3 Today’s Agenda (continued) Discuss How to Fade AccommodationsPracticeReview a case study
4 Today’s OutcomeGain knowledge and skills to train staff how to fade accommodations
5 Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEA) Section on IEP content, IDEA – There should be:“. . . a statement of the program modifications or supports for school personnel that will be provided for the child –To advance appropriately toward attaining the annual goals;To participate in extracurricular and other nonacademic activities; andTo be educated and participate with other children with disabilities and nondisabled children in the activities described in this section.”Section of IDEA also states that the IEP must be in effect at the beginning of each school year so that each teacher and provider is informed of "the specific accommodations, modifications, and supports that must be provided for the child in accordance with the IEP.”
6 The Kentucky Department of Education’s vision is to ensure that all students are empowered with the skills, knowledge and dispositions necessary to reach proficiency and graduate from high school, college and career-ready. The Kentucky Department of Education is using Delivery as a method to establish yearly targets and five-year goals to help schools, districts and our state meet these expectations.The purpose of IDEA is to ensure that all children with disabilities have available to them a free appropriate public education that emphasizes special education and related services designed to meet their unique needs and prepare them for further education, employment, and independent living. (IDEA Regulations, Section (a))In designing an Individual Education Program (IEP) for a student, the ARC must determine specific instructional strategies that the intended implementers must use and the supplementary aids and services that the student needs in order for the student to have access to the general curriculum (KY Core Academic Standards, KCAS).This handbook was developed by the Division of Learning Services, Diverse Learners Branchin partnership with staff from the Kentucky Education Cooperatives to provide examples of Special Education Services; for example, Specially Designed Instruction (SDI) and Supplementary Aids and Services (SAS) that may be considered to support the student’s goals, benchmarks, and short-term objectives within his/her IEP. For more information on the Guidance Document for Individual Education Program (IEP) Development, please seeDiana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
7 Implementing and Lesson Planning High ExpectationsPlan for allPlanning for individual needsDiana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
8 High ExpectationsIn order to participate with success in the general curriculum, students with disabilities, as appropriate, may be provided additional supports and services, such as:Instructional supports for learning based on the principles of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) which foster student engagement by presenting information in multiple ways and allowing for diverse avenues of action and expressionInstructional accommodations (Thompson, Morse, Sharpe & Hall, 2005) changes in materials or procedures which do not change the standards but allow students to learn within the framework of the Common Core.Assistive technology devices and services to ensure access to the general education curriculum and the Common Core State Standards.Some students with the most significant cognitive disabilities will require substantial supports and accommodations to have meaningful access to the standards, based on their communication and academic needs. These supports and accommodations should ensure that students receive access to multiple means of learning and opportunities to demonstrate knowledge, but retain the rigor and high expectations of the KCAS (Common Core Standards, “Applications for Students with Disabilities”, 2010).Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
9 Plan For All Universal Design for Learning (UDL) Provide multiple means of representationProvide multiple means of action and expressionProvide multiple means of engagementThe principles of UDL align with the purpose and intent of accommodations.The lesson/learning activity is first planned with anticipation of needs of the universally designed curriculum that is designed from the outset to meet the needs of the greatest number of users, making costly, time-consuming, and after-the-fact changes to curriculum unnecessary; often know as Universal Design for Learning.is a research-based framework for designing curricula that is made up of, educational goals, methods, materials, and assessments that enable all individuals to gain knowledge, skills, and enthusiasm for learning.accomplished by simultaneously providing rich supports for learning and reducing barriers to the curriculum, while maintaining high achievement standards for all students.Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
10 Plan For All UDL It does this by providing options for: Presenting information and content in different ways (the "what" of learning)Differentiating the ways that students can express what they know (the "how" of learning)Stimulating interest and motivation for learning (the "why" of learning)UDL supports teachers’ efforts to meet the challenge of diversity by providing flexible instructional materials, techniques, and strategies that help teachers differentiate instruction to meet these varied needs.Students are provided with scaffolds and supports to deeply understand and engage with standards-based material. They not only have access to content and facts, but they learn to ask questions, find information, and use that information effectively. They learn how to learn. (http://cast.org/)Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
11 Universal DesignThe design of the instructional materials and activities that makes the learning goal achievable by individuals with a wide difference in their abilities to see, hear, speak, move, read, write, understand English, attend, organize, engage, and remember.Built in, not added on!Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST)
12 Differentiated Instruction Differentiated Instruction is an instructional concept that maximizes learning for ALL students—regardless of skill level or background.It's based on the fact that in a typical classroom, students vary in their academic abilities, learning styles, personalities, interests, background knowledge and experiences, and levels of motivation for learning. When a teacher differentiates instruction, he or she uses the best teaching practices and strategies to create different pathways that respond to the needs of diverse learners.Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
13 Teachers might believe that, if they are using differentiated instruction or Universal Design for Learning (UDL), they do not need to provide accommodations for students with disabilities.Although these approaches might meet the needs of many, some students with disabilities will require the further support or services that accommodations offer.Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
14 Planning for Individual Needs consideration of individual student needs in relation to the disability.Analysis of expectations for all students will further guide the anticipated need(s) the student will have in preparation, participation, and application of skills included within the learning target for all.Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
15 Specially Designed Instruction (SDI) SDI in its simplest form is “what the teacher does” to instruct, assess, and re-teach for the student to make progress in the general curriculum.Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
16 If instruction is required for students to benefit from a material, resource, aid, strategy or service, it should be described as specially designed instruction.
17 Supplementary Aides and Services (SAS) in its simplest form is “what the student needs” in order toadvance appropriately toward attaining their annual goal(s),be involved and make progress in the general curriculum,participate in extracurricular and other nonacademic activities andbe educated with non-disabled peers.If the student requires specific materials, resources, aids, strategies or services to gain access to the general education curriculum, it should be described as a supplementary aid and service.Assistive technology can be used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilities of a child with disabilities (707 KAR 1:002 (3)). This includes a broad variety of devices. When using any technology as either SDI or SAS, provide a description of the technology to be used (i.e., direct-select, voice output system).Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
18 If the student requires specific materials, resources, aids, strategies or services to gain access to the general education curriculum, it should be described as a supplementary aid and service.
19 Differentiating SDI and SAS Keep in mind that many of the instructional strategies and supports suggested can be both the SDI and SASDiana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
20 Instructional Strategies and Materials for Accessing the Kentucky Core Academic Standards: Pages 33-39In order for the student to access and use the supplementary aid (SAS) independently, the student will often need to be provided explicit instruction (SDI) in the use of a specific strategy or device. The intent is to provide scaffolded support until the student can access the supplementary aid independentlyDiana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
21 Problems (Fuchs & Fuchs) Accommodations not routinely providedWhen they are provided, teachers do not know how to select accommodationsMost accommodations randomly selectedAccommodations not matched to student need
22 Five essential steps for selecting, administering, and evaluating accommodations
23 Five essential steps for selecting, administering, and evaluating accommodations: Expect students to participate in assessments and achieve grade-level academic content standards.Learn about accommodations for instruction and assessment.Select accommodations for instruction and assessment for individual students.Administer accommodations during instruction and assessment.Evaluate and improve accommodation use.
24 Step 1: Expect Students to Participate in Assessment
25 Step 1: Expect Students to Participate in Assessment The law:No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB)“… the participation in such assessment of all students [Sec (3) (C) (i)]. (The term “such assessments” refers to a set of high-quality, yearly student academic assessments.) The reasonable adaptations and accommodations for students with disabilities—as defined under Section 602(3) of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act—necessary to measure the academic achievement of such students relative to state academic content and state student academic achievement standards [Sec (3) (C) (ii)].”
26 Step 2: Learn About Accommodations for Instruction and Assessment Accommodations are commonly categorized in four ways:presentationresponsesettingtiming and scheduling
27 Adaptations Modifications Accommodations Do fundamentally alter or lower expectations orstandards in instructional level,content or performance criteria.Changes are made to providestudent meaningful &productive learning experiencesbased on individual needs &abilities.Grading is differentAccommodationsDo not fundamentally alter or lowerexpectations or standards in instructionallevel, content or performance criteria.Changes are made in order to provide equalaccess to learning and equal opportunity todemonstrate what is known.Grading is sameAccommodationsDo not change the expectations for learningDo not reduce the requirements of the taskModificationsDo change the expectations for learningDo reduce the requirements of the task (e.g., reduce number of items, alternate assignments, lower-level reading assignments) For students who require more support or adjustments than accommodations provide.Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005
28 Though educators often confuse the terms accommodations and modifications, the terms should not be used interchangeably.
30 Accommodations Assumptions Allow the student to earn a valid score, not necessarily an optimal scoreProduce a differential boostA single accommodation is not valid or beneficial for all studentsA student may need more than one accommodationTesting accommodations and instructional accommodations should be similar
32 Step 3: Select Accommodations for Instruction and Assessment for Individual Students
33 Selecting Accommodations Document Accommodations on a Student’s IEP or 504 PlanConsiderStudent characteristicsInvolving students in selecting, using, and evaluating accommodationsPrior accommodations useAccommodations for instruction vs assessmentAccommodations determination form
34 Instructional Accommodations Supports provided at the beginning of the instructional process are designed to help students’ first experience, learn, and practice a new skill.The long term purpose of instructional accommodations or other early supports is to ultimately help the student learn to become as fluent and as independent as possible in performing that skill.
35 Instructional Accommodations should incorporate a scaffolded fading process that provides much more support early in the learning process as skill acquisition is just beginning.For this reason, instructional accommodations should incorporate a scaffolded fading process that provides much more support early in the learning process as skill acquisition is just beginning. Later in the instructional process the need for early levels of support should be challenged or tested to see how much control can be assumed by the student. The intensive supports used very early in instruction may at times greatly simplify or may even modify the skill the student is learning. These supports may help to guide, shape, and successively approximate the student’s behavior to ensure that he or she experiences some early success while moving closer to real skill performance. When planning instructional supports, the path to student independence must always be kept in mind. Plan with the end in mind, always move toward independence.As effective instruction continues, early intensive supports (or modifications) are faded, allowing the student to demonstrate the academic skill with increasing independence. As higher levels of skill independence are achieved, supports are faded back further still until the least intrusive accommodation or, perhaps even full independence is achieved. The least intrusive accommodation is the level of support that will allow the student to demonstrate the skill in the most independent manner possible for that student.
36 For example, if a student has a certain type of visual processing difficulty, he or she may need (for some years) to use a straight edge to guide visual tracking while reading, but eventually learns to perform the actual reading task with full independence to the extent of his or her capability. At the point of testing, this student no longer has a person holding the tracking tool or reading the passage to him or her. This has become the independent responsibility of the student; yet remaining student needs for support are still being met. Independent use of the visual tracking tool has become the least intrusive accommodation for the student at this point.
37 Assessment Accommodations When used properly, appropriate assessment accommodations remove barriers to participation in the assessment and provide students with diverse learning needs an equitable opportunity to demonstrate their knowledge and skills.
38 Assessment Accommodations Assessment accommodations should be those accommodations that are the least intrusive accommodations possible to meet the needs of the student while allowing the maximum level of independence possible for that student.
39 Assessment Accommodations Assessment accommodations represent the current balance point the instructional fading process has achieved. Assessment accommodations, therefore, represent the highest point of independent skill acquisition that has been achieved with that student to date through the instructional process.
40 Assessment Accommodations Assessment accommodations do not necessarily represent the instructional end point, but they do represent a point in time that lies beyond the earliest phases of skill acquisition.Some skill independence should be seen if instruction has been effective.
41 Teams must remember to carefully consider long term independence and thoughtfully design the process of fading supports when choosing and planning instructional methods.
42 The key IS finding the right balance of supports for a given student and actively, consistently, and constructively supporting the growth of student independence.
44 Step 4: Administer Accommodations During Instruction and Assessment
45 Implement, evaluate, and adjust the adaptation. Fade the accommodations when possible
46 Instruction How to use and apply the accommodation to their learning explicit (directly taught),systematic (sequenced so that skills build on one another, not left to incidental learning),scaffolded (supported instruction that is gradually withdrawn as students become more proficient) andmodeled (teacher models both the task/skill and the thought processes to complete the task/skill)The teacher should not assume that the student will be able to benefit from the adaptation or accommodation without this instruction.
47 So how do you fade an accommodations? Identify the process that will be used to fadeIdentify criteria that will indicate that the accommodation can be faded (I.e., 80% accuracy over three days)Implement the accommodationTeach skills needed for the student to access and use the accommodationCollect dataUse of the accommodationEffectiveness of the accommodationFade the accommodation as planned
48 FadingA strategy for BUILDING skills while fostering and teaching IndependenceThe focus today is on “fading supports” as a strategy to build skills and to foster independence was created to assist teachers and ARC’s with overcoming barriers and to consider how to build supports and questions to ask regarding fading supports. This is not intended to be legal or educational advice on how to develop an IEP.
49 Fading is a part of learning New Skills:Direct instructionSupportDecreasing or eliminating the supportsThis lifelong process starts when we are babies learning our first milestones and continues throughout life.
50 Fading means to “gradually disappear” We teach or are taughtWe support or are supportedWe fade or are able to complete the task without supportWe use that newly acquired skill to build the next one
51 Fading means reducing Type of support Level of support Frequency of supportIntensity of support
52 Keep in mind…Specific methods used in fading will vary, depending on the type of accommodation provided.
53 All range from least restrictive to most restrictive Accommodations/ModificationsAll range from least restrictive to most restrictiveleast restrictive to most restrictive
57 Accommodation Journal Documenting all of the following:Accommodations used by the student in the classroom and on testsTest and assignment results when accommodations are used and not usedStudent’s perception of how well an accommodation “works”Effective combinations of accommodationsDifficulties of accommodations usePerceptions of teachers and others about how the accommodation appears to be working
58 Metacognative Annotations to Improve Writing My student with executive functioning deficits does not understand how to recognize what he is thinking while he is reading.Give the student a copy of the article with thinking stems and lines in the margin where I want him to think.Evaluate depth of each annotation using a rubric.Move from giving him thinking stems and lines, to just lines, then to nothing.
59 Fading: Intensity Level of Grouping Teacher/Student One-on-One Teacher Small Group Teacher Whole Group Peer Small Group/Cooperative Group Individual
60 Fading: Level of Prompt Hand over Hand: Doing the skill with the studentTalk and Help: Verbally explain each step as you are doing it with the studentTalk and Show: Explain steps while you demonstrate first then guided practiceTalk and Point: tell and point to each action or steps as neededTalk only: tell your student what to doObserve: watch and reinforce
61 http://www. ccsso. org/Documents/2005/Accommodations_Manual_How_2005 P. 36
64 Activity: Michelle’s Accommodation History In kindergarten, Michelle’s teacher found she needed to frequently repeat the directions for any activity as Michelle was often not listening carefully when they were first given. (input A) The teacher also frequently paired Michelle with a diligent worker once seatwork activities began second semester. (level of support A) Sometimes Michelle did not finish her seatwork, so her teacher allowed her to take it home to complete and return the next day. (time A)
65 Activity: Michelle’s Accommodation History In first grade, Michelle began receiving speech/language services for articulation errors. It was also found that Michelle had minor auditory processing difficulties. Her therapist decided to pre-teach some concepts that would be introduced on the following day, hoping that this would improve her listening skills. (input A) Michelle was purposefully placed next to students with excellent attending skills, as she tended to be quite “chatty” during seatwork. (level of support A)
66 Activity: Michelle’s Accommodation History Sometimes Michelle’s teacher had her come to the front of the room to hold the pointer during large group lessons as this appeared to aid in focusing on the key parts of the lesson, rather than distracting to extraneous details around her. (participation A) Michelle was noticeably slower than her peers in finishing any written assignment, so her teacher often sent homework to finish and return so Michelle would not miss recess or other fun activities, trying to finish assignments. (time A)
67 Activity: Michelle’s Accommodation History In second grade, Michelle’s reading decoding skills were not up to her peers. Adult classroom volunteers often worked with her to reinforce previous skills (flash card drill, extra oral reading time with adult corrections and quizzes: who, what, where, when). (level of support A ) and (input A ) Due to her slow acquisition of phonics, Michelle’s teacher decided to reduce the number of spelling words she would study each week from 15 to 10, although the words Michelle learned were the same as her peers. Quanity (Number)
68 Activity: Michelle’s Accommodation History In math, Michelle often grasped the concepts readily, so her teacher had her complete less worksheets before taking a test to demonstrate mastery of the concept. (Quantity A) This bought some extra time, her teacher explained, for Michelle to practice her handwriting with additional worksheets, as she still took an extraordinarily long time producing letter formations. (Quantity A) The pre-teaching begun in first grade continued for new concepts, and was believed to be helping Michelle. (Input A)
69 Activity: Michelle’s Accommodation History By the end of third grade, Michelle was evaluated for special education services as a student with a learning disability and found to be eligible in written language. Her math skills were found to be well above her peers, while her reading skills were found to be at 2.1 grade level. All previous accommodations were found to be helpful and were incorporated into her IEP. Additionally, Michelle was now to be taught keyboarding, and allowed to produce most written work at the keyboard due to her poor fine motor skills. This often required her to take work home to produce on a home computer. Her teacher also decided that…
70 Activity: Michelle’s Accommodation History …Michelle’s work group (3 students) would produce a play to illustrate concepts learned in a social studies lesson, rather than a written product. (Other groups wrote reports, constructed a diorama, and produced a video skit). Although this was an acceptable alternative, her teacher decided to list this accommodation on Michelle’s IEP so future teachers would be aware of this need.
71 Activity: Michelle’s Accommodation History Name which of the 9 categories are represented: Remember what worked! Reading seatwork time: sat next to high achievers Math seatwork time: small # practice problems Large group work, where new concepts are introduced: preteach key concepts before lesson Written language tasks: used keyboarding Social Studies Report: produced a play
72 Activity: Michelle’s Accommodation History Her accommodations were listed as: Reading seatwork time: level of support Math seatwork time: quantity Large group work, where new concepts are introduced: input Written language tasks: output Social Studies report: output
73 Activity: Michelle’s Accommodation History By sixth grade, Michelle was participating in an after-school homework club where adult volunteers helped her to plan task approach for long assignments, and helped her to complete most work with one on one assistance.(level of support A) (input A) (difficult A or B depending on whether Michelle was completing the tasks fundamentally herself or whether the adult was essentially doing the work) Her teacher found pre-teaching no longer as helpful for Michelle, and speech language services were no longer found necessary by her IEP team. Graphic organizers were extensively used by this teacher, and found to be quite helpful for Michelle. (input A)
74 Activity: Michelle’s Accommodation History Michelle’s IEP team found the reading level of the texts well beyond her skill, despite extensive continued remediation for reading difficulties. Michelle’s teacher decided to try text-on-tape and text-on-CD with Michelle, as she grasped the concepts better this way than reading the text alone.(input A)She also found that choral-responding techniques, every-pupil response techniques (participation A) allowed Michelle, and her classmates, to focus better during whole group instruction. Her teacher also began PALS teams for social studies and science text reading, and found higher achievement and time on task outcomes. (input A)(level of support A) and (participation A)(output A)
75 Activity: Michelle’s Accommodation History In eighth grade, Michelle was found to be unable to complete written tests on concepts very well. Orally, she knew the material, but somehow in the writing task, even with keyboard responses allowed, she was unable to demonstrate mastery in concept-laden work. Her teachers agreed to try oral testing in the RSP classroom, although this often meant her testing could not occur until later that day due to scheduling constraints. To their astonishment, Michelle’s motivation and achievement skyrocketed!(level of support A) and (input A)and (output A) and (time A)
76 Activity: Michelle’s Accommodation History By September of tenth grade, unfortunately Michelle had now begun to associate with known gang members, and her counselor became concerned. Although she still maintained some earlier friendships, she did not “seem to be the same child any more,” her parents stated. Parent conferences occurred, and it was agreed that counseling would be a good idea for Michelle. A referral to a local clinic was made at parent request. During those sessions, her counselor became aware of low self-esteem issues related to her incomplete understanding of her learning profile. (Although depression was suspected, after several sessions, Michelle’s counselor decided this did not apply.)
77 Activity: Michelle’s Accommodation History Demystification sessions about her learning profile were conducted, and Michelle and her counselor decided to approach the school staff to discuss the feasibility of a school-wide program, such as the Learning Strengths Seminars. Family therapy sessions were conducted, and Michelle has discontinued her association with gang-involved youth. Michelle is interested in getting a job, she stated. Her family and other IEP team members will be meeting to develop a transition plan soon.