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FED 300 Foundation of Education Dr. Sha Li Fall, 2012.

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1 FED 300 Foundation of Education Dr. Sha Li Fall, 2012

2 As a Professional Teacher A professional teacher recognizes teaching opportunities. A teacher-leader always considers the views of others who have a legitimate situation. A professional teacher must possess relevant knowledge and be able to apply it to improve a situation. INTASC, NBPTS, PRAXIS, and other sources of professional knowledge exist for good reason to guide teachers’ actions and to inform their performances.

3 INTASC In year 1987, INTASC was formed which stands for Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium. It was made up of the national education organizations and state education agencies. The prime goal of INTASC is to reform the licensing, preparation and professional development of teachers. This is mainly based on the idea that the well trained teacher should integrate content knowledge with the requirements of students and specific strengths to make sure that all students are able to learn and perform well at the higher levels. In order to achieve these goals, INTASC has created ten different standards for novice teachers. It must be noted that INTASC standards were developed by keeping in view the advanced certification standards of National Board for Professional Teaching Standards. These are the standards which are used to obtain national teaching certification.

4 INTASC Standards Covers Standard 1: Content Pedagogy Standard 2: Student Development Standard 3: Diverse Learners Standard 4: Multiple Instructional strategies Standard 5: Management and motivation Standard 6: Technology and Communication Standard 7: Planning Standard 8: Assessment Standard 9: Reflective Practice: Professional evelopment Standard 10: School and community Involvement

5 National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) The National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) is a nonpartisan, nonprofit organization dedicated to promoting excellence in education. Founded in 1987, NBPTS improves teaching and student learning by enhancing overall educator effectiveness and recognizing and rewarding highly accomplished educators who meet high and rigorous standards. NBPTS develops and maintains advanced standards for educators and offers a national, voluntary assessment, National Board Certification, based on the NBPTS Standards. As of December 2010, more than 91,000 educators have become National Board Certified Teachers in the United States. The NBPTS headquarters is located in Arlington, Va.

6 The Praxis test is required for the teacher profession. It is usually comprised of two separate tests, Praxis 1 and 2. The Praxis I, or Pre-Professional Skills Test (PPST), consists of three exams: reading, writing, and mathematics. In most colleges and universities, a passing score must be earned for admission to teacher education. In most states, a passing score must be earned before the teacher education graduate can apply for his or her teaching license or certificate. The Praxis II assessments cover many different subject areas. Each education major requires a different combination of Praxis II exams. In some states, students must pass these exams before being accepted into the student teaching component of the program. Many states use the Praxis II tests as a way to determine highly qualified status under the No Child Left Behind Act. The Praxis III occurs during the entry year of teaching. A trained assessor visits the entry year teacher in their classroom and observes a lesson. The Praxis III also consists of a pre-observation interview and a post-observation interview to be completed the day of the observation. Praxis Tests

7 28 states/District are using Praxis Tests Alabama Arkansas District of Columbia Hawai'i Idaho Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana New Jersey New Hampshire North Carolina Ohio Oregon Pennsylvania South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Virginia West Virginia North Dakota Wisconsin

8 Teaching Practice Circle for Reflection

9 Questions for Reflection What seems most important to you in seeking a first teaching position? Do you think your priorities might change as you continue through the program preparing you to teach? What do you think you might do to make yourself more attractive to prospective employers?

10 Part II Challenges to educators and schools For many children, the years they spend in school are their best years of their lives. They have people who care for them--- people who help them, support them in learning, nurture their hopes for the future, and make them feel good Why some of the students cry at the elementary school door when they graduate from there? Currently, a growing number of at-risk students---those unlikely to complete high school and likely to have a low socio-economic status throughout life--- present s unusually difficulty challenges for educators.

11 According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the following conditions suggest that students nay be at varying levels of risk Has at least one disability Retained in a grade at least once Speaks English less than “very well” Does not live with both parents Either parent emigrated in past five years Has a family income below the poverty threshold Either parent/guardian employed (McNergney, 2009)

12 U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2012). Status dropout rates of 16- through 24-year-olds in the civilian, noninstitutionalized population, by race/ethnicity: Year Total 1 WhiteBlackHispanic Asian/Pac ific Islander American Indian/Al aska Native 2000 10.96.913.127.83.814.0 2001 10.77.310.927.03.613.1 2002 10.56.511.325.73.916.8 2003 9.96.310.923.53.915.0 2004 10.36.811.823.83.617.0 2005 2006 9.35.810.722.13.614.7 2007 2008 2009 2010

13 Help prevent drop-out rate Educators could not help students if they are not in school. Some of the reasons are considered that they have died, left school to get married, taken a job, gone to vocational school, entered the armed forces, gone to jail, or been expelled. The federal government calculate national drop-out rate by three areas: 1. The proportion of students who drop out in a single academic year 2. The number of students who drop out of a specific grade level 3. The percentage of people in a certain age range who are not enrolled in school

14 Providing compensory education Title I Program Starting from 1965, Title I is the largest federally funded education program for at-risk students who are of low- income, low-achievement. Most Title I instruction is in a Pull-Out program outside the regular classroom. Instruction last for 30 to 35 minutes and focuses mainly on reading, mathematics, and language arts. Upward Bound program Upward Bound is another federally funded program that is structured to improve the academic performance and motivational levels of low-income high school students, particularly in math and science.

15 Other programs: REU Program in AAMU

16 Antonio Won the first place in High School Science Conference in GA

17 REU in China, Summer 2012 Nailing snares to trees Searching for hairs Trapping:

18 The effect of the extracurricular activities Children who participate extracurricular activities, such as sports, club, and tutoring, are less likely to involve in delinquency. Children attend quality after-school programs demonstrate better behavior in school, make better grades, and spend less time watching television than those who are not enrolled in such programs. And they are less likely to use drugs, and less likely to become teenage parents. No Child Left Behind Act assures that the lowest-achieving students, regardless of income level, can equally enjoy the benefits of participating in high-quality programs outside regular school hours.

19 Question: What kind of before- and after-school programs might be most useful to students who are struggling academically? What is the most useful way to help low achieving students with a multicultural background? What can community do to help implement No Child Left Behind Act

20 The society’s expectation for schools More and more, teachers and schools are being called on to provide services far beyond the scope of the classroom. In addition to teaching students, schools also are expected to offer counseling and support services, extracurricular activities, and programs for advancing the health and welfare of students. In short, society expects schools to prepare children in anything that could make them be the functioning members of the society --- The challenge of the educators

21 Assignment: Please name some activities that schools could be involved in to help students learn and develop on or off campus beyond the classroom learning, and comment on it. Why?

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