration, and unemployment, and relatively low levels of college graduation rates raise concerns for African American families and the nation’s economy. l The contribution of social factors to the health problems of young African American men deserves further attention than thus far received. By documenting the extent of the problem and by examining the factors associated with the lives of young African American men who avoid problems and lead successful lives, policymakers will be better equipped to develop and implement solutions.

26 Sources l Stoops, N. Educational Attainment in the United States: Current Population Reports. June l Table 13. Enrollment Status of Recent High School Graduates 16 to 24 l Years Old. U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, October Accessed July 6, 2006.URL: l U.S. Census Bureau Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement, Accessed July 6, 2006.URL: l Harrison PM and Beck AJ. Prisoners in Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin. October l Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS) [online]. (2005) [cited July 3, 2006]. Available from URL: l Table 65. Heath, United States National Center for Health Statistics. l Additional copies of this publication (#7541) are available on the Kaiser Family Foundation’s website at

27 Topic Two l Explain details l Give an example l Exercise to re-enforce learning

28 l 1037TENKAMENIN, KING OF GHANA ( ), The country of Ghana reach the height of its greatness during the reign of Tenkamenin. Through his careful management of the gold trade across the Sahara desert into West Africa, Tenkamenin's empire flourished economically. But his greatest strength was in government. Each day he would ride out on horseback and listen to the problems and concerns of his people. He insisted that no one be denied an audience and that they be allowed to remain in his presence until satisfied that justice had been done. His principles of democratic monarchy and religious tolerance make Tenkamenin's reign one of the great models of African rule. l 1837Elijah P. Lovejoy was murdered by a mob in Alton. Illinois, when he refused to stop publishing anti-slavery material. Nov. 7. l 1819KHAMA, THE GOOD KING OF BECHUANALAND, ( ), Khama distinguish his reign by being highly regarded as a peace loving ruler with the desire of advancing his country in terms of technological innovations. He instituted scientific cattle feeding techniques which greatly improved his country's wealth and prestige. During his reign crimes were known to be as low as zero within his country.

29 l 1772In Carolinas, White justices were authorized to search Blacks for guns, swords, and other offensive weapons; and to take them unless the suspect could produce a permit less than one month old authorizing him to carry such a weapon. Patrols were given the right to search Blacks and to whip those deemed to be dangerous to peace and good order. l 1791Benjamin Banneker was appointed, at the suggestion of Thomas Jefferson, to serve as member of commission headed by L'enfant to lay out plans for the city of Washington in District of Columbia. Benjamin Banneker wrote the famous "Letter to Thomas Jefferson" pleading for racial justice in l 1835Anti -abolition riot broke out in Philadelphia and continued for three days and nights. l 1837William Whipper published "An Address on Non-Resistance to Offensive Aggression"--an article written twelve years before Thoreau's famous essay on non-violence, and more than 125 years before the career of Martin Luther King, Jr. l 1867Anthony Burns, Baptist clergyman whose capture as a fugitive slave caused a riot in Boston, died. July 27. l 1906The Atlanta race riot resulted in the death of twelve people. Sept.22. The riots cripple the city for days. Many blacks leave the city, and the Atlanta Civil League is formed to improve race relations.

30 l 1919There were eighty three lynchings, the KKK held more than two hundred public meetings across the country, and there were twenty-five major race riots in the country this year. l 1932Spingarn Medal to Mrs. Mary McLeod Bethune, founder and president of Bethune Cookman College, Daytona Beach, Florida - "In the race of almost insuperable difficulties she has, almost single-handedly, established and built up Bethune-Cookman College. In doing this she has not simply created another educational. institution. Both the institution's and Mrs. Bethune's influence have been nationwide. That influence has always been on a high plane, directed by a superb courage. Mrs. Bethune has always spoken out against injustice, in the South as well as in the North, without compromise or fear." June 28. l 1937Walter White, executive secretary of the NAACP, won the Spingarn Medal for his personal investigation of 41 lynchings and 8 race riots and for his "remarkable tact, skill and persuasiveness” in lobbying for a federal anti-lynching bill. July 2 l 1943William H. Hastie, jurist and educator, awarded Spingarn Medal "for his distinguished career as a jurist and as an uncompromising champion of equal justice. His every act, and particularly his protest against racial bigotry in an army fighting (or the democratic processes, has established a standard of character and conduct." June 6.

31 l 1947President's Committee on Civil Rights condemned racial injustices in America in a formal report, "To Secure These Rights." Oct.29. l 1951William E. B. DuBois was indicted by the U.S. Department of Justice as “the agent of a foreign principal” (Soviet Union). DuBois was acquitted that same year, he was denied a passport by the U.S. State Department until l 1957The Supreme Court rules Jim Crow buses unconstitutional. Birmingham, Nashville and other southern cities are scenes of mob violence, and bombings as school interaction is attempted. 1963As part of the horror and struggles of the civil rights era, Sep 15 marks the death of four young Black girls who were killed in the 1963 bombing of the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, AL. The bombings touched off riots and confrontations between protestors and the city ’ s all-White police force. The church is located at 1530 Sixth Avenue North, Birmingham, AL.

32 l 1967Edward Brooke and Roy Wilkins served on the 1967 Kerner Commission. President Lyndon B. Johnson appointed 11- member committee headed by Governor Otto Kerner of Illinois and Mayor John Lindsay of New York to study causes and propose solutions to racial riots. July 28. l 1968Widespread violence struck l25 cities following the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.; thirty-eight people were killed and 20, 000 arrested. Fifty-thousand Federal and State troops were on duty throughout the country. April l 1969The defense attorney for Bobby Seale, the Black Panther party's national chairman held in $25, 000 bail on charges involving the murder last May of a former Black Panther in Connecticut, accused the Justice Department of initiating a national campaign to harass the party. Aug 20.

33 l 1970Seven Black Panthers who survived a police raid last December 4 were indicted in Chicago on attempted murder charges. Jan 30. l 1970Female activist Angela Davis was acquitted by jury of eleven whites and Mexican American (6/4/72) to charges of murder, kidnapping and criminal conspiracy stemming from a courtroom shoot-out in San Raphael, California. l 1970An all-white federal jury acquitted three white Detroit policemen and a “black private guard of conspiring to violate the civil rights of 10 persons in the Algiers Motel, Detroit, in 1967, where three Blacks were found dead. The prosecution charged the men with use of excessive force to obtain information about sniping during the Detroit riots. Feb 25. l 1970There was no reported violence as most Southern children returned to school many to newly integrated classrooms. Aug 31.

34 The William Lynch Law The Slave Consultant Narrative ….And The Message Is Still True …. l Gentlemen! I greet you here on the bank of the James River in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and twelve. First, I shall thank you, the gentlemen of the Colony of Virginia, for bringing me here. I am here to help you solve some of your problems with slaves. Your invitation reached me on my modest plantation in the West Indies where I have experimented with some of the newest and still the oldest methods for control of slaves. Ancient Rome would envy us if my program is implemented. As our boat sailed south on the James River, named for our illustrious King, whose version of the Bible we cherish, I saw enough to know that your problem is not unique. While Rome used cords of wood as crosses for standing human bodies along its old highways in great numbers you are here using the tree and the rope on occasion. l I caught the whiff of a dead slave hanging from a tree a couple of miles back. You are not only losing valuable stock by hangings, you are having uprisings, slaves are running away, your crops are sometimes left in the fields too long for maximum profit, you suffer occasional fires, your animals are killed. Gentlemen, you know what your problems are; I do not need to elaborate. I am not here to enumerate your problems, I am here to introduce you to a method of solving them. l In my bag here, I have a fool proof method for controlling your Black slaves. I guarantee every one of you that if installed correctly it will control the slaves for at least 300 years. My method is simple. Any member of your family or your overseer can use it.

35 The Slave Consultant Narrative cont’d l I have outlined a number of differences among the slaves; and I take these differences and make them bigger. I use fear, distrust, and envy for control purposes. These methods have worked on my modest plantation in the West Indies and it will work throughout the South. Take this simple little list of differences, and think about them. On top of my list is "Age" but it is there only because it starts with an "A", the second is "Color" or shade. there is intelligence, size, sex, size of plantations, status on plantation, attitude of owners, whether the slaves live in the valley, on a hill, East, West, North, South, have fine hair or coarse hair, or is tall or short. l Now that you have a list of differences, I shall give you an outline of action - but before that I shall assure you that distrust is stronger than trust, and envy is stronger than adulation; respect or admiration. l The black slave after receiving this indoctrination shall carry on and will become self re-fueling and self-generating for hundreds of years, maybe thousands.

36 The Slave Consultant Narrative cont’d l Don’t forget you must pitch the old Black vs. the young Black male, and the young Black male against the o1d Black male. You must use the dark skin slave vs. the light skin slaves and the light skin slaves vs. the dark skin slaves. You must use the female vs. the male, and the male vs. the female. You must also have your White servants and overseers distrust all Blacks. but it is necessary that your slaves trust and depend or us. They must love, respect and trust only us. l Gentlemen. these Kits are your Keys to control. Use them. Have your wives and children use them, never miss opportunity. If used intensely for one year, the slaves themselves will remain perpetually distrustful. l Thank you, gentlemen. l Editor’s note: This speech was delivered by a White slave owner, William Lynch, on the bank of the James River in 1712

37 PRESENTED BY ELVIN B. THOMPSON PASTOR, EQUAL OPPORTUNITY ADVISOR, MEDIATOR, FACILITATOR

38 Special juvenile crime unit proposed Web posted March 20, 1999 By Scotty Fletcher Columbia County Bureau In response to a more than 55 percent increase in juvenile crime in Columbia County last year, the sheriff's department is asking taxpayers for an additional $180,000 to create a special unit designed to fight the problem Juvenile Section officers would act as liaisons between the juvenile court, parents, and community agencies to coordinate contacts and begin developing prevention and intervention strategies. The proposed unit would also be responsible for creating a database on community trends in juvenile crime, including activity of the estimated 10 youth gangs operating in Columbia County.

39 Police tie gang book to deaths Investigators say argument to keep encoded guidelines ended in triple shooting that killed two Web posted Tuesday, November 28, 2000 Friday's triple shooting that left two people dead and one critically injured was triggered by a dispute over a notebook containing gang graffiti, a Richmond County Sheriff's Department lieutenant said Monday Rolondo Marcus ``Buck'' Moore, 17, who is charged with two counts of murder and aggravated assault, went to the Westwood Village apartment complex to retrieve a notebook that details the rules governing the national Folks gang, Lt. Jack Francisco said

40 The notebook, known as the Book of Knowledge, is written in symbols that must be deciphered using a special alphabet or key, Lt. Francisco said. The notebook, or study guide, provides detailed rules for Folks gang members, including dress and prayer, said Investigator Bill Kitchens, who is deciphering the writings. Mr. Moore was a friend of three teens who robbed the A-Awesome Jewelry & Pawn on Tobacco Road and shot store manager William Lake in the shoulder in front of his wife and children, Lt. Francisco said. The teens told investigators the act was part of a gang initiation. Police found newspaper clippings Mr. Moore had saved of that shooting and robbery, along with gang paraphernalia, during a search of his room, Lt. Francisco said.

41 Now-jailed gang leader speaks out 25-year-old breaks code of silence to describe his life and the inner workings of crime organizations The letter came from Juan D. Roane, 25, who is locked up on drunken driving, vehicular homicide and hit-and-run charges. The cryptic designs were gang art, markers for the Chicago-based FOLKS syndicate, which can include pitchforks, the number 666 and hexagrams. Mr. Roane said he was a set king, loosely comparable to a squad leader or a battalion sergeant in the military. Investigators say they know he held a leader's slot. In his heyday, Mr. Roane was one of the city's most notorious thugs. They called him ``Killajuan'' on the streets. He arrived in Augusta at the close of the 1980s and spent the next decade mustering scores of followers into a gang rooted in FOLKS, or Gangster Disciples. Web posted Sunday, February 11, 2001 Juan D. Roane, 25, makes the sign of a pitchfork across his chest to show his respect to the FOLKS nation, a Chicago-based syndicate.

42 Time bomb In Augusta, Mr. Roane estimates there are about 40 FOLKS sets, each with its own king. Membership is in the hundreds, possibly nearing 1,000, he said. That's not including Bloods, Crips and other gangs. ``Augusta's full of them,'' Mr. Roane said. ``If they all just came together and said, `Let's shut down Augusta,' they could do it. ``This place is a time bomb just waiting to explode.'' Deputy White said the department doesn't have a solid estimate of the number of gangs or gang members in the city, but he suspects Mr. Roane's figures are a stretch. A more realistic figure for the total number of gangs may be between 25 and 40, he said.

43 Grafitti decorates a shed along the Augusta canal. JENNIFER FULLER/STAFF

44 Two Richmond County teenagers have been charged with a gang-related attack on Cross Creek High School athlete that occurred off-campus, authorities said. Thomas Coleman Jr., 17, of the 2400 block of Crystal Court, was charged Friday with terroristic threats in an assault Monday on 17-year-old Desmond Walters, a basketball player, sheriff's officials said. A 16-year- old, who cannot be named because he is a juvenile, was also charged. Police say Desmond was walking home on Fairington Drive on Monday afternoon when a vehicle approached and two teens attacked and threatened him. Desmond told police the teens identified themselves as part of the GDB gang, which feuds with students living in Fairington subdivision Web posted Friday, September 26, 2003 | From Staff Reports Two teens face assault charges

45 Gang flare-ups heighten fears in city By Theresa Minor AUGUSTA FOCUS Staff Writer Oct , 2003VOL. 23 No.1129 AUGUSTA They go by the handles of O-Dubs, Circle Boys, Farrington Gangster Thugs and The Southern Killer Boys, to name a few. Until recently, well known by law enforcement – not so well known by the community-at-large. That’s changing. In recent weeks, clashes between rival gangs, including shoot outs, have forced residents, elected officials and educators to take a long, hard look at the gang problem. The perception, whether real or imagined, is that gangs are increasing and gang violence is escalating.

46 The district attorney blamed gang activity for several high-profile murders, including :  In 2000, 17-year-old Marcus Moore killed Niteka Wesbey and Corey McMillan as part of his role in Folk Nation. Mr. Moore was convicted in the shootings, which occurred when he became enraged because he couldn't retrieve a notebook detailing the gang's symbols and writings.  In 1999, Lawrence Miller initiated three juveniles into his local chapter of Folk Nation. The initiation involved walking into A-Awesome Jewelry and Pawn Shop on Tobacco Road and, without uttering a word, shooting owner William Lake Jr. and stealing guns from display cases. Mr. Miller was convicted of that crime. · In 1997, a gang of six killed two of their associates, Bennie Arroyo and Ryan Singh, put them into the trunk of a car and set it on fire. The same organization was later linked to the killing of Sam's Club manager David Holt. Web posted Friday, November 21, 2003 By Greg Rickabaugh | Staff WriterGreg Rickabaugh

47 The signs of gang activity are spreading throughout the county. They include tennis shoes hung over power lines as seen in the above photo. Photo by Theresa Minor.

48 Gangs are in Augusta now, Craig warns We used to be able to identify why people committed murders, and it helped us to know the motive because it helped us to identify possible suspects. People murdered to avoid apprehension for other crimes, for revenge, for jealousy or domestic issues, and to conceal their crime and eliminate witnesses," he said. "But now, with the introduction of the Folk Nation and the thugs... we learn that they kill for initiation into the organization, and they murder for the elimination of opponents and competitors within their territory." Mr. Craig's comments were made during a recent speech to a civic group. He provided a history of gang activity and called for an end to the debate over whether gangs exist in the area. Web posted Sunday, December 21, 2003 By Greg Rickabaugh | Staff WriterGreg Rickabaugh

49 Teenage shooting victim is jailed Web posted Friday, January 16, 2004 By Jeremy Craig | Staff Writer The victim of an alleged drive-by shooting was jailed after authorities found that he and others were involved in suspected gang activity - and that he was shot by a member of his own gang, officials said Friday. Mr. Lawrence, 18-year-old Joseph Antonio Herrington, Donzelle Williams and two juveniles were all charged in an incident that police say might be the result of two rival gangs fighting, Sgt. Peebles said. An investigation showed that this wasn't true, Sgt. Peebles said. "This has been an ongoing dispute between these two 'neighborhood associations,' as they like to call themselves," Sgt. Peebles said. He gave the following account of what authorities have found: A conflict started on Spirit Creek Road when a group of youths suspected of being members of a gang known as Southern Killa Boys, went to an area another gang is known to frequent. Mr. Herrington and the other youths went to confront suspected members of Fairington Gangsta Thugs.

50 Gang structure.

51 1.Hardcore. Comprise approximately 5-10% of the gang. These are the die-hard gangsters, who thrive on the gang's lifestyle and will always seek the gang's companionship. The hardcore gangsters will most always be the leaders and without them the gang may fall apart. 2.Regular Members (or Associates). Usually range from 14 to 17 years old; their jobs are robbing and stealing. They are money oriented. They are initiated into the gang and will back up the "hardcore" gang members. If they stay in the gang long enough, they will become hardcore. They usually join the gang for status and recognition. They will wear gang colors, attend gang functions, and may even participate in some gang related criminal activity all to fulfill their emotional need of belonging. 3.Wanna-be's. Usually 11 to 13 years old; their jobs are tagging and stealing. They are not yet initiated into the gang, but hang around with them and usually will do most anything the gang members ask of them so that they may prove themselves worthy of belonging. 4.Could-be's. Usually under the age of 10. Children of this age are at more risk when they live in or close to an area where there are gangs or have a family member who is involved with gangs.

52 Why Young People Join Gangs

53 Money. Many youth join gangs to make fast money. Financially disadvantaged young people look for ways to buy expensive starter jackets, tennis shoes or electronic equipment. They'd rather participate in one drug deal and make enough money to buy something that would take a full month's earnings from a fast food restaurant. Power. Gangs promise power to youth who feel powerless over their lives. Although the power is a false sense of security, they have no other healthy outlets for support. Identity. Many youth are desperately searching for a place to belong. Gangs accept youth who don't feel loved or accepted by parents, adults or school. Protection. Many youth join gangs because of fear, threats and intimidation from other gang members or bullies at school

54 Fun. Gangs provide activities and a social life. Many youth enjoy living on the edge and participating in dangerous activities. Often, what at first appears to be fun has serious consequences. Attention. If young people aren't getting positive attention from parents, joining a gang certainly provides lots of negative attention. Youth who are angry at a parent may join a gang to shock or be defiant toward the parent. Family Involvement. Family members in gangs often recruit other family members. Young people who grow up with a parent involved in a gang are extremely at-risk for joining a gang. Gang involvement becomes a way of life for some families. Low Self-Esteem. Why Young People Join Gangs,cont

55 "Clues" To Be Aware Of

56 Youths will often give various "CLUES" that they are in or are considering joining a gang. As parents and family members, you should become familiar with these clues and always take an active role in your child's life to discourage gang influence. Ask questions and listen to what they say. Never accuse! This may push the child closer to the gang. If you do see evidence that your child may be an active member or a "Future" or "Wanna-be", ACT NOW! It is often difficult to drop out of a gang once becoming a full-fledged member.

57 Potential Clues Changes in behavior Poor academic progress Lack of interest in extracurricular activities Lack of interest in recreational activities Unexplained truancies Low self esteem Resentful of authority Signs of alcohol / drug abuse Radical change in friends Radical change in clothing Gang - oriented drawings on books, clothing etc.

58 Gang Identifiers

59 Each gang has its own identifiers in the line of colors, clothing, language and symbols. It's common for gangs to change some of their identifiers to avoid getting caught by the police. Here is a partial list of gang identifiers: Caps or hats-- tilted to the right refers to the Folk Nation, tilted to the left the People Nation. Colors-- some gangs identify with specific colors such as red and black, or blue and black. Hand Signals-- signals such as a crown or falcon have been developed by many gangs to identify their gang affiliation. Showing or "flashing" gang signals is a way of identifying one's gang. 4.Graffiti--emblems or insignia on buildings, street signs and bus stops mark gang territory. Gang members may have graffiti markers on their clothing or personal belongings. Graffiti written upside down or with a line drawn through it means one gang is disrespecting or "dissing" another gang. Clothing-- Certain colors on starter jackets or baggy or sagging pants may represent gang involvement. Other clues are one pant leg rolled up, a certain colored bandana on one side of the body,one pocket out or one shoe lace untied.

60 Warning Signs of Gang Involvement

61 Buying or warning to buy excessive amounts of clothing that are blue, red, or black. Wearing a bandana of one predominant color, sagging pants, wearing only certain types of colors of shoes or shoelaces. Wearing a lot of gold or silver jewelry, especially if not accountable for how it was obtained. Jewelry might include stars or other gang symbols. Hanging out with known gang members. Using hand signals with friends or showing off hand signals around others. Secretive behavior, skipping school, sneaking out of the house and not being accountable for activities or whereabouts. Having large amounts of money or property for which they cannot account. Arrested for gang-related activities that might include vandalism, theft, drugs or violence. Unexplained bruises or marks on the body. Writing or wearing gang symbols on personal property or on the body.

62 In order to identify potential gang members, you first must understand some basic information about gangs. Gangs will not discriminate between age, sex, or nationality. There are two main alliances that gangs will usually identify with. These are known as "PEOPLE" and "FOLKS".

63 Folks Gang names: Crips, Cobras, Folks Incorporated, Black Gangsters Disciples, Young Guns. They dress to the left. Pitchfork turned up. 6 point star: stands for love, unity, money, loyalty, wisdom, and understanding. B.G. Kings were the first Folk gang. They were black. It originated in a Chicago prison. Predominant colors: Blue, green and black.

64 The folk symbol is the Insane Heart: The horn for the voice of their tribe, the heart for the heart of their nation and the wing is for the rise of their people. They are called "Crabs" by the People sect. Crips always cross out the "B's" when tagging: "B" standing for "blood". Black is for Black Gangster Disciples and Young Guns. Blue is for Crip, Cash Flo, and Folks Incorporated. The beads are as follows: All blue means gangster. Multicolor alternating every six, means moving up in rank. Multicolor (blue, white and black) means a regular soldier: the only way to get them is to kill someone. Blue & black: vice chief All black: retired or chief.

65 Crips Identification Crips identify with the color blue, and usually wear a blue handkerchief or rag as an identity symbol. They often wear jogging suits and tennis shoes, professional sports team jackets. They also may wear dickey style pants, NIKE and BK shoes are also popular. They refer to each other as Cuzz, and use the letter C to replace the B in conversations and writings. They seldom wear tattoos. The "Crips" identify themselves with the colors of blue or black or a combination of the two.

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68 People Some gang names: Bloods, Kings, Counts, Vice Lords, TMV's, TMC's. They dress to the right. Symbol: Pitchfork turned down, also, a 5 point star which stands for love, truth, peace, freedom and justice. Predominant colors: red, black and white. Latin Kings use a 3 point crown which is usually black and gold, or just black. They are called Slobs by Folk. When tagging they always cross out the "C's" (for "crip") and X out the "O's" (for rolling).

69 The structure of the beads are as follows: They are red, white and black. All red beads mean simply: gangster. Multicolor beads alternating six of each means your moving up in rank. Multicolor beads means that you have killed someone. Red and black beads mean your a Vice Chief. Black and white beads mean your a Chief or retired.

70 BLOODS Identification Red colors; using red bandannas or red rags; similar graffiti and graphic styles, emphasizing disrespect for Crips and Crips symbols. "Blood" gangs generally use red accessories, such as caps or bandanas, to identify themselves

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76 Why would they wear this hat?

77 Initiation New Recruit: "I wanna be down for the set!" Gang member: "Then show us you got what it takes." Field Note: One gang unit officer said gang membership is sometimes determined by the school the youths attend. It is at the school that recruiting takes place. He also noted that this sometimes causes problems because, in the same neighborhood, there may be kids attending different schools. This means that rivalry between gangs happens simply because of attendance at different schools and it brings rivals into contact with one another when they go home after school

78 In order to join a gang, all potential members are required to go through an initiation ceremony to show the gang's members they "have what it takes." “not true” Some may avoid an initiation ceremony by being "blessed in". Those who are blessed-in to a gang have older brothers, fathers, mothers, or other relatives who were already in the gang. There are other ways to enter a gang - ways to be tested prior to entrance, a "trial by ordeal," as it used to be called

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80 Initiation by cop Kill a police officer. Rarely used today. Being jumped in or beat in Having to fight a certain number of gang members for a given period of time and being able to take the beating and fight back. Sexed in Used to initiate females into male-dominated gangs wherein the initiate provides sexual services for one or more of the established gang members.Jacked inCommitting a theft/larceny.

81 The Line, Lined In, or The Gauntlet "In this scenario, the individual being initiated either stands in the middle of a circle and must fight his or her way out, or must run between two lines of gang members." (Curry and Decker, 1998, p. 66) The initiate is expected to stay on his or her feet from one end of the line to the other.Curry and Decker Drive-By-Shooting Commit a drive-by-shooting as assigned by the gang. Russian roulette Play Russian roulette and win. Russian roulette involves loading a pistol's cylinder with 1 bullet, spinning the cylinder, closing it, then pointing the gun to one's head and pulling the trigger. If the player wins, they're in the gang. If they lose, well

82 Blood In, Blood Out Blood In: commit a gang assigned murder to join the gang. Blood Out: commit a murder in order to leave the gang. Catching a Rag or Catching a Flag Fighting through a group of gang members in order to grab a rag or flag which has been placed on the other side of them.Circled In Fighting through to the center of a circle of gang members. Courted In Being invited in, as are some doctors (for their medical skills which may be performed without reporting to the authorities), lawyers (for their legal advice, plea bargaining ability, and courtroom expertise), and electricians (many skills may be needed for gang enterprises).

83 Deeded In Having sex with a female or male who has a sexually transmitted disease and not getting the disease. Freein' Hoover Picking up six pennies which have been thrown on the ground while being physically assaulted by several gang members. When all six pennies have been gathered, the beating stops. Punched In Being hit once, and very aggressively, on the sternum - right over the heart. Field Note: "Some gang members have been killed this way."

84 Note: Some gangs are starting to change their clothing style by no longer wearing their colors in an effort to deceive law enforcement and conceal their gang affiliation Excessive amounts of dark clothing or a predominance of one- color outfits, white t-shirts and levis with upturned cuffs are also indicators of possible gang involvement

85 Graffiti

86 what can a parent can do to combat the spread of gang membership within his or her own family, "Accept that any child can be in a gang, don't think it's a phase, know your child's friends, ask questions and listen, participate in your child's education and establish rules and be consistent. To keep a child out of a gang, help that child feel safe, self-confident and respected at home."

87 DO'S AND DON'TS DO NOT permit children to attend and/or host unsupervised parties. DO notify schools, as well as police, of gang- related incidents. It is especially important to notify schools early in the morning on Monday if there were neighborhood weekend gang problems which may spill over into the schools. DO NOT overlook the potential for females to be involved with gangs. They may support male gang members as a related subgroup or form a gang of their own. DO know that many youth associated with gangs deny their own involvement, claiming that they just "hang with a group of guys". Although you may not see an obvious gang with colors and open leadership, be cautious for gangs having subtle colors and low-key, informal leaders. DO control the exposure of your children to negative activities, friends, music, etc. Although

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89 Anyone with information about suspected gang activity should call the Richmond County Sheriff's Department at (706) or the Aiken County Sheriff's Department at (803) or (800) , or Crime Stoppers at (803) Law Enforcement Center 401 Walton Way Augusta, Georgia OFFICE (706) FAX (706) NIGHTS & WEEKENDS (706)

90 Topic Three Explain details Give an example Exercise to re-enforce learning

91 Learning & Growth Community / Residents Finance Internal Processes Empowerment Through Tools and Training Stewardship of Resources Excellence in Judicial Administration Black on Black Crime Train a Professional Volunteer Force L-1 Align Mission With Culture L-2 Utilize Resources Effectively F-2 Align Resources with Changing Missions F-3 Reduction Economic Violence C-1 Reduction Domestic Violence C-2 Enhance Community Awareness Provide Quality Educational Experience C-6 Enhance Learning Environment C-7 Assure Outcome-Based Adjudication C-3 Enhanced Quality Prosecution & Defense C-4 Exceed Community Satisfaction/Expectation C-5 Prevent Conformity to Violence & Injury IP-1 Develop Root Cause Analysis & Correction IP-2 Ensure Nonviolent Intervention IP-3 Assess Incidents and Cases for Lessons IP-4 Education / Training Expand Area Training Opportunities IP-12 Provide Diversified Life Skills Experience IP-14 Promote Think Bigger Experience IP-13 Enhance Violence Research IP-15 Effectively Manage Judicial Data IP-7 Leverage Social Science, Economy &Technology IP-4 Maintain and Modernize Alternative Solutions IP-10 Provide Consistent Monitoring / Intervention IP-11 Optimize Judicial Effectiveness IP-5 Reduce Market Appeal Judicial System IP-9 Improve Judicial Efficiency IP-6 Vision: To eliminate the reasons for Black people to commit homicide or any type of crime against ourselves or others. Secure Levels of Funding F-1 Optimize Automation & Technology L-3 Feedback Adjusts Resourcing Decisions Equity in Criminal Justice Administration Violence Elimination

92 Topic Four l Lessons Learned l Give an example l Exercise to lesson learned to reinforce learning

93 LAW SEVEN l ALWAYS MAKE YOUR COOPERATION GREATER THAN YOUR STATUS. l Cooperation is essential for lifetime growth. When people come together around a common purpose, they can achieve results that no individual could accomplish alone. Working with others and creating opportunities for increased cooperation makes greater things possible in our lives and in the world. Yet some people mistakenly assume that if they work with others or treat them as equally valuable contributors, people will somehow think less of them, or it will diminish or obscure the value of their own contribution. These people’s attachment to their status keeps them from cooperating with others and puts a ceiling on their growth. Always make your cooperation greater than your status, and you will find unlimited possibilities and synergies in combining your talents and opportunities with those of others.

94 LAW EIGHT l ALWAYS MAKE YOUR CONFIDENCE GREATER THAN YOUR COMFORT. l Increased confidence is crucial for lifetime growth. Many successful people start off life as dreamers and risk takers, but the moment they become successful, they begin to seek greater security and comfort over everything else. This attitude puts them to sleep motivationally, and they lose the confidence that made them so successful. Security and comfort are desirable by-products of goal achievement, but when they become the goal itself, they quickly stop lifetime growth. Treat any increase of comfort in your life as only a temporary stage for establishing bigger goals. Continually strive for higher goals and achievement, and your confidence will always be greater than your comfort.

95 LAW NINE l ALWAYS MAKE YOUR PURPOSE GREATER THAN YOUR MONEY. l Greater purpose is essential for lifetime growth. Many people start off their careers thinking that money is the goal. Money can be a useful measure of success or progress in certain circumstances, and it’s a resource we can use to realize greater possibilities, but at some point money without purpose loses its meaning. Money as an end becomes a growth stopper. Having a purpose that is greater than yourself will give you a constant impetus to strive. Purpose gives life meaning and helps us to direct and focus our talents and efforts. It also attracts the talents and energies of others whose purposes align with our own. Think of money only as a means of achieving a greater purpose, and you’ll attract all the resources and rewards that make up a rich life, not just money.

96 LAW TEN l ALWAYS MAKE YOUR QUESTIONS BIGGER THAN YOUR ANSWERS. l Questions are essential for lifetime growth. As children, when we’re all growing at a rapid rate, we ask lots of questions. As we get older, we gradually begin to think we have a lot of the answers. For some people, their entire sense of security and self-image depends on having all the answers – on never being wrong. As a result, these people try to understand everything in terms of what they know. But all growth lies in the territory of the unknown. What we already know is in the past. What we have yet to discover is the future. Always make your questions bigger than your answers, and you’ll keep drawing yourself into a bigger future with new possibilities.

97 Lift Every Voice and Sing Lift every voice and sing Till earth and heaven ring, Ring with the harmonies of Liberty; Let our rejoicing rise High as the listening skies, Let it resound loud as the rolling sea. Sing a song full of the faith that the dark past has taught us, Sing a song full of the hope that the present has brought us, Facing the rising sun of our new day begun Let us march on till victory is won.

98 Lift Every Voice and Sing Stony the road we trod, Bitter the chastening rod, Felt in the days when hope unborn had died; Yet with a steady beat, Have not our weary feet Come to the place for which our fathers sighed? We have come over a way that with tears has been watered, We have come, treading our path through the blood of the slaughtered, Out from the gloomy past, Till now we stand at last Where the white gleam of our bright star is cast.

99 Lift Every Voice and Sing God of our weary years, God of our silent tears, Thou who has brought us thus far on the way; Thou who has by Thy might Led us into the light, Keep us forever in the path, we pray. Lest our feet stray from the places, our God, where we met Thee, Lest, our hearts drunk with the wine of the world, we forget Thee; Shadowed beneath Thy hand, May we forever stand. True to our God, True to our native land.

100 Available Options l Represent city initiative l Represent special interest initiatives l Function as self serving NPOs

101 Recommendation l BABC as conglomerate cross-section of the city, be afforded the recognition of “neighborhood association”

102 Summary l Increase awareness of active resistance to crime and violence within and outside the African American Community. l Promote Thinking and Acting Bigger l Increase intervention to restrain acts of crime and violence.

103 Contact BABC l l Write: 1419 Champion Pines Lane, Augusta, GA l Tell us your experience of crime and violence in your neighborhood. l We welcome members, volunteers, supportive helpers, counselors and court monitors

104 Summary l State what has been learned l Define ways to apply training

105 Where to get more information l Other training sessions l See Bibliography, articles, electronic sources l Consulting services, other sources

106 Bibliography l Blackburn, Sara, comp. WHITE JUSTICE; Black experience today in America’s courtrooms. With a forword by Haywood Burns. New York, Harper & Row KF4757 Z9 B4 l Chace, William M. comp. JUSTICE DENIED: THE BLACK MAN IN WHITE AMERICA. Edited by William M. Chace and Peter Collier. New York, Harcourt, Brace & World E185 C47 l FROM THE BLACK BAR: VOICES FOR EQUAL JUSTICE /edited by Gilbert Ware. - - New York: Putnam, c1976 KF764 A75 F76

107 Bibliography l Perry, Ronald W. RACIAL DISCRIMINATION AND MILITARY JUSTICE / Ronald W. Perry. – New York: Preager, VB853 P l U. S. Department of Defense. REPORT OF THE TASK FORCE ON THE ADMINISTRATION OF MILITARY JUSTICE IN THE ARMED FORCES / The Task Force. – Washington L. Dept. of Defense REF UNI l Curtis, Lynn A. VIOLENCE, RACE, AND CULTURE / Lynn A. Curtis. - - Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books, E C8

108 Feedback l l


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