Presentation on theme: "Melissa Long Janet Stephenson"— Presentation transcript:
1MTSS and EWS Moving from Reaction to Prevention: Early Intervention for Disengaged Students Melissa LongJanet StephensonBased on the work of Dr. Rebecca Sarlo - USFIntroductions – Explain how we came to be here, explain our mission, get the oars rowing in the same direction.
2Today’s Objectives Discuss the compelling why of Early Warning Systems Identify early indicators of dropoutsDescribe the development and utility of Early Warning SystemsExplore the multi-faceted nature of engagementDiscuss data collection methods appropriate for identifying students who are disengaged academically, behaviorally, socially, or psychologicallyDiscuss effective dropout prevention strategies for each type of disengagement (MTSS)Discuss progress monitoring of students at-risk for dropout
3…and moreWhat will it take to implement effective Early Warning Systems in Brevard that impact student achievement?What are our major barriers and how will we overcome them?
4…and lets SIMPLIFY it even more! Find ‘em! What is the problem?EWS – Who? How BIG?Figure out WHY it is occurringPatterns, variables, what can we control?Do something with them - MTSSGet students more engagedProactive, preventativeProgress Monitor to see if it worked
5The Goal of Having a Multi-Tiered System of Support in Middle and High Schools is to… A. Identify kids who are at risk. B. Make sure students are on track for graduation – college and career ready.Use data to find out our school’s weaknesses and how to best use resources.Help students who struggle in math and reading.Drop out preventionAll of the aboveFirst we have to clarify MTSS ---Talk about misconception of MTSS – FIRST THE LINGO!Preparing students to successfully transition to the next school level.Strengthen vertical articulationStrengthen feeder patterns. Prepare for 9th grade!Reminder – MTSS reminds us that these kids are going to keep coming our way – will we be ready for them?MTSS is admitting we know our numbers are growing, we know we need systems in place – it’s about being proactive and preventative.Most successful middle school intervention is to ensure that students enter high school with as much strength as possible.The best middle school screening tool is the compilation of data from K-6.There appears to be a window of opportunity in reaching middle-grades students who show signs of poor behavior but who are not yet failing academic subjects.Look for students who have poor behavior but are strong academically.**We cannot cut and paste our elementary models for problem solving into the secondary schools ( feel the frustration of making it fit)Similarities certainly exist (i.e., the importance of problem-solving, school based leadership, teams, data days to evaluate “health andwellness” of the school, data-based decision making, multi-tiered support systems, and need for fidelity. The mostsalient differences that appear in secondary schools include 1) the emphasis on Early Warning Systems that use existing data forscreening (rather than the emphasis on collecting new universal screening)
6Stop and Jot What are indicators we know of potential drop outs? How do drop outs affect society?
7The WHY of our Work: A National Crisis Nearly 30% of all high school students leave high school before graduatingApproximately 50% of African American and Latino American Students do not graduateHigh School DropoutsHave shorter life spansAre more likely to be convicted of a crimeCannot access 90% of the current fastest growing career fieldsCost the nation more than $325 billion in lost wages, taxes, and productivityOn average, a 45 year old high school dropout is in worse health than a 65 year old high school graduate. High school dropouts have a life expectancy that is nearly a decade shorter than high school graduatesIncreasing high school completion rates by only 1% for all men ages 20 to 60 would reduce the4 costs in criminal justice system by $1.4 billion a year90% of the fastest growing career fields require some post-secondary education
8High School Dilemma Deadly combination Poor Skill DevelopmentLimited or No Productivity (work completed, practice)How do you remediate gaps AND provide students with access to content simultaneously?How do you sustain student engagement when skill gaps are significant?
9What We KnowMiddle- and High-School teams “inherit” the strengths and weaknesses (and Gaps) students bring to the level64% of students repeating a grade in elementary school eventually drop out63% of students held back in middle school eventually drop outSuccessful high school completion begins in kindergartenMost successful high school “intervention” is to ensure that students enter with as much strength as possibleWhich of these rings most true to you? Write about it, share on it!
10What We KnowVertical Programming—articulation K-12- is the most effective way of ensuring that students are prepared for high schoolMiddle- and High-School staff should know student needs at least month ahead of time.The best high-school “screening” tool is the compilation of data in K-8An agreed upon “method” of vertical communication of student data/needs—that leads to vertical programming– is criticalWhich of these rings most true to you? Write about it, share on it!
11is a process, not an event. What We KnowWe know DROPPING OUTis a process, not an event.Agree? Or disagree? Discuss – a gradual process of disengagementThis is why later when we talk about interventions, prevention strategies are just as important! Begin early and continue over time!
12Dropout Prevention cannot be Sole Responsibility of High Schools The Forgotten Middle“Making sure that all eighth-grade students have attained the knowledge and skills that put them on target to becoming ready for college and career is the single most important step that can be taken to improve their college and career readiness.”The Forgotten Middle: Ensuring that All Students are on Target for College and Career Readiness before High School (ACT, 2008)High school people – What do we wish we knew from middle school folks?Middle school folks – What do we wish we knew from high school folks?
13High School Transition 9th grade is a “make or break” yearMore students fail 9th grade than any other grade levelA disproportionate number of held-back 9th graders subsequently drop out of schoolPowerful early signs of dropout are evident during the first semester and year of high schoolEarly intervention has proven effective for maintaining students in schoolDo we only count the drop outs after 9th grade? What about drop outs summer between 8th and 9th?
14Table TalkHow does our district currently approach dropout prevention?When are dropout prevention services initiated? For Whom?How effective are the dropout prevention services?What could be done to improve their effectiveness?
15How BIG is our problem? Who? …and later…any patterns? 1. Finding themHow BIG is our problem?Who?…and later…any patterns?
16What are Early Warning Systems? Systems which:Utilize routinely available data housed at the schoolHelp identify students at-risk for dropping out utilizing highly predictive dataAllow districts and schools to target interventions that support off-track or at-risk students while they are still in schoolAllow districts and schools to uncover patterns and root causes that contribute to disproportionate drop-out rates at a particular school or within a particular group of studentsDiscuss –What data?What Interventions?What patterns or root causes exist at your school? What are some hypotheses?
17Developing a District-Wide Early Warning System – Why? The best predictor of future failure is current failure and disengagementAssessing risk across multiple variables allows teams to provide early intervention and prevent disengagement from school and course failuresAt-risk and off-track students are identified through analyzing a combination of engagement and academic data.Many students experience course failures as a result of disengagement (e.g., excessive absenteeism, lack of productivity, inattention)Systematically assessing student engagement allows schools to identify students in need of support before they have failed courses or acquired skill deficits related to missed instructionBy the time students enter secondary schools they typically have years of data which indicates whether or not the student is at-risk for school failure and high school dropout.
18EWS – 2 Key QuestionsWhat are our problems? (How many students off track? Who?)Why are they occurring?Question 1 – Data – find them –Question 2 – What is causing students to be disengaged? What can we control here at school? How can we be proactive and preventative to get students engaged?Question 3 – What are we going to do about it? MTSS
20Early Warning SystemsIdentify all students who miss more than 20% of the available instructional timeand/orIdentify students through engagement scales or behavior indicatorsIdentify all students who fail their math courseIdentify all students who fail their English courseFlag students who display both engagement and academic failure as high riskGo beyond Reading! Unlike a focus on a particular skill (e.g., reading), in which a schools math, history, culinary arts, and other teachers may not necessarily feel connected to, EWS includes indicators of risk that everyone in a school has a hand in. EWS includes academic indicators such as course grades, credits earned, GPA, retention, but also engagement indicators, such as attendance, suspensions, referrals. Through the EWS, schools have a universal language to identify problems at the school-wide level, and through engagement factors, schools also have a new conceptualization for analyzing why problems are occurring and how to intervene to address the barriers to learning and engagement. In this sense, a school can rally together knowing that they have clearly recognized the problems.
21Building Your Early Warning System The best predictor of future failure is current failure and disengagement.By the time students enter secondary schools they typically have years of data which indicates whether or not the student is at-risk for school failure and high school dropout.Assessing risk across multiple variables allows teams to provide early intervention and prevent disengagement from school and course failures.
22Hendry County Schools Extreme Off Track 2-3 Years Behind No chance for graduation in a traditional school settingDisengagementRisk Factors:1. Disengagement20% absenteeism2. Behind in CreditsParticularly Core Course Failures3. GPA less than 2.04. Failed FCATHigh Off Track3 or more risk factorsOff Track2 of 4 risk factors indicatedStudents entering with 20% absenteeism and/or 2 or more F’s in 8th GradeFirst develop a generic system taking into account Florida’s graduation requirementsSecond, apply the generic system to the specific grade levels using grad plan year. For example, see credits earned as an example in boxThird, identify off track for incoming 8th graders – use data from elementary schools– see bold for exampleFourth, determine the percentage of students that fall under each risk factors – by Grad Plan YearFifth, create master schedule with data in mindAt Risk for Off Track1 of 4 risk factors indicatedOn TrackNo risk factors indicatedHendry County Schools22
23At-Risk Eighth Graders Those who attend school less than 80% of the time (78% became drop outs)Those who receive a failing grade in math and/or English (77% became drop outs)Did not have strong predictive power:Gender, race, age, test scoresI found this predictor…78% become drop outs/77% become drop outs.The best predictor of future failure is current failure and disengagementAssessing risk across multiple variables allows teams to provide early intervention and prevent disengagement from school and course failuresAt-risk and off-track students are identified through analyzing a combination of engagement and academic data.Many students experience course failures as a result of disengagement (e.g., excessive absenteeism, lack of productivity, inattention)Systematically assessing student engagement allows schools to identify students in need of support before they have failed courses or acquired skill deficits related to missed instruction
24Attendance: The Canary in the Coal Mine SchoolMore than 9 Absences – students not in school 80% of the timeCentral9Clearlake4Cocoa Beach Jr/Sr2DeLauraEdgewoodHoover7JacksonJeffersonJohnson12Kennedy5MadisonMcNair3SouthwestSpacecoast1StoneWestshoreTotal79Of these 79 students 78 % could potentially become high school drop outs.61 drop outs.AS of 43rd day of school. 20 % is 9 days October 8th –A canary is a predictor of a poor outcome…Attendance is a predictor of the outcome.Only 8th grade.
26Teacher data teams use to identify at risk students on their teams Teacher data teams use to identify at risk students on their teams. Once they find commonalities, brainstorm strategies –action plan of how to intervene with groups of students.This is an example of Tier 2 behavior data collection, and intervention planning. The team may meet back periodically to discuss if plan is working. Is attendance improving, is behavior improving, are academics improving – all are progress monitoring.
27Stop and JotMake a list of indicators you will want in an Early Warning System.Next to each item, record what data source Brevard currently has for retrieving that data.Put EWS Indicators slide back up! We will continue to modify this as we go…….
282. Figure out WHY it is occurring Patterns and root causesWhat can we control?This often might be a hypothesis – why do we think it is occurring?Some schools have instituted – exit slips, attendance surveys
29Dropout Early Warning Signs DisengagementMost students dropout mentally before ever physically leaving the schoolA lack of engagement with school is a precursor to dropping outIndicators of disengagement:Attendance problemsClassroom/School engagement scalesBehavior marksStudents most often cite school-related reasons for dropping outThere appears to be a window of opportunity in reaching middle grade students who show signs of poor behavior but who are not yet failing academic subjects. By the time future dropouts reach high school, poor behavior and course failures tend to converge among many students who eventually leave schoolAttending to behavior challenges, engagement, and attendance with middle grade students who are not yet failing coursework may be one key to reaching a group of students who may otherwise drop out later.Students most often reported school-related reasons for why they dropped out of school. Students most often cite a lack of motivation, boredom, an unchallenging atmosphere, and an overall lack of engagement in school as a reason to drop out
30Student engagement has emerged as the cornerstone of high school reform initiatives. National Research Council publication, “Engaging schools: Fostering high school students’ motivation to learn”I can, I want to, I belongCompetence, Autonomy, BelongingThe other “ABCs”URL:Engagement is becoming a major issue among educators across the nation.Baumeister & Leary, 1995; Connell & Wellborn, 1990; NRC, 2004; Ryan & Deci, 200030
31Student EngagementEngagement is the primary theoretical model for understanding dropout and is, quite frankly, the bottom line in interventions to promote school completion.Student engagement has emerged as the cornerstone of high school reform initiatives.Both academic and social aspects of school life are integral for student success; engagement at school and with learning are essential intervention considerations.New construct – promising but there is a lot that we don’t knowGenerally can say that engagement is an alterable, multidimensional constructMeans of understanding student behavior and performance as for addressing student needs3 definite statements we can make about engagement right nowChristenson et al., 20083131
32Both academic and social aspects of school life are integral for student success; engagement at school and with learning are essential intervention considerations.School completion is dependent on more than just academic performance and an absence of inappropriate behaviorYet… academic performance and behavior problems typically represent the totality of what schools monitorA complete early warning system will include identification of students who are socially and psychologically disengaged in addition to academic and behavioral disengagement and provide interventions specific to students’ needsMcPartland (1994); Dynarski & Gleason (2002)
33Participation-Identification Model Engagement is the primary theoretical model for understanding dropout and is, quite frankly, the bottom line in interventions to promote school completion.Finn (1989 & 1993)Participation-Identification ModelIndicators of withdrawal and engagement over several yearsBelonging, Identification, RelationshipsEngagement has an exponential effect on achievement and overall school successEngagement comes from the dropout literaturePrimary theoretical model of dropout: Finn’s participation-identification model deescribes school completion and dropout in terms of engagement with school – there are behavioral and affective componentsFlip to next slideFits with empirical work on dropouts and completers: can differentiate these groups based on engagement early in elementary schoolThere is something about the affective of social side of schooling –What we know from the literature Teacher student relationshipsPeer relationshipsMore specifically related to dropout, Qualitative and survey studies of dropouts33
34“The Rich Get Richer” Time Spent Successful Perceive more Academically Performance teacher andEngaged peer supportIntervening with any one of these points will likely have an exponential effect for studentparticipation leads to successful performance, promoting feelings of identification or belonging at school; which in turn, promote on-going participation.Opportunities for participation change as students progress through the educational system. Initially, successful participation may involve attending school and being prepared for class; in later years, class preparation requires greater effort (e.g., homework, outside projects), and there are more opportunities to participate in nonacademic aspects of school, such as band, clubs, or other extracurricular activities (Finn, 1989)For students who are at risk for dropping out - this cycle starts to break down. Less likely to show the increased and varied forms of participation as they go through school, less successful, reduced feelings of belonging…Begin to disengageFlip backFeelings ofConnection andIdentification w/SchoolFeelings ofcompetenceand controlParticipation inSchool Activities34
35Dropping out is the most extreme form of disengagement Engagement Theory4 subtypesAcademicBehavioralPsychologicalSocialAntidote to: students characterized as bored, unmotivated, and uninvolvedAcademic – being a good learner; getting good gradesBehavioral-good citizen; participant; attendingPsychological – believing school mattersSocial – having a feeling of belonging in schoolAcademic engagement refers to being a good learner, getting good grades, being promoted, etc.Behavioral engagement refers to being a good citizen in the school, getting to school regularly and on time, participating appropriately in class activities, getting homework done on time, and avoiding disciplinary infractions.Cognitive engagement refers to believing in the need for school and classes to achieve goals and believing that school matters.Affective engagement refers to feeling connected and having a feeling of belonging in school.Academic and behavioral engagement can be measured with the data we routinely collect on students.Cognitive and affective engagement are harder to measure; we are using the Student Engagement Instrument (SEI) to collect data on these components of student engagement.Cognitive: relevance/utility of school work, autonomy, competence,Affective: belonging and identification with the values and goals of the schoolTHINK OF STUDENTS YOU HAVE ENCOUNTERED – WHY DID THEY DROP OUT? WHICH CATEGORIES DID THEY FIT INTO?TABLE TALK – WHICH OF THESE IS MOST IMPORTANT TO A STUDENT?Dropping out is the most extreme form of disengagementAdapted from Christenson & Anderson, 2002; Newmann, 1992; Russell et al., 200535
36Contextual Variable which Impact Student Engagement FamilyAcademic and motivational support for learningGoals and expectations of successful school performanceMonitoring/supervisionLearning resources in the homePeersEducational expectationsShared common school valueHigh attendance ratesAcademic beliefs and effortsPeers’ aspiration for learningSchoolSchool climateInstructional programming and learning activitiesMental health supportClear and appropriate teacher expectationsGoal structure (task vs. ability)Teacher-student relationships
37Academic Engagement Indicators Course FailuresParticularly Math and English in Middle SchoolCredits earnedGPAHomework completionTime on taskAcademic engagement variables have a moderate to large effect on achievementMost visible form of engagement and the most often tracked by school personnel
38Dropout Early Warning Signs Course Performance IndicatorsCourse grades and failure rates are highly predictive of which students will or will not graduate from high school.Students who fail one or more courses in the fall semester of their first year of high school are significantly more likely to eventually drop out85% of students with 0 semester failures in their freshmen year graduated in 4 years70% of students with one semester F during 9th grade graduate in 4 yearsOnly 55% of students with two semester Fs in 9th grade graduated in 4 yearsStudents with 3 or more semester Fs are not likely to graduate from high school
39Calculating Risk with Course Performance Data Freshman Course Failures, particularly in core academic coursesAt the end of each marking period, identify the number of Fs earned by each studentInclude both failures in any course and Fs earned in core academic coursesFreshman Grade Point Average (GPA)At the end of each marking period and at the end of the cumulative year, identify students who earn a 2.0 or lessCredits earned in each termInclude the total number of credits accumulated per term for each student.Identify students who fail to earn enough credits to be promoted to 10th grade (typically 5)¼ of the total number of credits required for graduation minus 1
40Behavioral Engagement Among the most common concerns expressed by educators and parentsIndicatorsAttendanceSuspensionsParticipation in classroom activitiesSignificantly related to academic achievement and school dropout
41Dropout Early Warning Indicators AttendanceAttendance during the first year of high school is directly related to high school completionEven moderate absences (5-10 days) in the first semester of 9th grade are associated with eventual drop outAttendance is the biggest risk factor for failing 9th grade9th grade failure is the biggest risk factor for high school drop out
42Dropout Early Warning Indicators AttendanceMissing more than 10% of instructional time is significantTranslates to roughly 10 days of school per semester in most high schoolsStudents who miss more than 10% of the first 20 days of school (2 days) are particularly at-risk for high school dropoutAny student missing more than 10% of instructional time (at 20 day mark or at each quarter) should be flagged for intervention
43Dropout Early Warning Indicators Behavioral ProblemsEarly violent behaviorChronic misbehavior, especially if it results in suspension or expulsionCriminal behavior in the communityMiddle and High Schools should identify students who display chronic misbehavior or accrue 2 or more suspension incidences in a semester period
44Social Engagement Indicators . Perception of support Affiliation with schoolSense of belongingPerception of the value of school and school related activitiesPeer group.
45Identifying Socially Disengaged Students List all students names at grade levels and have adults in school initial next to students with whom they have a personal relationship.Students with no initials by their names may be socially disengagedUtilize a survey to identify students who are bullied, alienated by peers, or who simply perceive that they have difficulty connecting with peersEmploy a systematic student-nomination process within which school personnel indicate the students whom they have concerns regarding peer and/or adult connectionsDetermine which students are not actively engaged in extracurricular activities through the review of club and sport rosters and attendance logsDISCUSS – WHICH OF THINGS SEEM MOST DO-ABLE TO YOU? WHAT WOULD BE BEST?
46Stop and JotMake a list of indicators you will want to add to your Early Warning System to monitor students who are socially disengaged.Where will we get this data?Who could monitor?Put EWS Indicators slide back up! We will continue to modify this as we go…….
47Psychological Engagement IndicatorsSense of confidence and controlUse of learning and problem solving strategiesInvestment in learningPerceived relevance of school for future outcomesSignificantly related to academic achievement, school attendance, and high school graduation.
48Identifying Psychologically Disengaged Students Utilize a survey to assess students’ sense of control, relevance of schoolwork, and future aspirations and goalsEmploy a systematic student-nomination process within which school personnel indicate the students whom they are concerned regarding their interest in learning or lack post-secondary goalsWHAT ELSE DO WE HAVE IN PLACE FOR THIS?
49Putting it all together… Middle School Early Warning SystemsSchool systems should focus on dropout prevention efforts in the beginning of the middle grades at the latestAcademic indicatorsFail either math or EnglishEngagement indicatorsAttend school less than 80% of the timeConsistently miss instruction due to behavioral issuesPsychological or Social disengagementLack of peer groupLack of involvement in school extracurricular activitiesLow educational expectationsRetentionRetained 1 or more yearsMobilityMultiple schools during educational careerMore than half of 6th graders with the 3 criteria eventually left school6th graders who received poor behavior marks were found to have only a one in four chance of making it to 12th grade on time and graduating8th graders who miss 5 or more weeks of school during the year OR fail math or English more than a 75% chance of dropping out of schoolGender, race, age, and test scores did not have the strong predictive power of attendance and course failures for future drop out
50Putting it all together… High School Early Warning SystemsAcademic indicatorsGPA less than 2.0Failed CoursesBehind in CreditsEngagement indicatorsAttend school less than 80% of the timeConsistently miss instruction due to behavioral issuesPsychological or Social disengagementLack of peer groupLack of involvement in school extracurricular activitiesLow educational expectationsLack of personal relationship with adults at schoolRetentionRetained 1 or more yearsMobilityMultiple schools during educational career
512. Do something with them Interventions, MTSS NOW COMES THE HARD PART…….So we collected data, we know who, we know what our problems are….what will we do?Reminder – MTSS reminds us that these kids are going to keep coming our way – will we be ready for them?MTSS is admitting we know our numbers are growing, we know we need systems in place – it’s about being proactive and preventative.
52Designing Effective Prevention/Intervention Services Identifying students at risk for dropping out is only the first stepNext step is to identify and provide effective and appropriate dropout prevention/intervention strategiesIntervention planning is informed by the scope of the identified problem (Tier 1, 2, 3) and the specific needs of the studentsThere will be cases in which students are flagged for at risk based on one indicator (e.g., they fail one or more courses) but not the others (e.g., their overall GPA is higher than a 2.5 or their attendance patterns are not a concern). In these cases, it is likely these students are struggling with particular subjects or areas (e.g., literacy) and specific academic interventions may be the most appropriate.In cases where the early warning signs all converge and indicate a general disengagement with school, the provision of comprehensive drop-out prevention programs that aim to get the student re-engaged in school activities and academics may be needed.
53Dropout Prevention Interventions Dropout prevention programs that are disconnected from the core instructional program of a school are unlikely to be a good use of resourcesSchools should develop a continuum of intervention supports which are readily accessible as soon as a student is indicated as at-risk or off-track
54Early Intervention is the Answer Disengagement is a gradual process that includes impaired or reduced participation, less successful outcomes, and reduced identification and belongingIdentifying students at the first sign of withdrawal significantly improves the likelihood of re-engagement and successful school completionShift from a focus of preventing negative outcomes, such as dropout, to promoting student competence and support
55Hendry County Schools Extreme Off Track 2-3 Years Behind No chance for graduation in a traditional school settingDisengagementRisk Factors:1. Disengagement20% absenteeism2. Behind in CreditsParticularly Core Course Failures3. GPA less than 2.04. Failed FCATHigh Off Track3 or more risk factorsOff Track2 of 4 risk factors indicatedStudents entering with 20% absenteeism and/or 2 or more F’s in 8th GradeRemember this visual -At Risk for Off Track1 of 4 risk factors indicatedOn TrackNo risk factors indicatedHendry County Schools55
56Given the following…A common theme among effective practices is that they have a positive effect on the motivation of individual students because they address underlying psychological variables such as competence, control, beliefs about the value of education, and a sense of belonging.National Research Council, 2004, p. 212
57Stop and Jot What do schools already have in place? PsychologicalSocialAcademicBehaviorHow else could we be proactive and preventative?Guidance counselors – career fairs, vocational fairs, BCC, dual enrollment,Here’s what’s interesting to me – there is not a ton of stuff out there on interventions…Between 1982 – articles published on drop outs – Only 30 were intervention studies of what worked…So we are great at predicting the rain, and challenged at building the ark!
58Intervention Linked to Underlying Barrier Disengaged LearnersFailed LearnersMentoring programsGoal Setting & career planning supportFrequent progress reportsTargeted rewardsMandatory study hallMandatory homework helpStudy skills classesTargeted, differentiated instructionAdditional instructional timePre-teach essential skills, content, and vocabularyReview/Reteach prerequisite skills to address the learning gapPrevention (requires vertical articulation with middle/elementary school and early identification of at-risk students)CAUTION: Failed Learners often become disengaged over time and may require both categories of intervention support
59Effective Dropout Prevention Services Effective Schools and Teachers Promote:Students’ understanding of what it takes to learnConfidence in their capacity to succeed in schoolA sense of belonging by personalizing instruction, showing an interest in students’ lives, and creating a supportive, caring social context.High expectations for all studentsAnd, Provide:Challenging instructionSupport for meeting high standardsOpportunities for choice and controlCurriculum and instruction that is relevant to adolescents’ experiences, cultures, and long-term goalsNational Research Council, 2004Much of this is what we would call in the MTSS world – Tier One.
60First StepsThe most important first step in successfully implementing MTSS/RTI and increasing learning is ensuring the quality of full class instruction.The least expensive way to increase learning at your school is to improve full class instruction.The change that will affect the most number of students at your school is to improve full class instruction.Tier 2 and Tier 3 interventions may be what everyone is talking about, but full class instruction affects more students.And there are a lot of schools spending a lot of energy running around trying to implement a complicated system of Tier 2 and Tier 3 interventions when much of that energy would be better spent simply focusing on improving Tier One full classroom instruction.COMMON ASSESSMENTS – LINK TO COMMON CORE – PREASSESSMENTS FOR ALGEBRA ETC.
61Improving Tier 1 Syllabus Pre test – prerequisite assessment Common Assessments – analyzing and using the dataDifferentiation of content, process, productProactively seeking out data of incoming studentsVertical alignment between 6th & 7th gradeVertical alignment between 8th & 9th grade
62You will be given 20 minutes to complete these tasks Group CollaborationIntervention JigsawReview assigned materialDiscuss most important pointsPrepare to share back with your jigsaw groupYou will be given 20 minutes to complete these tasks
63Group Collaboration Return to your jigsaw group You will have 20 minutes to share informationShare any additional dropout prevention/intervention strategies that your schools have implemented with success.Given the information shared, discuss potential next steps for your school sites.How can you support this next step?You will have 10 minutes to discuss these points
64Helping Students who Are Off Track Tier 2 - AcademicCredit RetrievalReading Intervention ClassMath Intervention ClassLearning strategiesAVIDAcademic TutoringNo Zero ZoneTier 2 – BehaviorMentor ProgramsCheck In/Check outGoal SettingBehavior ContractsAttendance Contracts
65Support for FEW (Intensive, Individualized Instruction – Tier 3) AcademicsBehavior• More intense targeted skill interventions • Customized interventions • Frequent progress monitoring to guide intervention design• Student centered planning • Customized function based interventions • Frequent progress monitoring to guide intervention design
66Infrastructure of a Multi-Tiered System of Supports Think about…could we…Direct a significant amount of resources to critical transition years (6th and 9th) to prevent academic and behavioral problemsProvide opportunities for mentoring, advisement, and academic support within the master schedule for all studentsInclude classes which provide instruction in organization, study skills, note-taking, problem solving, and communication in the school’s master scheduleIntensify instruction by providing additional time and personnel or smaller class sizes for classes which typically result in high rates of course failuresIt's CRITICAL that students have access to up to date information about their grades. It's also critical that they are encouraged to access and reflect on their grades on a regular basis.
67Scheduling of Multi-Tiered Supports Suggestions – Are we already doing these?Build time into the school’s master schedule to allow for weekly common planning/PLC time for content teams and for cross content teams at least monthlyIntervention teachers plan with core content teachers and align intervention strategies with core instructionDevelop school leadership team members who can monitor and participate in the work of all other school teams
68Is what we are doing working? 4. Progress MonitoringIs what we are doing working?NOW COMES THE HARD PART…….How will we know?
69Progress Monitoring the EWS The indicators in the Early Warning System can continue to be used to monitor the progress of students participating in dropout prevention interventionsInterventions should be considered effective for students who move back on-track for graduationStudents who continue to be identified as off-track for graduation may require more intense drop out prevention interventions.When evaluating results, be sure to check for delayed outcomes associated with early interventions
70What Schools Do Matters! Freshman with weak academics entering high school who reported having a positive 9th grade year were almost twice as likely to graduate from high school than students who entered with strong academics but reported a negative 9th grade academic experienceDropout prevention strategies which focus on improving school climate, academic rigor, and student support and monitoring have been found to reduce dropout rates by as much as 50%These results were independent of family adversity and 8th grade academic achievement test scores
71Where are we?What will it take to implement effective Early Warning Systems in Brevard that impact student achievement?What are our major barriers and how will we overcome them?
72Take Away Message…Intervene early, persistently, and across the contexts of school peers, school adults, and the home and community to change student developmental trajectories.Christenson et al., 2008
73TTHANKS FOR LISTENING! What do we already have in place? What are our districts biggest challenges?How can we tackle this for behavior and academics?
74References & Resources Anderson, A. R., Christenson, S. L., & Lehr, C. A. (2004). School completion and student engagement: Information and strategies for educators. In A. S. Canter, L. Z. Paige, M. D. Roth, I. Romero, & S. A. Carroll (Eds.), Helping children at home and at school II: Handouts for families and educators (pp. S2-65–S2-68). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists. Retrieved October 25, 2006 fromAppleton, J., Christenson, S.L., Kim, D., & Reschly, A. (2006). Measuring cognitive and psychological engagement: Validation of the Student Engagement Instrument. Journal of School Psychology, 44,Christenson, S.L., & Anderson, A. R. (2002). Commentary: The centrality of the learning context for students’ academic enabler skills. School Psychology Review,31(3),Christenson & Thurlow (2004). School dropouts: Prevention, considerations, interventions, and challenges. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 13(1),Christenson, S.L., Reschly, A.L., Appleton, J.J., Berman, S., Spanjers, D., & Varro, P. (2008). Best practices in fostering student engagement. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds). Best Practices in School Psychology (5th Ed). National Association of School Psychologists.
75References & Resources Finn, J.D. (1989). Withdrawing from school. Review of Educational Research, 59,Fredericks, J.A., Blumenfeld, P.C., & Paris, A.H. (2004). School engagement: Potential of the concept, state of the evidence. Review of Educational Research, 74,Lehr, Sinclair, & Christenson (2004). Addressing student engagement and truancy prevention during the elementary school years: A replication study of the Check & Connect model. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 9(3),National Research Council and the Institute of Medicine (2004). Engaging schools: Fostering high school students’ motivation to learn. Washington, DC: The National Academies PressReschly, A. & Christenson, S.L. (2007). Reading and School Completion: Critical Linkages Among Reading Performance, Grade Retention, Special Education Placements and High School Dropout. Manuscript under review.Sinclair, Christenson, Evelo, & Hurley. (1998). Dropout prevention for high risk youth with disabilities: Efficacy of a sustained school engagement procedure. Exceptional Children, 65(1), 7-21.Sinclair, Christenson, & Thurlow (2005). Promoting School completion of urban secondary youth with emotional or behavioral disabilities. Exceptional Children, 71,