Presentation on theme: "+ Exposure, Attitudes, and Motivation: Extracurricular L2 Input in a Japanese EFL Context Matthew Barbee SLS 674: Survey Research Methods"— Presentation transcript:
+ Exposure, Attitudes, and Motivation: Extracurricular L2 Input in a Japanese EFL Context Matthew Barbee SLS 674: Survey Research Methods firstname.lastname@example.org
+ Objective To present data collected from a survey study of Japanese EFL learners on what sources of input they have exposure to, their attitudes toward those sources of input, and, in general, how motivated they are to learn English.
+ Theoretical Background Importance of English due to globalization Dominance of English music, movies, and television has lead to an English world culture Importance of Input and Interaction on Second Language Acquisition Input must be comprehensible, interesting/relevant, in large quantity, and authentic (Krashen 1982) Input is not enough, interaction must be present for acquisition to occur (Long 1985, 1996) Importance of Motivation on Second Language Acquisition Integrative motivation, the highest and most facilitative form of motivation to learn a language (Gardner 2001)
+ Theoretical Background What happens when EFL learners have no exposure to the L2 in authentic contexts? Don’t travel abroad, no personal contact with foreigners, no need for L2 in L1 culture What happens when there is no or little exposure to English in the EFL classroom? Integrativeness might have less explanatory power for learners in EFL contexts because they rarely come into personal contact with L2 members. (Dornyei 1988) “Without contact, language learners cannot form strong attitudes towards L2 speakers or harbour intense desires of integrating or being 'like them'" (Ortega, 2009, p. 178).
+ Theoretical Background English Media Orientation (Clement 1994) Cultural Interest Orientation (Csizer and Dornyei 2005a) Indirect contact (Csizer and Dornyei 2005a) International Posturing to become “citizens of the world.” (Yashima, 2004; Lamb, 2004)
+ Research Questions How much exposure do Japanese EFL learners have to various sources of extra-curricular written and verbal English input across high-level and low-level students? What are the attitudes and beliefs of those same high-level and low-level Japanese EFL learners toward various sources of extracurricular English input? How motivated are those same students to learn English? FUTURE EXTENSION Are there any relationships between motivation and exposure to the different sources of extracurricular English input?
+ Methodology Participants: Japanese EFL learners from two public high schools in rural Japan. Age 16-17. Questionnaire Focus Group Draft and revision Translation and request from liason in Japan Tested on focus group Final version Questionnaire Design School ASchool B High levelN=40N=37 Low LevelN=36N=38
+ Procedure Complete survey emailed to liaison teacher in Japan. Copying and distribution to the homeroom teachers of the four classes, two classes at each school. Instructions given in Japanese by the homeroom teachers: Students were asked to complete the survey within one 40 minute class period. Explanation of participant rights was given. No further explanation Homeroom teachers collected the survey at the end of class. Liaison teacher mailed the completed survey back to me. 100% return rate!
+ RESULTS Biographical Data Total Students School ASchool B Total High Total Low A1 (high)A2 (low) B1 (high)B2 (low) Number of Students 1517640367537387774 51.0%49.0% Male 734326173018124429 48.3%56.6%65.0%47.2%40.0%48.6%51.4%57.1%39.2% Female 783314194519263345 51.7%43.4%35.0%52.8%60.0%51.4%68.4%42.9%60.8% Years Studied English 6.15.865.646.146.34 5.996.24 Number of Students who have Lives or Studied Abroad 632132142 4.0%3.9%5.0%2.8%4.0%5.4%2.6%5.2%2.7%
+ Self-Reported Exposure to Extracurricular English Input by Japanese High School Students Total Students (n=151) High level Students (n=77) Low level Students (n=74) VERBAL INPUT Native-speakers1.711.581.84 Non-native speakers1.891.941.84 Movies/TV2.031.962.09 Radio1.521.571.47 Music3.503.393.61 Online Media3.423.343.51 WRITTEN INPUT Books1.661.651.66 Magazines1.56 1.57 Comics1.451.521.38 Newspapers1.651.791.51 Email/text messages1.741.751.73 Online Social Media1.861.841.88 MIXED- MODAL INPUT Movies/TV (with subtitles)2.572.472.68 Music (with lyrics)3.013.072.96
+ Enjoyable Factor Attitudes and Beliefs of Japanese High School Students toward Extracurricular English Input Total Students (n=151) High level students (n=77) Low level students (n=74) Native-speakers2.842.752.93 Non-native Speakers2.662.682.64 Movies/TV2.502.512.50 Radio1.821.861.78 Music3.933.913.96 Online Media3.603.563.65 Books2.19 Magazines/Periodicals2.022.032.01 Comics1.971.942.01 Nespaper2.042.141.93 Email/text messages2.031.992.07 Online Social Media2.061.992.14 Movies/TV (with subtitles)3.073.033.11 Music (with lyrics)3.373.393.35
+ Effectiveness in Learning English Factor Attitudes and Beliefs of Japanese High School Students toward Extracurricular English Input Total Students (n=151) High level students (n=77) Low level students (n=74) Native-speakers4.21 4.22 Non-native Speakers3.193.353.01 Movies/TV3.643.603.69 Radio3.393.403.38 Music3.623.493.74 Online Media3.032.923.15 Books3.623.663.58 Magazines/Periodicals3.283.393.18 Comics2.973.082.86 Nespaper3.523.493.54 Email/text messages2.923.092.74 Online Social Media2.892.922.85 Movies/TV (with subtitles)3.60 3.59 Music (with lyrics)3.653.633.68
+ Motivational Learning English Factor Attitudes and Beliefs of Japanese High School Students toward Extracurricular English Input Total Students (n=151) High level students (n=77) Low level students (n=74) Native-speakers3.873.883.85 Non-native Speakers2.973.102.82 Movies/TV3.443.433.45 Radio2.812.862.76 Music3.753.673.82 Online Media2.982.823.15 Books220.127.116.11 Magazines/Periodicals2.932.952.92 Comics2.682.732.64 Nespaper3.072.993.16 Email/text messages2.742.772.70 Online Social Media2.712.732.69 Movies/TV (with subtitles)3.423.393.46 Music (with lyrics)3.573.453.69
+ Self-Reported Motivation of Japanese High School Students to Learn English Total Students (n=151) High level students (n=77) Low level students (n=74) I want to learn English18.104.22.168 English is useful4.304.374.23 Enjoy learning English3.773.863.68
+ DISCUSSION Limitations Determination of high vs. low level students Quantification of amount of exposure Focus group vs. Target group No correlations drawn Future Extension Draw correlations Follow future study with qualitative data collection Gather information on availability/access to input Pedagogical Implications No distinct differences between low level and high level students. In many cases, the low-level students had more exposure to input and higher motivation levels. From focus group/liaison in Japan: 1. higher level students may have less free time outside of the classroom for exposure to English 2. “test driven” and seek “short-cuts” 3. growing tendency to feel that there is no need for English in Japan.